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PICTIONI\RY 



GIFT OF 



J 




DICTIONARY 



OF 



TEXTILES 



B Y 



LOUIS HARMUTH 
FASHION EDITOR OF "WOMEN'S WEAR" 



1915 

FAIRCHILD PUBLISHING COMPANY 
NEW YORK 

FAIRCHILD PUBIISHING CO, 

Copyright 1915. 



PREFACE 



The tendency in modern books of a technical character undoubtedly in- 
clines very strongly toward encyclopedic and dictionary forms. The cry for 
the saving of lime calls for books in compact form with information handy at a 
moment's notice. 

The present DICTIONARY is the result of 7'/2 y ears of collecting 
and compiling information, gained to a large extent in connection with my work 
on the Daily Trade Record and Women's Wear. With over 6,600 
terms and definitions contained in it, this DICTIONARY is as nearly com- 
plete, in number of terms strictly relating to textile fibres and fabrics, as it is 
possible for a work of this kind to be. 

It was my desire to present in the DICTIONARY and within as small 
compass as practical the largest number of terms and definitions possible, re- 
lating to textiles from the fibres to the finished fabrics and everything which goes 
into them in the course of the manufacture. An interesting part of the DIC- 
TIONARY contains names of fabrics, now obsolete, with as complete a de- 
scription of their character as it was possible to find in various old laws, wills, 
lists and in the technical literature. Owing to the fact that manufacturers con- 
stantly have recourse to some obsolete fabric in search of new effects, details of 
manufacturing and finishing of such materials ought to be interesting. 

While it was the intention to include textiles found in use in every country 
throughout the world, owing to their importance special attention was given to 
French, English and German textiles. The South and Central American re- 
publics with their markets, which are interesting to the American importer have 
been covered, for the first time I believe, in this DICTIONARY. 

It was thought advisable to include among the terms incorporated in this 
book the names of the more important chemicals and to indicate their uses in 
the course of textile manufacturing and finishing, as the character of a fabric 
is greatly altered by the application of various chemicals in the finishing process. 



394167 



Although originally intended to include copyrighted names in the 
DICTIONARY and although a number of them have been collected, they 
Were not printed, inasmuch as a great many, especially those relating to cotton 
goods, refer to fabrics of practically of identical construction and finish, and 
thus their presence mould have meant only unnecessary duplication. The 
names of a great many articles usually sold in dry goods stores, as for instance 
needles and buttons, as veil as the names of garments and machinery, are not 
included in this DICTIONARY. 

The terms found in the DICTIONARY are arranged in alphabetical 
order, each term discussed independently and placed in its proper position. 
The combination of the alphabetical order with grouping of the terms according 
to (he subject they refer to, like knitting, laces, etc., as it is found in one of the 
latest textile dictionaries published in this country, while it affords some obvious 
advantage, presupposes on the part of the reader a certain knowledge of the 
meaning and relation of the particular Word, which is often the very knowledge 
sought for and so should not be taken for granted in advance. 

In describing the various fibres the expression "variety" is not used in a 
strict botanical sense but rather as referring to the group of plants to which the 
fibre belongs. 

In conclusion, I will add that on the general subject of textile dictionaries, 
it occurred to me that such a work, accompanied by actual samples of the fibres 
and fabrics themselves (such as are available on a commercial scale at the pres- 
ent), would be a most useful guide for manufacturers, importers, exporters, 
merchants and the student. Owing to its magnitude, such a work 'would be be- 
yond the capacity, both financially and physically; of any single person. It is 
hoped that under the auspices of some of the public libraries or museums, funds 
will be made available for collating a dictionary of that kind. 

New York, November, 1915. LOUIS HARMUTH. 



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DICTIONARY 



OF 



TEXTILES 



ABA 



ADA 



Aba 1, coarse and thick, felted woolen 
fabric, made in Hungary, of natural 
colored gray wool, worn by the peas- 
ants: 2, in Turkey and Arabia a 
coarse fa'bric, made of wool and cam- 
el's hair, made in stripes. 

Abaca Native Philippine name for the 
Manila hemp (see). 

Abassi Raw cotton grown in Egypt, the 
staple is of good quality and white 
color, but not as strong as the Mitaflfl. 

Abat-Chauvee French for a low grade 
of wool. 

Abb 1, merino clothing warp wool, being 
skirting from the breech; 2, short 
wool, taken from the breech and cow- 
tail skirts of English and coarse wool, 
used mostly for warp; 3, same as 
warp. 

Abbotsford Light, dress faced twilled 
woolen dress good having faint check 
pattern. 

Abdullah Kani Striped silks made in 
Lyons for the Abyssinian and Morocco 
trade. 

Abee Fabric made with cotton warp and 
woolen filling in Asia Minor. 

Abelmoschus Fiber similar to jute called 
rai bhenda in India. It is laugh and 
does not rot in water; used for ropes. 

Abercrombie A highland tartan, having a 
blue and black ground, crossed with 
green stripes forming double green 
checks, the green stripes being split 
by a white line. 

Aberdeen 'Men's half hose made in Scot- 
land of coarse gray wool. 

Abeston Incombustible flax of old Egypt, 
mentioned by Pliny. 

Ablaque or pearl silk A very fine raw 
silk from Persia; does not stand warm 
water. 

Abnakee Rug Modern American hooked 
rug made on a coarse and open jute 
burlap ground. Unbleached, all-wool, 
twilled flannel is dyed with vegetable 
dyes and cut lengthwise into strips of 
one-quarter inch width. These striips 
are hooked through the burlap to form 
the pile. The patterns are bold. 

Abouchouchon Low grade French wool- 
en for the Levant trade, originally had 
1,600 ends and black and white sel- 
vage. 

Abougedid Unbleached cotton goods in 
Abyssinia, imported from various 
places. 

Abrang Glazed cotton fabric made in In- 
dia with fine violet stripes. 

Abrawan Next to the finest quality of the 
plain Dacca muslin (see). 

Abrohany Very sheer cotton muslin 
made in India. See Mallemolles. 



Abroma Hemp Called also perennial In- 
dian hemp, grows in the Philippine 
Islands, India, etc. The fibers are used 
for coarse cloth and for tow. See 
devil's cotton. 

Absorbent Cotton Cotton is treated with 
hot alkaline solutions, cleaning the 
fibers from all fats and making them 
absorbent. Used for surgical ban- 
dages. 

Abudig 'Medium fine wool of Morocco. 

Abutilon Strong and glossy fiber yielded 
by the abutilon species in South 
America and India; used as hemp sub- 
stitute for ropes. 

Acacia Leucophloea This tree of India 
yields a tough and coarse bast flber, 
used for ropes and nets. 

Acca Medieval gold brocade shot with 
colored silk, forming animal patterns, 
used for church vestments in England. 

Acetate of Iron Used in dyeing silk black 

or dark shades. 
Acetic Acid Used in printing and dyeing. 

Aceytuni Medieval original name for 
satin. 

Acid Dyes A very large group of syn- 
thetic dyestuffs, obtained from the 
coal tar, including both fast and fugi- 
tive colors, which are used only on 
wool and silk. They have all an acid 
character and dye in an acid bath. 
They either contain azo groups, or are 
made by treating basic colors with 
sulphuric acid or are made with nitric 
acid. 

Acme Variety of raw cotton grown in 
Mississippi; the staple is fairly long, 
but is of inferior quality. 

Acores Unbleached linen of various fine- 
ness made in France for the Dutch 
and South American trade. 

Acri 'Raw cotton from Syria. 

Adad Fibers yielded by the Ficaria ran- 
uc?uloides, a creeper in the Marshall 
Islands; used for clothing mats by the 
natives. 

Adapangia Trade name for Bengal raw 

silk. 

Adarsa A fine musldn made in India. 

Adatais or Addatis Fine cotton muslin 
from India; the best grades are from 
Bengal. 

Adenos The best grade of Levant cotton; 
also a cotton fabric made in Syria. 

Adhi Fine cotton muslin from India. 

Adia Good quality of bleached cotton 
cloth imported in Abyssinia and Ara- 
bia for native dresses. 

Adras A glossy narrow striped union silk 
fabric, made in India and Central 
Asia; finished by beetling. 

Adrianople Twill French name, synony- 
mous with Turkey red twill. 



ADU 



ALA 



Adulteration The adding of substitute 
fibers or foreign materials to textiles 
for gain; for instance, wool adulter- 
ated with cotton or silk adulterated by 
weighting. 

Aea 'Native Hawaiian name for cord, 
made of the bark of the aleurites tree. 

Aeolian Lightweight material for ball 
gowns made with cotton warp silk 
weft. 

Aerophane Thin, solid colored silk gauze, 
used as millinery and dress trimming. 

Aetzstickerei German term for burned 
embroidery. The pattern is embroid- 
ered in vegetable fiber on animal fiber 
foundation, or vice versa, in such a 
manner that it will hang together like 
a lace after the foundation is de- 
stroyed with chemicals which do not 
affect the embroidering yarn. 

Afghan A knitted or crocheted wool 
blanket, made with fancy colored 
stripes. 

Afghanistan Carpets made in Turkestan 
and Afghanistan of wool or goat's 
hair, the medium long loose pile is 
tied in Senna knot. The patterns are 
angular octagons, diamonds, some- 
times stiff floral designs in red, brown, 
blue and white. Most of these car- 
pets have a strong odor due to im- 
perfect washing of the wool. 

Afiume A coarse grade of flax grown in 
Egypt. 

African Bass Very coarse, dark, stiff and 
tough fiber, yielded by the leaf stalks 
of the bamboo palru in Africa; used 
for brushes; also for lines by the 
natives. 

African Fiber Commercial name for a 
fiber yielded by the leaves of the pal- 
metto in Algiers. Used for mattress 
stuffing. 

Afridi A cotton fabric made by the na- 
tives in East India and decorated with 
wax ornaments. 

After Chroming A process in dyeing, con- 
sisting of the application of a chrome 
mordant to a fabric already dyed. 

After Treating A process in dyeing, con- 
sisting of the application of a mor- 
dant to a fabric dyed previously. 

Agaric A cotton fabric made with flne 
warp loop pile, formed on wires; used 
for dresses. 

Agave 'Leaf fibers obtained from the va- 
rious aloe and century plants; used 
for ropes and cords. 

Ageing In the mordanting of cotton fab- 
rics the cloth previously saturated in 
solution of metallic salt is steamed, 
which process decomposes the mor- 
dant. 

Agenois Unbleached linen made in and 
around Agen. France. Antiquated 
name. 

Aggebonce A silk embroidered cotton 
fabric, made in Syria. 

Aggoned Bundei The best grade of East 
Indian and Japanese raw silk. In Eu- 
ropean markets called Tani or Tanny. 

Aglet A white lacing cord. 



Agnelin Antiquated name of Danish wool 
of the same province sold in the 
Amsterdam market. 

Agneline Coarse, black, stout woolen, 
made with a long nap, thoroughly 
fulled to shed water; used by the 
poorer classes in Europe for winter 
clothing. 

Agra Large and very thick knotted wool 
or cotton carpets, made in India. The 
colors are blue, green and browns. 

Agra Gauze Fine, transparent silk fab- 
ric, made in plain weave; used for 
trimming. 

Aguilles Plain woven cotton cloth made 
in Syria. 

Agust (Strong bast fiber of the sesbania 
grandiflora in southern India; used 
for ropes. 

Aida Cloth for table purposes, awnings, 
etc., made in plain weave, the pat- 
tern being thrown alternately on the 
face and on the reverse side. 

Aida Canvas Plain and open weave fab- 
ric, woven with one thread in each 
warp and filling, often also with two 
threads paired without twist; made 
of linen, also cotton and wool; used 
for embroidery. Also called Java 
canvas or fancy oatmeal. 

Ailanthus Wild silk of grayish or brown- 
ish color, produced by the Attacus 
atlas in India. 

Ailesham Cloth Fine linen cloth made in 

England in the Middle Ages. 
Ajamis Calico from the Levant. 

Ajiji Cotton muslin with silk stripes, 
made in India. 

Ajour French for open-work, as in 
embroidery, knitting, etc. 

Akaakai Hawaiian bulrush used for 
mats, baskets, etc., by the natives. 

Akaroa The ribbon tree, Plagianthus 
betulinus, of New Zealand, yielding a 
flexible, lustrous, strong lace-like 
bast, used for nets, lines, etc. 

Akhissar Rugs made in Asia Minor, the 
warp and weft are of wool, the loose 
pile of mohair, tied in Ghiordes knot. 
Red and golden brown are used. 

Akia A very tough bast fiber, used for 
ropes in Hawaii. 

Aladjas Heavy taffeta with stripe or 
flower patterns, made in India. 

Aladsha Fancy cotton goods, originated 
in the East. 

Alagai Union silk fabric made in Asia 
Minor. 

Alagia In the Levant trade name of 
closely woven fancy cottons, also 
mixed with silk. 

Alagoas Brazilian raw cotton. 

Alagoas Lace 'Coarse, cotton bobbin lace, 
made in Brazil. 

A la Grecque French name of the mean- 
der pattern. 



Alamba North 
Mobile. 



American cotton from 



ALA 



ALI 



Alamode Plain woven glossy, light and 
soft silk fabric, used for scarfs, lin- 
ings, millinery. 

Alapeen 18th century fabric in England, 
made of worsted or mohair and silk. 

A la Reine French silk droguet of dif- 
ferent colored warp and filling. 

Alaska A mixture yarn of long staple 
cotton and carded wool. 

Alatcha Yarn dyed cotton fabric, having 
stripes on a blue ground; made in 
Turkestan. 

Albanian Embroidery In cross and gob- 
elin stitch in green, red and blue over 
canvas, showing conventionalized 
flowers or geometrical forms. 

Albarazine Spanish wool from Albaracia, 
Aragonia. 

Albatross 1, a soft, loose woven, twilled 
dress fabric, dyed in the piece, usual- 
ly made of worsted, but also of cot- 
ton; 2, soft fine worsted bunting 
about 24 inches wide, known also as 
satin moss and llama croise: used for 
dress goods; the socalled "snow 
flake" is spotted, the "Vienna" is 
the heaviest make. 

Albernus Oriental woolen fabric, similar 
to camlet, imported into France 
through Marseilles. 

Alberoni Obsolete French and Holland 
camlet, made with silk and gold 
thread warp and silk or angora wool 
filling. 

Albert Cloth Double faced woolen over- 
coating, the two sides made in dif- 
ferent patterns and colors. 

Albert Cord 'Fancy English alpaca cloth 
in the 19th century. 

Albert Crape English dress fabric iijade 
of silk and cotton mixture. 

Albesine A grade of wool from Spain. 

Albigeois Gray, unbleached linen can- 
vas, made in Languedoc, France. 

Albissola Italian bobbin lace having 
small pattern. 

Alcantara Inferior Spanish wool. 

Alcatifa Spanish trade name of fine 
Oriental rugs and carpets. 

Alcatquen Fine Persian knotted rugs in- 
terwoven with gold thread, used over 
divans. 

Alcyonne Closely woven ten-leaf silk 
satin drapery fabric, made with sin- 
gle or ply warp and often with fill- 
ing of a different color from the 
warp. 

Alencon 1, lightweight French cloth of 
silk and cotton; 2, French needle-point 
lace made with net ground, the reseau 
resembling the Brussels pjint reseau. 
Early A., also called point -Je France, 
resembles Venise and Spanish point. 
Chief characteristic of the A. lace is 
the cordonnet (see), usually filled 
with horsehair; the design usually 
follows the taste of the period the 
lace was made in. 

Alencon Bar Needle-point bar used to 
fill up spaces, consists of a zig-zag 
thread covered with buttonhole 
stitches. 



Alencon Ground First made as bride 
and then as reseau; the bride was 
either plain or picotee, while the 
grande bride was a six-sided mesh, 
covered with buttonhole stitches. The 
reseau was worked after the pat- 
tern to join it. 

Alenconnes -Half-bleached linen for 
household, made in lower Normandy. 

Alepine 1, twilled cloth of soft spun silk 
warp and fine worsted filling, made 
in Aleppo, Syria, originally only in 
blaCk, later in all colors. Imitated in 
England in hard spun worsted; 2, 
twilled fabric of English origin made 
of silk warp and worsted filling in 
serge weave, and dyed in the piece, 
usually black. Used for mourning 
wear; 3, French fabric made of silk 
or cotton warp and soft worsted fill- 
ing in single or various colors. 

Aleppo Cotton from Syria; also raw silk 
exported from the city of Aleppo. 

Alexander A medieval striped silk, orig- 
inally said to have come from Alex- 
andria, Egypt, used for church vest- 
ments. See burdalisander. 

Alexandra In Austria a plain woven cot- 
ton fabric, dyed black and finished 
with a dress face; used for linings, 
underskirts, etc. 

Alexandrette Syrian raw cotton. 

Alexandria 1, half wool, figured, wom- 
en's dress goods; 2, Egyptian raw cot- 
ton, of short staple. Similar to the 
Smyrna cotton but contains more dirt. 

Alexandrine Old time name for fine cot- 
ton and linen cloths woven in Switz- 
erland and France with fancy col- 
ored patterns over white foundation. 
Given a silk-like finish. 

Alfa, Spar-to or Esparto (Stipa tenaois- 
sima) Fiber of a North African grass 
The fiber is coarse, stiff and luster- 
less. Used for coarse sailor clothes. 

Algerian Lace A gimp lace made of sil- 
ver and gold thread. 

Algerian Stripes Fabric having alternate 
stripes of coarse cotton and very 
fine silk, often with gold threads; is 
usually cream colored; used for wom- 
en's bournouses. 

Algerienne 'Woolen material with fancy 
colored weft stripe, used for tents, 
curtains, awnings, etc. Originally 
from Algiers, now made also else- 
where. 

Alhambra Quilt Bleached cotton quilt, 
made with bold patterns, formed by 
an extra warp, which is heavier than 
the ground warp. The ground is 
usually woven plain, with a heavy, 
slack twist filling. 

Alicienne Crepe Fabric woven with al- 
ternating smooth and crepe warp 
stripes, woven usually plain. The 
warp threads in the crepe stripes are 
dressed on a separate beam and are 
delivered slack, resulting in a puck- 
ered effect. Used for counterpanes 
and curtains. 



ALL 



AME 



All wool Originally denoted fabrics made 
of pure wool. In commercial parlance 
many fabrics containing considerable 
proportion of cotton, or union fabrics 
made with a wool face are being 
called "all wool" in the United States. 

Allabatis, Allibalis, Alliabat, Allibanis 
Names of East Indian cotton cloths, 
made either plain, embroidered or 
brocaded. 

Allah Haik Moorish cloth made with 
equally wide stripes of nub cot- 
ton warp and fine silk warp of cream 
color. Used for turbans and bour- 
nouses. 

Allahabad Large knotted wool or cotton 
carpets made with loose thick pile in 
India. 

Allapine See Alapeen. 

Alleanthus Very tough fiber yielded by 
the bast of the Alleanthus zeylanicus, 
a tree in Ceylon; used for ropes, nets, 
etc., by the natives. 

Allegias, Allejars East Indian pure cot- 
ton muslins, made in plain weave, also 
mixed with silk or other fibers. Also 
called Bethilles. 

Allemande Corded French silk dress 
goods and men's vesting:. 

Allen Variety of raw cotton growing in 
Mississippi; the staple is fine and 
silky, measuring up to 35 millimeters, 
the lint is less than 30 per cent. 

Allejah A fabric made with gold, green 
and white stripes, used for dresses 
in the 18th century. 

Alliabably "Fine cotton muslin from 
Dacca, India. 

Alligator Cloth Coarse, plain woven cot- 
ton or jute fabric, coated with varnish 
and finished like the alligator leather; 
used for cheap suitcases and seats. 

Alloa Wheeling (Heavy Scotch knitting 
woolen yarn. 

Allover Design spread out or scattered 
over the entire ground. 

Almanesque Cotton goods used in Ar- 
gentine. 

Alneestloni Navajo blanket made in twill 
weave, both sides being different. 

Alni mayini Woolen blanket made by the 
Ute Indians, made with a wide black 
stripe in the center and narrower 
stripes at each end; the corners 
trimmed with black tassels. 

Aloe The fibers of the agave, made into 
net and lace in the Philippines, Italy, 
Spain and Paraguay. 

Aloe Hemp Trade name for the Mauritius 
hemp (see) and also for the leaf fiber 
of certain Indian Sansevieria species. 

Aloe Lace Bobbin lace, made of fine aloe 
yarn in Italy, Spain, etc. 

Alost Belgian bobbin lace, similar to the 
Valenciennes (see), the threads of the 
mesh ground being twisted four or five 
times. 



Alpaca 1, very long, white or colored 
smooth hair, yielded by the South 
American auchenia paco; 2, wool ob- 
tained from mixed cotton and woolen 
rags through carbonization; 3. wom- 
en's dress goods or lining, made in 
plain weave with cotton warp and 
alpaca filling, very lustrous. 

Alpaca Luster 19th century piece dyed 
English fabric made with cotton or silk 
warp and alpaca filling and very high 
finish. 

Alpaca Mixture 19th century undyed 
English fabric, made of cotton or silk 
warp and alpaca filling- 
Alpaca Orleans One of the first alpaca 
fabrics made in England in the 19th 
century; woven with a cotton warp 
and alpaca filling. 

Alum Used extensively as mordant for 
alizarine dyes, as agent in printing 
wool with alizarine, and dyeing wool 
with eosine, in Turkey red dyeing, etc. 

Aluminum Chlorate' Used in printing cot- 
ton goods with aniline black. 

Alumnat Cloth Closely woven, black wool- 
en fabric, made in Bohemia for the 
use of the clergy and alumni. 

Alwan^Fine, plain woven fabric, made in 
Thibet of pashmina wool yarn. 

Amabouk Half 'bleached coarse linen, 
made in northern Ireland; used for 
sailors' shirts; unbleached used for 
bags. 

Amadaure Variety of Egyptian raw cot- 
ton. 

Amamee Smooth, closely woven cotton 
cloth from Bengal; the coarser grades 
also called Tissuti and the finer 
Bissuti. Used for shirts, bed covers, 
curtains and also for printing. 

Aman Plain woven, blue colored cotton 
fabric, made in Syria. 

Amana Staple blue printed cotton fabric 
and knitted goods from the com- 
munistic mills of Amana, la. 

Amanouri One of the best grades of 
Levant cottons. 

Amazon Dress goods, woven of Botany 
warp and woolen filling in a 2/1 warp 
faced twill or five-leaf warp satin, the 
nap is raised and shorn in the finish. 

Amazones Woo'en dress goods in South 
America. 

Ambari Hemp Very long, light colored, 
silky ibut harsh and strong bast fiber, 
yielded by the Hibiscus cannabinus in 
southern Asia. Used" for cordage, 
coarse bagging, etc. 

Amboisienne Obsolete French silk dress 
goods with napped stripes over taffeta 
foundation. 

Amens Obsolete English term for a 
species of fine worsted lasting, with 
warp cords and fancy patterns; used 
in churches. See also Amiens. 

Americaine Corded silk French dress 
goods made with eight warps and 
eight picks in a repeat. 



AME 



ANG 



American Cloth In England, an enameled 
oilcloth for household or upholstery 
purposes. 

American Jute Obsolete name for the 
Abutilon fiber (see) in the United 
States. 

Americana Name for coarse cotton sheet- 
ing in Bulgaria and Servia. 

Americani or Amerikano Unbleached cot- 
ton sheetings in various parts of 
Africa; originally from America, now 
imported from England. 

Americano Assilia Name for gray cotton 
sheetings on the eastern coast of 
Africa. They came originally from the 
United States. 

Americano Gamti A very dark and coarse 
gray cotton sheeting on the eastern 
coast of Africa. Imported from India. 

Americano Marduff Twilled, stout gray 
cotton fabric in East Africa, imported 
from the United States or Europe; 
used for tents, sails and dresses by 
the natives. 

American Ulayiti Native name of gray 
cotton sheetings on the eastern coast 
of Africa. Imported from Europe. 

Amertis Closely woven calicoes or cotton 
goods from Patna, Bengal. 

Amianthus Fine, flexible asbestos; used 
for fireproof curtains, etc. 

Amiens or Amens Closely woven twilled 
cloth of hard-twist worsted, in solid 
colors, striped or made with patterns. 
Similar to the lastings but of better 
grade. Made originally in Amiens. 

Amilpat Name for native embroidery in 
East India. 

Amiray Native Philippine name for the 
ramie fiber; used for cords, threads 
and fabrics. 

Ammonia Used as bleaching agent to- 
gether with peroxide and to fix aliza- 
rine dye on wool. 

Amoer 'Name of a strong silk taffeta In 
many parts of Italy. Same as gros 
de tours. 

Amole Coarse, yellow fiber, yielded by the 
bulb of a lily-like plant in California; 
used for stuffing. 

Amorgis Fine linen in ancient Greece, 
usually dyed purple. 

Amour Linen with round or oval damask - 
like pattern for table use, made in 
Caen, France. Also called La.cs 
d'amour. 

Amritsar Large size, East Indian wool 
rugs made in Persian designs with 
heavy pile. 

Anabasses 'Blue and white striped woolen 
covers, made in Rouen and vicinity for 
the Senegal, Guinea and Angola trade; 
also imitated by Holland. 

Anacostas Fine all-worsted English dress 
goods, woven in a 2-and-2 twill with a 
weft face, as the number of picks is 
much higher than the number of ends. 
It is woven in gray and dyed in the 
piece. 



Anacoste or Anacote Twilled French and 
German worsted serge having a very 
smooth finish, used by religious or- 
ders for clothing. An inferior quality 
made in 'Netherlands is known in 
Japan as saaij. 

Anadendron Very strong bast fiber of the 
A. plant in the Andaman Islands, used 
for nets and bowstrings by the 
natives. 

Analao Philippine name for a cordage 

fiber. 

Ananong A Philippine cordage fiber. 

Anaphe 'Wild silk of reddish brown color, 
similar to Tussah, produced by a 
genus of African gregarious moth. 

Anatolian 1, small, all-wool rug made in 
Asia Minor and used for pillows; the 
soft, long pile is tied in Ghiordes knot; 
the designs and colors show a great 
variety; they are finished with a sel- 
vage all around and a fringe at the 
ends; the socalled "big Anatolians" are 
of large size and have a very close and 
very long pile. 2, long and medium 
fine wool, yielded by the caraman 
sheep of Anatolia. The sheep has a 
very heavy, flat tail. Wool used for 
carpets. 

Ancelia Union dress goods of cotton 
thread warp and mixed wool yarn 
filling, forming patterns. 

Anchali A wide ribbon, made in E*ast 
India. 

A neon Wool taken from an American 
bred sheep, originated in the 18th cen- 
tury, but now extinct. 

Andalusia Medium fine Spanish wool. 

Andalusian Wool In England a four- 
strand, fine worsted yarn for knitting. 

Anderson Very fine gingham made in 
Scotland. 

Andes Cotton Same as Peruvian cotton. 

Anglaise Plain colored French serge, 
made with eight ends and four picks 
in a repeat. 

Angleterre Highly finished silk taffeta 
made in France. 

Angleterre Bars Filling in places in mod- 
ern point laces, consisting of lines of 
threads crossed at right angles with 
knots or spots formed by a sepa- 
rate thread at each crossing. 

Angleterre Edge A needle-point edging to 
braid or cordonnet; made with one 
line of point de Bruxelles loops. 

Angola 1, yarn composed of cotton and 
wool; 2, twilled, red cotton cloth; 3, a 
thick, soft twilled, napped woolen 
overcoating. 

Angola Brocade A highly finished English 
worsted dress goods of the 19th cen- 
tury, woven in colored patterns; ob- 
solete. 

Angola Cloth Diaper cotton of cream 
color, with rough face, used for em- 
broidery. 

Angola Mending English yarn of mixed 
wool and cotton used for darning 
stockings. 



ANG 



Angora 1, highly finished, plain weave 
dress goods of cotton thread warp and 
mohair filling-; 2, twilled overcoating 
made with shaggy face of wool or 
mohair; 3, goat yielding the mohair. 

Angora Cashmere Soft, light, twilled mo- 
hair dress fabric. 

Angora Yarn Spun in France of the long, 
silver gray fur of the angora rabbit. 
It is very soft and will not felt; used 
for knitted sporting goods. 

Animalize Consists in treating cotton 
yarns with solutions of silk or other 
animal fiber in order to impart to the 
cotton certain general properties of 
animal fibers. 

Anodendron Very tough, but fine, bast 
fibers of a climber (Anodendron panic- 
ulatum) in southern India and Ceylon; 
used for ropes. 

Anoncillo Fiber yielded by the bark of a 
species of the sour-sap in Venezuela. 

Antelope Cloth Used for embroidered 
waistcoats and embroidery foundation 
in England. There are small pinholes 
in the cloth placed at equal distance 
from each other, through which the 
yarn is put. 

Anterine or Anterne 18th century fabric 

in England, made of worsted and silk 

or mohair and cotton. 
Antherea Collective scientific name for 

various wild silks of Japan, China and 

India. 

Anthistirta Stem fvber yielded by a grass 
(Anthistiria arundinacea) in north- 
western India, used for cordage. 

Antichlor A variety of sulphites, used to 
remove bleaching powder from the 
fibers. 

Antimony fluoride Used in place of tartar 
emetic. 

Antipole Philippine fiber, used for ropes 
and cords. 

Antwerp Belgian bobbin lace of bold 
patterns, similar to the Malines (see). 
Made either of separate sprigs con- 
nected with each other by brides (see) 
or the pattern made in one and upon 
a ground. Usually plaited thread out- 
lines the patterns. A characteristic 
design is the socalled Potten Kant 
(see). 

Antwerp Edge 'Needle-point edge to braid 
or cordonnet, consisting of one line 
of open buttonhole caught with a knot 
in each loop. 

Apolda .Fine, printed wool shawl, made 
in Germany. 

Apou Transparent Chinese fabric of 
great luster, made of ramie. 

Appenzell Fine hand embroidery, made 
with buttonhole stitches in Switzer- 
land. 

Applique Broderie Perse Colored pieces 
of chintz or cretonne, representing 
flowers, birds, etc., are pasted on the 
ground and outlined with stitches. 

Applique Broderie Suisse Design is em- 
broidered on white cambric or muslin 
laid upon satin or silk background. 



ARG 



Applique Lace Needle-point or bobbin 
sprigs applied to a machine-made 
ground, as for instance, modern 
Brussels lace. 

Appret de Laine French for the soft and 
permanent finish given to mercerized 
Italian linings, similar to the Botanv 
worsted Italian lining. 

Apron Checks Narrow cotton ginghams 
with small checks in white and color- 
used for aprons. 

Apta Brown fiber gained from the East 
Indian Bausinia, used for tows, fish- 
ing nets and coarse cloth. 

Arabian A curtain made of netting and 
edged with macrame lace. 

Arabian Crepe Silk crepe dyed in the 
piece and embroidered with dots. 

Arabian Embroidery Made with floss silk 
in very elaborate geometrical designs 
upon cloth or muslin ground. 

Arabian Lace Heavy, ecru colored lace, 
made of cords knotted together in in- 
tricate patterns; used for curtains. 

Arabian Stripes Coarse cotton fabric with 
blue and brown weft stripes; origi- 
nated in Arabia. 

Arabias See Arabiennes. 

Arabiennes Fancy colored cloth made of 
cotton and flax in Germany for the 
South American trade. 

Arain Indian silk taffeta, made with 
stripes or checks. 

Arbaccio Coarse homespun, made in 
Sardinia, of native wool. 

Arbascio Stout brown cloth made of 
coarse wool or goat's hair, in Albania 
and Macedonia for Italy, where it is 
used for raincoats. 

Arcazabo Silk brocade made in Lyons for 
the African trade. 

Archangelsk flaxFine Russian flax of 
long, soft, grayish fibers. 



Archi-imperiaU 

Tunis. 



-Italian serge made for 



Ardamu Raw silk of Ghilan, Persia. 
Ardas Stout silk fabric from Persia. 

Ardasse Low grade raw silk of Persia, 
manufactured in Europe into em- 
broidery silk. 

Ardassin Fine Persian raw silk, same as 
Ablaque. 

Aredas Indian plain woven fabric made 
of a soft and lustrous vegetable fiber, 
yielded by a grass. See Aridas. 

Areste A rich gold cloth woven with 
elaborate patterns and used for church 
vestments in medieval England. 



Argaglt East 
fabric. 



Indian plain woven silk 



Argali Long, dark gray hair yielded by 
the A. sheep in Siberia, used for car- 
pet yarns. 



ARC 



ART 



Argentan lace French needle-point lace. 
Early specimens called point de 
France (see). The A. is similar to the 
Alencon (see), and has the following 
characteristics: net ground with large 
patterns, made higher and bolder 
than the Alencon, closer toile (see) 
than in Alencon, and a great variety of 
rich brides (see), especially the bride 
picotee (see), the ground is the grande 
bride, a six-sided mesh. 

Argentella Lace Italian white needle- 
point, similar to the Alencon, but 
with flat cordonnet. The designs con- 
sist of very delicate patterns spread 
over a net ground. 

Argentine Croisee Former name of 
twilled dress goods and men's suit- 
ing made with silk warp and cotton 
filling, manufactured in France. 

Argos Wool rug made in A., Greece. 

Argudan Variety of coarse raw cotton 
from China. 

Argouges iStout, bleached linen, formerly 
made in France, made originally 25 
Paris inches wide, of selected, hard- 
spun yarn, containing at least 1,300 
ends; obsolete. 

Aridas Lightweight, plain woven and 
solid colored East Indian silk cloth of 
high luster; made originally of fibers 
of grass-like plants. 

Arimina A long, strong, stem fiber, simi- 
lar to jute, yielded by a species of 
agave in Brazil; used for ropes. 

Aristo Same as moquette carpet. 

Ariyalur Fine, weft-faced silk satin, with 
weft stripes; made in East India; used 
for garments. 

Armazine Stout, plain colored, corded 
black silk, used in the 16th century 
for gowns and men's waists and later 
for scholastic gowns, hatbands, etc. 

Armenian Lace Coarse and narrow cro- 
chet lace edgings. 

Armiak Camel-hair cloth made in Astra- 
khan, also called Biaza; used for 
coats. 

Armistice Cloth English worsted fabric 
in orange, blue, black and other col- 
ors; now obsolete; was fashionable at 
the end of the Boer war. 

Armoisin Obsolete, light and thin 
silk taffeta for lining; made in Italy 
and France with stripes, geometrical 
designs or dots. Heavier a. with ribs 
was made for curtains and bed covers. 
Nowadays, East India produces two 
kinds of a., one called damaras, with 
flower patterns, and arains, with 
stripes or checks. 

Armozeen Obsolete, black, French taffeta, 
used for dresses, mourning wear and 
clergymen's clothes. 

Armstrong A Highland tartan with 
green checks over a blue and black 
ground with red lines. 



Armure 1, French term for small pattern 
in pebbled or embossed effect; 2, a 
great variety of dress goods made of 
Botany wool, mohair, cotton or artifi- 
cial silk or combinations of these 
fibers, made in a small pebbled or 
embossed effect which is produced 
from warp or weft ribs. 

Armure Bosphore A reversible silk 
armure. 

Armure Cheviot An all-wool, piece dyed 
black cheviot, used for dresses in 
England. 

Armure Royale French silk dress goods 
and vesting, made with two sets of 
ply warps in different colors; 16 
warps and six fillings in a repeat. 

Armure Victoria A thin and sheer wool 
dress goods of dull black ground with 
delicate patterns; used for mourn- 
ing. 

Army Blanket Woolen blanket used in 
the United States army; it is fulled 
and well napped and of dark gray 
color. The size is 48 by 76 and 60 
by 76 inches. 

Army Cloth 1, a number of woolen and 
worsted fabrics used for soldiers' 
uniforms; 2, low grade gray woolen 
fabric made in Yorkshire for the Asia 
Minor market. 

Arrti iA very fine East IndSan cotton 
muslin. 

Aroosha A fairly strong fiber, yielded by 
a species of the Verbenaceae tree In 
India. 

Arramas A medieaval brocade made of 
gold and silk. 

Arras 1, French tapestry used for hang- 
ings; 2, medieval French worsted; 
3,white French bobbin lace, similar to 
the Lille lace (see). It is of strong 
and close texture with straight edge 
and the mignonette (see) as the char- 
acteristic pattern. 

Arrasene Silk or wool chenille for em- 
broidery. 

Arrasene Embroidery Produced with 
Arrasene, by either drawing it through 
the cloth or laying it on the surface 
and catching down as in couching 
(see). 

Arree Bark fiber yielded by the Bauhinia 
racemosa in East India; used for 
ropes. 

Arrindy Strong, raw silk of the eria silk 
worm in India. 

Arrow Stitch So called from the slanting 
position of threads forming it. Identi- 
cal with the stem stitch (see). 

Arscot 'Fine woolen serge made in Bel- 
gium. 

Art Delaine Fine woolen dress goods of 
the end of the 19th century. 

Art Linen Plain woven linen, made of 
round, even thread, used for embroid- 
ery. 



ART 



10 



ASI 



Art Muslin In England, a fine cotton 
fabric dyed or printed and finished 
with a high gloss; used for upholstery. 

Art Serge A fine, stout worsted serge, 
used in England for draping and 
table covers. 

Art Square Large variety of small or 
large ingrain rugs, made square or 
oblong, with fringe at both ends. 

Artificial Cotton Made by pine shavings 
being treated with caustic soda under 
pressure. 

Artificial Dyestuffs An immense variety 
of dyestuffs which are not obtained 
directly from the plants or animals, 
but are produced chemically; as, for 
instance, from the coal tar. They are 
of late origin. 

Artificial Horsehair Certain grasses are 
treated for a brief period with con- 
centrated sulphuric acid or chloride of 
zinc, rendering the fiber very strong, 
elastic and similar in appearance to 
real horsehair. 

Artificial Silk 'Fiber obtained from cellu- 
lose or other materials, through vari- 
ous ways; 1, the Chardonnet process 
dissolves cotton waste in nitric and 
sulphuric acids into nitro cellulose; 
this again is treated in ether, pro- 
ducing gun cotton in liquid form, 
which is pressed through small holes; 
as the ether evaporates during this 
pressure, a cellulose fiber is obtained, 
which afterward is denitrated. 2, in 
the viscose process, wood pulp is dis- 
solved in caustic soda, the resulting 
salt is treated in carbon bisulphite, 
then dissolved in ammonia sulphate, 
which is pressed through small holes 
and rinsed. 3, the glanzstoff or cup- 
iram'monium process, in which cellu- 
lose is dissolved in copper ammonium 
hydrate. 4, Vanduara silk made of 
chemically treated gelatine, rendering 
it insoluble. 

A process of decorating textile 
fabrics with ornamental designs uf 
artificial silk consists of printing 
liquid artificial silk by means of en- 
graved rolls on the fabric, the artifi- 
cial silk drying very rapidly. 
The fibers produced by means of 
these various chemical processes 
are intended to imitate silk by their 
gloss. The large majority of arti- 
ficial silk of commercial importance is 
of cellulose, and its distinguishing 
marks from the real silk, besides the 
chemical tests, are: The lack of 
scroop, greater brilliancy, greater in- 
flammability, less strength and elas- 
ticity and greater smoothness, the last 
causing the tendency to unravel. 
Artificial silk will not wash, and is 
usually mixed with some other fiber. 

The principle of the manufacture of 
commercially important artificial silk 
Is in the production of a cellulose so- 
lution. This solution is pressed 
through a plate having very small 
holes. The solving agent is evaporated 
and the solidified fiber is wound on a 
reel. This fiber is subsequently 
washed, denitrated (to diminish its in- 
flammability) and dried. 



Artificial silk was invented by Count 
Chardonnet in 1884, who took collo- 
dion as basis; the fiber produced, 
however, was very dangerous, due to 
its inflammability. At the present 
time wood pulp OT cotton is used 
mostly as source of cellulose for the 
artificial silk. 

Owing to its inferior strength, espe- 
cially in a wet state, artificial silk is 
used mostly in fabrics where bril- 
liant effect is required, rather than 
durability. It is used mostly for 
braids, galloons and other trimmings, 
neckwear silk, drapery fabrics, for in- 
sulating wires and also for gas man- 
tles, and for pile fabrics. 

Cuprammonium silks are usually 
mordanted, while collodion silks can 
be dyed directly with basic dyes. For 
viscose silk usually vat colors are 
employed, and substantive colors are 
good for other silks, while acid dyes 
are used only for light shades. 

Artificial Tulle or Lace Cellulose paste, 
similar to that used for artificial silk 
is spread over a cylinder, the surface 
of which is engraved with the pat- 
tern of the lace or tulle, a knife re- 
moving the matter from the smooth 
surface. The paste remaining in the 
engraved parts is coagulated, the net 
is taken off the cylinder, and finished 
and dyed. 

Artificial Wool 1, wool recovered from 
rags, the fibers are spun again; 2, va- 
rious vegetable fibers, like jute or dha, 
are treated with chemicals to resem- 
ble wool in looks and feel. These 
fiibers are usually mixed with real 
wool. 

Asaltus Fleece of the wild goat and sheep 
in Thibet, used for shawls. 

Asan Usually a small size East Indian 
prayer rug with hand-knotted pile. 

Asbestos A gray mineral which by 
softening in hot water can be sepa- 
rated into straight, lustrous fibers. 
Used for fireproof materials. It is 
difficult to spin and is not dyed. Its 
solution is sometimes used to render 
textiles noncombustible. 

Asbestos Lace Term for lace rendered 
non-inflammable. 

Aschodur Persian cotton fabric, dyed 
black with sumac and iron; used for 
garments by native women. 

Asclepias Cotton Very soft and lustrous 
fiber, yielded by the pod of the milk- 
weed; used chiefly for stuffing. 

Ashmara Commercial term for weak jute 
fiber from India. 

Ashmouni Formerly a very important 
variety of Egyptian cotton, has a yel- 
lowish brown staple over an inch 
long. Little cultivated. 

Asimani Light East Indian fabric made 
of silk and cotton, often made with 
zigzag stripes across. 

Asimode Obsolete French trousering, 
made with heavy ply warp, forming 
ribs, and fine filling, napped on the 
back. The face is given a smooth 
finish. 



ASP 



11 



AVA 



Aspero Peruvian term for the native cot- 
ton: nailed in England, full rough 
Peruvian. 

Assais Strong fiber, yielded by the Assais 

palm of Brazil; used for cordage and 

coarse fabrics . 
Assam East Indian cotton, having a 

harsh, white staple. 
Assemble Doubled sohappe yarn, made 

in France. 

Assili Egyptian raw cotton. 
Assorcebunder The lowest grade of Ben- 
gal raw silk. 

Assouplissage Softening of the de- 
gummed and bleached raw silk fiber 
in boiling water. 

Astar Muslin made in Asia Minor, used 
in Turkey for turbans and underwear. 
Has three grades, called dagbezd, 
thadirbezi and churumbezi; or best, 
medium and low. 

Asteri Calico usesd for lining in Persia. 

Asticotine Lightweight, fulled, French 
woolen cloth; slightly elastic both 
warp and weft wise. 

Astoli Cotton canvas, made in Dublin 
according to a newly patented process. 
It is waterproof and good heat insu- 
lator, and does not contain rubber; it 
comes 56 inches wide and is used for 
carriage and automobile tops. 

Astra Work Consists of stars, which 
previously have been embroidered 
over linen, cut out and appliqued. 

Astrachan A curl-pile fabric, knitted or 
woven, made to imitate the fur of that 
name. The expensive grades are 
made of yarn curled before weaving 
and the fabric is woven with wires, 
raising loops, which are left intact 
or cut afterward, while the cheaper 
grades have the nap scratched up in 
the finishing. The pile is formed with 
mohair yarn of slack twist. 

Asu Blue, yellow and red cotton thread 
used for embroidery in India. 

Atabi or Otabi Medieval dress goods of 
Arabic origin, made of mixture of silk 
and cotton in various colors. 

Atchiabanes Obsolete East Indian calico. 

Atlas 1, lightweight satin lining of silk 
face and cotton back, with a glossy 
finish; 2, in France, England, Ger- 
many and Austria, a very highly fin- 
ished silk fabric in eight-leaf satin 
weave. Used for dress fabric and 
lining, the latter made with cotton 
back; originally from India. 

Atlasgradl A linen fabric in Germany 
and Austria, made witth five-leaf 
satin stripes in linen and cotton back. 
Used for bed linen. 

Attalea Wash fabric used in England for 
trimming sailors' suits. 

Attalia Twilled cotton cloth in India. 

Attalic Thread made with flat gold strip 
wound around a wool or linen core. 

Attalic Stuffs Of Asiatic origin during 
the Middle Ages; woven of gold thread 
mixed with other fibers. 



Attushi A hard and rough fabric made 
by the Ainu women (Japan), of the 
bast fibers of the elm tree; used for 
clothing by the natives. 

Aubusson Very fine tapestry from A., 
France. 

Aucube Wool rug made in Belgium. 

Au Fuseau Name for reseau ground in 
laces when made on the pillow. 

Augsburg Checks Fine checked ginghams 
made in A., Germany, and exported to 
England and India. 

Augusta Fustian 17th century English 
worsted. 

Augustine Obsolete cotton and silk fabric 
made in Rouen, France. 

Aumale Coarse French serge made of in- 
ferior wool; used for drapery, lining; 
obsolete. 

Au Passe Also called satin stitch or long 
stitch; used in all kinds of em- 
broidery over any ground, the thread 
being worked across the material 
without any raised foundation. 

Aupoz Native name in the Philippine 
Islands for the intermediate fibrous 
layer in the Musa textilie; used for 
weaving sheer fabrics. 

Auquili Coarse bagging made in Syria; 
the better grades dyed blue or are 
partly white and always mixed with 
cotton. 

Aureate A rich silk satin of yellow color; 
used in England during Henry VIII; 
now obsolete. 

Aures Sort of caddis or stout twilled 
shorn woolen, known in France as 
fleuret. 

Aurillac Lace A French bobbin lace, 
made with close patterns. 

Auriphrygium Ancient name for fabrics, 
usually silks, richly embroidered with 
gold. 

Auroclavum Gold tissue of the Middle 
Ages; used for robes worn by State 
dignitaries. 

Australian Crepe A crinkled fabric, made 
with cotton warp and worsted filling. 

Austria A twilled silk umbrella cloth. 

Automobile Tire Cloth Very strong, 
plain woven, stout and heavy cotton 
fabric, made with heavy yarn of the 
longest staple. Used for automobile 
tires. 

Auvergne Lace French bobbin lace of 
no distinct character. 

Auxerre White linen bobbin lace, made 
in France. 

Auxonne French hemp canvas, made in 
various widths, stripes or checked; 
-bleached or gray. 

Auxy Fine, soft knitting wool yarn 
made in France and used in the fin- 
est grades of women's hosiery. 

Ava Cotton Grown in India, has a fair 
staple. 

Avantagee (French name for the best 
grade of Nankin silk. 

Avasca A coarse, durable fabric, made 
by the natives of Peru from alpaca; 
used for garments. 



AVE 



12 



BAG 



Ave Maria Xarrow French peasant 
bobbin lace with plaited ground and 
very simple patterns. The edges are 
made with cloth stitch. Similar to 
the Valencienne (See). 

Avignon Light, French silk taffeta lin- 
ing. 

Avila Spanish wool from the Province 
A. 

Avouet Persian wool from three-year- 
old sheep; used for rugs. 

Awassi Fine carpet wool, mostly col- 
ored, from Mesopotamia. 

Awning A very stout and durable can- 
vas cloth, made with bright and wide 
stripes. 

Axminster 1, originally hand made pile 
carpets, made in England after the 
Oriental rugs. It was made on hand 
looms; the pile was of worsted, the 
warp and weft of linen; 2, woven on 
a power loom, but tufted by hand 
like an Oriental rug. The patent Ax- 
minster is woven entirely, chenille 
being used for filling. 

Ayrishke A Japanese silk brocade with 
flower patterns. 

Ayrshire 'Fine twilled woolen blanket 
made in England. 

Azamgar East Indian fabric, made of 
cotton and silk in satin weave. 

Azara or Azera Fine East Indian mus- 
lin. 

Azazul Sheer East Indian muslin, with 
warp stripes of wild silk. 

Azo Colors 'Artificial dyestuffs, insoluble 
In water; they are developed directly 
on the fiber; used on cotton. 

Azores 'Loosely woven, thick, long 
haired woolens. 



B 



Babci Sort of white sisal hemp fiber 
from Yucatan. 

Baby Flannel Bleached, lightweight 
soft wool flannel of plain weave; 
used for children's underwear. 

Baby Irish Fine, narrow and flat Irish 
crochet lace. 

Baby Lace Narrow lace used for trim- 
ming babies' caps; originally an Eng- 
lish pillow lace, also called English 
Lille. 

Baby Ribbon The narrowest ribbons, 
usually silk in pale blue or pink color. 

Baccaba Very strong leaf fiber, yielded 
by the Turu palm in Brazil; used for 
ropes. 

Back The reverse side or wrong side of 
a fabric. See Tapestry Back and 
Rug Back. 

Back Filling Set of weft threads, form- 
ing the back of many modern wors- 
ted cloths. It is used to give weight 
to the fabric. 



Back Stitch 1, in knitting, see pearl; 2, 
identical with hem stitch (See); for 
embroidery and Berlin wool work. 

Back Stitch Embroidery Done with back 
stitch, upon any foundation, in out- 
line without any filling. 

Back Washing The second scouring to 
which wool (in sliver or top form) 
is subjected. 

Backed Cloth A fabric with an extra 
warp or filling or both at the back in 
order to increase the weight of the 
cloth. 

Backing Strengthening applique or 
other embroidery if the materials ap- 
plied are not of the same strength 
as the foundation. 

Bad In the Bible denotes fine linen 
fabric. 

Badan Khas Fine cotton muslin from 
India. 

Baden Stout, plain woven linen fabric 
made in Baden, Germany. 

Baden Embroidery. Applique work, the 
patterns, which are leaves and flow- 
ers, often painted, are cut out, sewn 
on a foundation of a contrasting col- 
or, the edges worked around with 
chain stitch and the veins with her- 
ringbone or feather stitch. 

Baden Hemp Superior grade of hemp, 
stripped by hand. 

Baden Lace Good quality of bobbin lace 
made by peasant women in Baden, 
Germany. 

Badlan East Indian embroidery, execu- 
ted with flat gold or silver wire. 

Badotlizhi Navajo blankets made with a 
black center and two blue borders; 
formerly used for shawls by the na- 
tive women, now obsolete. 

Baeta Under this name was known in 
Spain and Portugal an imported, 
plain woven, loose, woolen fabric, 
napped on one side. 

Baffeta 1, plain woven bleached or blue 
cotton fabric in the African and East 
Indian trade; 2, East Indian plain 
and closely woven cotton fabric; for- 
merly exported to and printed in Eu- 
rope. Now largely displaced by cali- 
coes, etc. See Bafta. 

Baft See Bafta. 

Baft Ribbon Consists of threads being 
glued together to form a flat tape 
without any weft. 

Bafta or Baftah 1, native name in East 
Africa for white cotton shirting or 
bleached cotton longcloth, made with 
a heavy size, imported from Eng- 
land; used for shirts, bed covers, etc.; 
2, mixed cotton and silk cloth made 
in India; 3, a variety of dyed cotton 
fabrics imported in the African mar- 
kets. 

Baftowa A very fine East Indian cotton 
muslin. 

Bag Strapping Very broad stay tape; 
used in England by upholsterers to 
preserve selvages. 



BAG 



13 



BAL 



Bagasse Waste, obtained from the sisal 
m scraping the pulp from the leaf 
fibers. 

Bagdad Wool Mostly dark carpet wool 
from Mesopotamia. 

Bagdalin Cotton fabric woven in fancy 
colors in Persian style; now obsolete. 

Bagging Coarse, plain woven jute fab- 
ric, made with taped or double warp 
and heavy filling; it is used as it 
comes from the loom. The socalled 
cotton bagging is usually 32 oz. per 
yard, 44 inches wide, and made of 
jute butts. 

Baghaitloni Xavajo blankets with a slit 
in the center, made in a large variety 
of patterns. 

Bagnos Obsolete name for Barege (See). 

Baguette See Bayette. 

Bahama 1, cotton from the West Indies; 
2, a commercial variety of Texas cot- 
ton, the staple measuring 23-26 mil- 
limeters, growing in large bolls, 
yielding one-third of lint. 

Bahia Brazilian cotton, having a fairly 
strong but harsh and wiry staple. 

Bahia Fibei Commercial grade of the 
piassaba (See). 

Bahmia Raw cotton having a fine sta- 
ple; formerly grown in Egypt, but 
now little cultivated. 

Baigues 1, twilled woolen from Fland- 
ers, obsolete; 2, see Bayette. 

Bailey Variety of upland cotton, grown 
in North Carolina; the staple is con- 
sidered of very good quality, measur- 
ing from 28 to 32 millimeters, the lint 
being less than 30 per cent. 

Baindix Sort of Turkish cotton. 

Baique A coarse baize, made in Bel- 
gium. 

Bairaiti Variety of fine raw cotton from 
Bengal, East India; used for Dacca 
muslins. 

Baird A Highland tartan, composed of 
blue and black stripes, narrower 
green stripes and bright red lines. 

Baize Coarse, loosely and plain woven 
woolen flannel with long nap; used 
for lining, bags, etc., dyed usually 
red; obsolete. 

Bajota Coarse bleached cotton fabric; 
formerly sold by the Holland-East 
Indian Trading Co. 

Bakhshis Rugs Persian rug of cotton 
warp and weft, the loose coarse wool 
pile being tied in Ghiordes knot. 

Bakrabadi Very soft and pale colored 
Indian jute. 

Baku Oriental hand knotted carpet, 
made of wool. 

Balanced The warp and weft threads 
are balanced when they are of equal 
thickness and of equal number in an 
inch. 

Balao Sort of raw cotton from Brazil. 

Balasse Stout, plain woven cotton fab- 
ric from Surat. 



Balassoi East Indian fabric, made of 
bast fibers of a tree. 

Balastei A gold tissue, made in Vienna 
and used for trimmings. 

Balbriggan Originally fine full fash- 
ioned hosiery and later knit under- 
wear made first in Ireland from un- 
bleached cotton without any nap. At 
the present all kinds of flat under- 
wear, knitted of Egyptian cotton or 
dyed to resemble it. 

Baldacs Rich gold brocaded silks im- 
ported in the Middle Ages from Bag- 
dad and Damascus, also made in 
Italy. 

Baldachin, Baudekin, Baldaquin, or Bod- 
kin Rich medieval silk fabrics, 
originally from Bagdad, made with 
silk warp and gold filling, often 
studded with precious stones; used 
for church vestments, state occa- 
sions, etc. Later they were made 
only of silk, dyed crimson. 

Bale A square or round package, into 
which the wool or ginned cotton 
fibers are compressed. They differ in 
size, weight and form. The Ameri- 
can cotton bale is square, 54 inches 
long, and 27 inches wide, the average 
weight being 500 pounds, is covered 
with bagging and fastened with ties. 
The Peruvian bale weighs about 200 
pounds. The average weight of the 
Egyptian bale is 700 pounds. See also 
"Bessonette" and "Lowry." 

Balicnong In the Philippines a fiber 
used for cordage. 

Baline Plain woven, coarse fabric, made 
of jute, hemp or cotton; used for 
bagging, stiffening for garments, or 
for upholstery. 

Baliziei Coarse, medium, strong leaf 
'fiber, yielded by the Heliconia 
in tropical America. 

Balk Back A fabric with a soft back, 
left unshorn. 

Ball Knitting cottons, silks, or wools are 
often made up in ball or egg shape. 

Ballanca Cloth made in Austria of 
black wool mixed with goat's hair. 

Ballanges French dress goods, similar 
to bellings (see) ; now obsolete. 

Balleta A woolen fabric made formerly 
in Turkey and dyed red. 

Balloon Fabrics Very strong, closely 
woven, fine and light fabrics, made of 
silk, cotton, etc., in plain weave in 
equal number of warps and wefts 
rubberized, or otherwise made im- 
permeable by cementing several 
thicknesses together; used for balloon 
covers and aeroplanes. 

Balloon Net Machine made net; used 
for lace foundation, similar to the 
net used on balloons. 

Ballymena A sort of Irish linen. 
Ballushar East Indian silk fabric. 

Balmoral 'Heavy and very strong wool- 
en fabric made in red, blue, and black 
stripes. 



BAL 



14 



BAR 



Balsa Silky, yellowish seed hair of the 
Bombax 'tree in Central America. 

Balzarine or Balzorine 1, French name 
for light calicoes and muslins printed 
with outremer blue; 2, French dress 
goods, made with grege or organzine 
warp and heavier woolen filling, 
forming cross ribs in alternating 
dark and light colors; often printed; 
obsolete. 

Bamia 1, variety of Egyptian cotton, 
having a light brown staple of infe- 
rior strength; 2, a strong, lustrous 
white stem fiber of good quality 
yielded by the wild okra in Sudan; 
used for ropes by the natives. 

Banaati 1, East Indian woolen falbric 
made with a dress face; 2, bleached 
cotton fabric from East India; obso- 
lete. 

Banana Fiber is obtained in India from 
one-year-old plants by steaming the 
unrolled stalk and scraping off the 
outer skin. The fibers are pounded 
(wrapped up in a cloth) and cleaned. 
They are very durable and said to be 
excellent for fabrics intended for 
tropical wear. 

Bananeiras Strong and fairly flexible 
fiber, yielded by the young leaf stalks 
of a palm in Brazil; used for cord- 
age. 

Banbhendi Same as Ran (see). 

Banbury Plush Woolen plush, made 
with cotton warp and wool pile used 
for upholstery in England. 

Bancal or Banker Tapestry of green or 
blue color in medieval England. 

Bancroft Commercial variety of cotton 
from Alabama and Georgia, the fiber 
measuring 20-25 millimeters, growing 
in medium large bolls, yielding 30-32 
per cent lint; it matures late. Also 
called Herlong. 

Band Work (Similar to filling, jours, 
modes (see all) ; used in needle laces 
to fill the centers with fancy open 
stitches. 

Bandage A narrow strip of cotton or 
linen fabric, plain and loosely woven; 
used by surgeons. 

Bandala Native name for the harder 
and stronger outer fiber of the Musa 
textilis, in the Philippine Islands; 
used for cordage. 

Bandana 1, printing producing light col- 
ored designs over a dark foundation 
by destroying the dyes through 
bleaching agents; 2, cotton fabrics 
having white or bright colored spots 
on a red or dark ground; used as 
handkerchiefs; 3, cloth made of the 
lustrous fibers of various East In- 
dian plants, having pale yellow pat- 
terns over a dark foundation. 

Banderoles Bolting cloth. 

Bandhor Rugs made in Asia Minor of 
wool and cotton; the very thick pile 
is tied in Ghiordes knot. 

Bandura-wel Very pliable cord made of 
the stem of the pitcher plant in Cey- 
lon. 

Bandy Striped cotton fabric in West 
Africa, made of waste cotton. 



Bangalore Hand woven woolen rug, 
made in India, with a knotted pile. 

Banig Mats made of the leaves of the 
buri -palm, the .pandang or a sedge, 
called tikug, by the natives of the 
Philippines. 

Bankukri Raw cotton grown in Raj- 
putana, India; the staple is long and 
silky. 

Banner Cloth In England a grade of 
plain woven strong cotton cloth; 
used for flags. Sometimes bunting is 
known under this name. 

Bannockburn Originally a Scotch 
tweed; a soft, slightly napped, 
twilled woolen fabric, made of chev- 
iot wool, having double-and-twist 
warp and single filling; used for 
coats, suits, etc. 

Banos Native name for fiber used for 
ropes and cords in the Philippines. 

Bantine Raw silk from Genoa. 

Bantis Cotton cloth in Sierra Leone. 

Banuacalao Native name for fiber used 
for ropes and cords in the Philip- 
pines. 

Baobab A large tree in Africa and in- 
dia, yielding very strong bast fibers; 
used for cord and bagging in Africa 
and for saddles in India. 

Baquiers Lowest grade of cotton yarn 
from Smyrna. 

Bar 1, the edging of the buttonhole with 
buttonhole stitches to prevent its 
being torn; 2, in needle laces 
the threads connecting the various 
solid parts of the lace, made of two 
or more strands and being either 
corded or covered with buttonhole 
stitches. Also called bride, coxcomb, 
pearl, le.sr, and tie (see all). Bars are 
also parts of pillow and macrame 
laces. 

Baracan, Bouracan, Berkan, or Perkan 
Closely woven heavy cloth used for 
furniture cover or drapery, made of 
doubled and hard twist worsted yarn 
warp and three or six -ply, hard twist 
worsted filling and finished with 
moire effect. It has warp ribs. 

Baracan Grosgrain French term for 
baracan (see), with a heavier weft 
than warp. 

Baracanee 'French term for warp 
ribbed, plain colored fabrics. 

Baracani Fabric made of mohair in 
Italy during the Middle Ages. 

Baras Coarse bagging made in Bo- 
hemia. 

Barathea Dress goods of silk warp and 
worsted filling with a diaper-like or 
broken warp rib effect. Also made 
with cotton warp and silk filling in 
small brocaded spots, diagonal 
stripes, etc. In England it is made 
with silk warp and worsted filling, in 
an eleven leaf, broken weft rib, 
which hides the warp entirely, for 
cheaper grades cotton warn is used. 

Barawazi Cotton cloth woven with dark 
blue, yellow and red checks, the bor- 
der is in checks of red, black and yel- 
low; used in East Africa. 



BAR 



15 



BAS 



Barbadoes West Indian raw cotton. 

Barcan Obsolete Holland camlet made 
with a three-ply warp composed of one 
strand of silk and two strands of 
goat hair, and three or more ply of 
angora wool yarn as filling, forming 
cross ribs. 

Barcelona Raw cotton from Colombia. 
Barcelona Handkerchiefs Originally made 
in Spain, now in England. They are 
of fine twilled silk in plain colors, 
checks and fancy patterns. 

Barcelona Lace Stitch in old needle- 
point, producing checkerboard effects 
with buttonhole stitches. 

Barchent A stout, twilled cotton fabric, 
usually napped on the back, bleached, 
dyed or printed. Used in Germany, 
Turkey and Austria for heavy under- 
wear, lining and also cheap dresses. 

Barclay A Highland tartan, composed of 
alternate blue and green stripes and 
crossed by red lines. 

Bareface Fabrics without any nap. 

Barege 1, originally a light, French 
homespun, dyed in the yarn or print- 
ed, made of fine, hard twist worsted 
warp and filling, producing a crepe- 
like effect. Later made with silk or 
cotton warp. It is a sheer fabric; used 
for dresses, etc. 2, now a lightweight 
dress goods woven like gauze, with 
fine silk warp and worsted filling; 
called also woolen gauze and woolen 
grenadine. 3, shawl made in France 
of organzine warp and worsted filling. 

Barege Yarn .Fine, hand-spun yarn; used 
for very fine gauze or veils. 

Barfoul A cotton fabric in the West 
African trade; used for garments. 

Bargarran Thread Hand-spun, bleached 
linen thread, made in the 18th century 
in Bargarran, Renfrewshire, by Lady 
Bargarran and her daughters. 

Barhak A stout East Indian fabric made 
of camel hair. 

Barhana Lowest grade of Smyrna rug; 
made in Ushak. 

Bariga An East Indian silk fabric, for- 
merly exported to Holland; now ob- 
solete. 

Barinas Native name for fiber used for 
ropes and cords in the Philippines. 

Barleycorn Name for a small, reversed 
weave or for a weave similar to the 
mat weave. 

Barmen Lace Braid made of odd number 
of yarns. 

Barnes A commercial variety of late- 
maturing American cotton of medium 
long staple. 

Barnett A commercial variety of cotton 
from Alabama; the medium late ma- 
turing staple measures 23-25 milli- 
meters, forming medium size bolls, 
yielding 30-32 per cent lint. 

Barnsley Crash Narrow crash used for 
towels. 

Barnsley Linen Fine gray or bleached 
linen cloth; used for embroidery. 

Barn-tine Levant silk; used for trame 
and braids. 



Baroy Native name for fiber used for 
ropes and cords in the Philippines. 

Barpours Fine French dress goods and 
men's suiting; made of organzine 
warp and very fine wool filling in 
serge or brocaded weave; usually dyed 
black, and worn for mourning. 

Barracan Coarse, thick, strong cloth, 
somewhat resembling camlet; used as 
coating and cloaking; now made with 
silk and wool warp and angora or 
other goat hair weft, forming warp 
ribs. See Baracan. 

Barrage Figured table linen, made in 
France, in three qualities. 

Barragon or Moleskin Sort of strong cot- 
ton fustian of coarse quality, twilled 
and shorn; used for men's working 
clothes. 

Barragones In South America a closely 
woven twilled cotton trousering with 
narrow stripes; made in black or 
bleached. 

Barrangan Woolen cloth used in the 
Middle Ages. 

Barras Coarse, plain woven linen; used 
for bags. 

Barratee Silk cloth, being a variety of 
the barathea. 

Barre -French for fabrics having bars or 
stripes running weftwise. 

Barred Witch Stitch Same as plaited 
stitch. 

Barrigudo Short, silky fiber, yielded by 
the pod of the Bombax ventricosa, in 
Brazil; used for stuffing. 

Barroches Fine, unbleached East Indian 
cotton cloth; sort of bafta. 

Barry A flaw in the fabric, showing bars 
in the direction of the warp or the 
weft. 

Barutine Inferior silk fabric, made in 
Persia. 

Basane French twilled woolen fabric, 
made with a shaggy face. 

Bashofu Very light and white fabric, 
woven from the leaf fibers of the 
banana tree in Japan; used for sum- 
mer undershirts. 

Basic Colors Artificial dyestuffs obtained 
from the coal tar, yielding brilliant 
colors, quite fast to washing, but fugi- 
tive in light. They are all derived 
from substituted ammonia and are 
neutralized by acids, forming salts; 
they are mostly used for cotton. 

Basin 1, a white twilled cotton cloth, sim- 
ilar to dimity, made with or without 
narrow stripes, sometimes napped on 
one side; used for vests; 2, a French 
fabric, originated in the 16th century, 
made of pure or cotton mixed linen, or 
hemp warp and cotton filling in a 
twill weave. 

Basin Royal White striped, fine ticking, 
made of pure linen. 

Basine Silk fabric, made with two sets 
of fine warps, floating over every two 
fillings and interlaced with the third. 

Basinetto Waste silk, obtained from the 
hard inner skin of the cocoon, which 
was left over after the reeling. 



BAS 



16 



BAU 



Basket Braid A soutache braid, made 
with five threads, each thread passing 
alternately under and over two 
threads. 

Basket Cloth or Connaught Cotton cloth, 
similar to the Aida canvas (see); used 
as foundation for embroidery. 

Basket Lace 'Medieval English lace of un- 
known make. 

Basket Stitch In embroidery, similar to 
couching; produced by laying cords 
upon the foundation and stitching 
them over to imitate the construction 
of the basket. 

Basket Weave Made by crossing two or 
more warps and fillings each time; 
same as hopsack weave. 

Basmas Closely woven fine linen or cot- 
ton cloth, in Turkey. 

Bass Fiber Very strong, straight, coarse 
and smooth fiber, yielded by the 
raphia in West Africa; used for 
brushes. 

Basse Lisse French term for low or hori- 
zontal warp in tapestry work. 

Bassinas, also Pelettes and Tetelettes 
The interior skin of the cocoon left 
after the reeling; used for floret or 
waste silk. 

Bassine Trade name for the harsh and 
wiry leaf fiber yielded by the Palmyra 
palm of India; used for brushes. 

Bassines French term for taffeta rib- 
bons. 

Bast Long, strong fiber contained be- 
tween the outer bark and the inner 
woody core of various plants and 
trees, as' the jute, hemp, flax, ramie, 
linden, etc. 

Bastancini Fine, sheer and bleached 
linen, finished with stiffener and 
bluing. 

Bastard 1, general term for substitute; 
2, a woolen fabric made in England 
during the reign of Richard III. 

Bastard Aloe Strong, leaf fiber yielded by 

the Aloe vivipara in Northwestern 

India; used for ropes. 
Bastard Velvet Is placed between the 

velvet and plush as to fineness and 

length of pile. 

Basting Cotton Cotton thread, used for 
'basting; is similar to sewing cotton 
except that it is weaker and is not 
finished as smoothly. 

Basto East Indian name for heavily sized' 
bleached cotton shirting or bleached 
long cloth, imported from England; 
used for shirts, caps, bed covers, etc. 

Basuto A commercial grade of South 
African mohair. 

Bataloni Of hemp warp and cotton filling, 
usually dyed light blue; known in the 
Levant trade. , 

Batanores -Linen fabric imported in 
Egypt; used for garments, etc. 

Batarde 1, black wool exported through 
Aleppo; substitute for vicuna wool; 
2, solid colored French serge made 
with 10 warps and five picks in a 
repeat. 



Batavia 1, French term for a twill weave 
forming diagonals; 2, serge made at 
least with four harnesses. 

Batchpath Commercial term for imma- 
ture jute fiber from India. 

Bates Two commercial varieties of cot- 
ton from South Carolina, the staple 
measuring 24-27 millimeters and 
yielding about 33 per cent lint. 

Bath Brussels Lace Name given to the 
Devonshire lace (see) in the 18th 
century. 

Bath Coating Light baize of great width 
and long nap, comes in white or col- 
ored; used for petticoats, bath robes, 
overcoats, etc. 

Batik Javanese process of resist dyeing 
cotton, consisting of pouring molten 
wax over the proposed patterns, then 
dye the cloth, after which the wax is 
removed. The waxed patterns will not 
take the dye. Usually blue, brown 
and orange colors are used. 

Batiste or Cambric 1, the finest grade of 
linen, woven plain in the gray, then 
bleached; there are several grades as 
the batiste claire, which is very light 
and loosely woven, the batiste demi- 
claire is of stronger yarn and closer 
texture; the batiste hollandee is close- 
ly woven with a body; the batiste 
linen is still stronger; the Scotch 
batiste is a fine, printed cotton dress 
'goods. 2, white or colored cotton mus- 
lin, finished with a heavy size; used 
for summer dresses, linings, etc. 

Batiste Embroidery Formerly made over 
batiste in imitation of laces. 

Batnas Three-colored calico, in India. 

Baton Rompu French, plain serge, made 
with eight warps and four picks in a 
repeat. 

Batswing Thick, coarse cloth, woven in 
gray into the shape of a seamless pet- 
ticoat. 

Battenberg Braid Cotton or linen tape 
with picot edge; used for laces and 
curtains. 

Battenberg Lace Patterns formed with 
narrow tape, jointed together with va- 
rious brides. 

Batting Slightly matted layers of raw 
cotton or wool; used for stuffing. 

Battlemented In embroidery, a pattern 
similar to the battlement of the old 
fortresses. 

Batuz 1, needlework consisting of sewing 
upon silk as a part of the pattern to 
be made, very thin plates of gold or 
silver, these plates often being ham- 
mered into low relief, now obsolete; 
2, medieval French silk fabrics, orna- 
mented with hammered gold leaves. 

Baudekin See Baldachin. 

Bauge A stout, thick, twilled fabric, sim- 
ilar to droguet. made of coarse wool 
in southern France. 

Bauhinia Bast fiber of various East 
Indian trees; dark reddish brown, very 
strong; used for ropes, nets and coarse 
cloth 



BAU 



17 



BED 



Baupers 17th century English worsted 
fabric. 

Bave The natural silk fiber as it is pro- 
duced by the silkworm; it contains 
two single filaments, called brins, en- 
cased in natural gum or sericin. 

Bavella Waste or floret silk. 

Bay, Bayes 1, from the 16th to 18th 
centuries, a fabric in England made 
of worsted warp and woolen filling, 
often mixed with silk, made for 
clothes by religious societies; 2, a 
loosely woven, plain woolen cloth, 
similar to a coarse flannel, naoped on 
one side and made usually in white, 
black, red or green; it is called baigue 
in France. See also boy. 

Bay State Shawl A twilled woolen shawl 
having plaid patterns; made in 
Masschusetts in the 19th century. 

Bayadere 1, alternate bright colored 
stripes running woftwise in the fab- 
ric, usually silk; 2, French dress 
goods of silk warp and cotton filling, 
with weft stripes, woven plain. 

Bayes Plain and loosely woven wool fab- 
ric, napped on one side, made in Eng- 
land; obsolete. See Bay. 

Bayeta 1, coarse, homespun woolen, 
usually dyed in the piece in red, blue 
or green, and napped; used for 
ponchos, etc., by the natives of Peru 
and Bolivia. 2, fulled woolen fabric, 
usually black, navy or dark green; 
used for skirts in Colombia. 3, scar- 
let woolen blamket, woven by the 
Navajo Indians, of single strand wool 
obtained from baize by unraveling it; 
there is a nap on the blanket. 

Bayeta de Cien Hilos Wool flannel in the 
Latin American markets, having a 
very long nap and twill weave; the 
wide selvage used to have four blue 
stripes on white foundation. 

Bayeta de Faxuela Coarse woolen baize 
in Peru, dyed red, blue and green; 
used for ponchos, etc. 

Bayeta de Pellon Coarse wool flannel 
woven like a serge, having a very 
long nap; used in Latin America and 
China for bed covers, etc. 

Bayetones Ingleses Latin American 
name for English woolen coatings. 

Bayette or Baguette White or black, 
loosely woven, plain, woolen fabric, 
similar to a coarse flannel, napped 
on one side; made in France, Eng- 
land, etc. In France also called 
baigue. See also Bay. 

Bayeux Lace Closely resembles the 
Chantilly (see). In the 18th centurv 
first silk laces were made here in ecru 
and then in white. 

Bayeux Tapestry A piece of linen, 214 
feet long and 20 inches wide, contain 
ing in 72 groups the representation in 
colored wool embroidery of the events 
of the Norman invasion of England. 
Presumably embroidered by Matilda, 
wife of William the Conqueror. It 
was discovered in Bayeux in 1728. 



Bayko A yarn or thread having a core 
impregnated with a smooth metallic 
coating in any color; used for weav- 
ing, knitting, embroidery, etc. 

Bayutapaux In the African trade, a 
coarse cotton cloth with blue and 
white or red and white stripes. 

Bays Coarse English worsted and woolen 
fabric worn by the peasants in Queen 
Elizabeth's time. See Bay. 

Bazac Evenly spun, fine, bleached cotton 
yarn from Palestine. 

Beach Cloth Very light fabric, made 
usually with cotton warp and mohair 
filling in colors and designs; used for 
men's wear in summer. 

Bead In Irish mill parlance, flaw in flax 
yarn, caused by hard fibers which 
could not be drawn out. 

Bead Yarn In England, yarn ornament- 
ed with small drops of gelatine or 
beads. 

Beading 1, on pillow lace, a simple head- 
ing; 2, narrow, machine-made inser- 
tions, made with openwork, to draw 
or bead a ribbon through or for trim- 
ming. 

Bear Grass Coarse and very strong fiber, 
yielded by the Yucca fllamentosa; 
used for twine and cordage. 

Bearskin A heavy, thick, twilled woolen 
overcoating with a thick, shaggy face 
nap. 

Beatrice A weft twill weave, made 4-1. 

Beau Ideal Narrow strips of machine- 
made imitation of English embroid- 
ery. 

Beaujeu .French hemp canvas, about 27 
inches wide; used for furniture cover. 

Beaujolais Cloth of cotton and linen, 
made in France. 

Beaufort Stout hemp sailcloth, made in 
France. 

Beaupers A woolen fabric of unknown 
structure, mentioned in 17th Century 
English writings. 

Beaver 1, heavy woolen overcoating, wov- 
en with hard spun warp and two sets 
of filling. The face is napped and 
laid down and closely shorn, the back 
ie napped; 2, silk plush for hats with 
pressed down pile; 3, heavy double 
faced cotton cloth, made with fine, 
hard twist warp and coarse slack twist 
filling; the cloth is napped strongly 
on both sides, dented lengthwise. Is 
often printed. 

Beaver Shawl Reversible twilled woolen 
shawl, made stout and heavy. 

Beaverteen A lighter grade of moleskin 
(see); it is dyed in the piece or .print- 
ed to resemble worsted and napped 
on the back; used for men's wear. 

Bebe iSee baby ribbon. 

Beby Cotton scarfs, usually dyed blue, 
made in Syria. 

Bed iLong and usually very wide medie- 
val English worsteds, made with four 
harness twill. 



BED 



18 



BEL 



Bed Lace Sort of binding in England, 
made of white cotton, twilled or fig- 
ured, employed for binding dimities. 
Used also for furniture, when it is 
printed. 

Bed of Worsted Obsolete English wors- 
ted, similar to say; used for curtains, 
hangings, etc. 

Bedford Cloth Drab colored ribbed cloth 
of great strength. It is a kind of rus- 
sel cord (see), of all wool; used as 
dress goods. 

Bedford Cord Stout, heavy cotton or 
woolen fabric woven with raised cord 
or ridge effect running warp wise, 
often raised with a wadding warp. The 
warp is single or ply yarn while the 
filling is usually single yarn. The fab- 
ric is similar in appearance to pique; 
used for dresses, skirts, sporting cos- 
tumes, etc. It is dyed in the piece. 

Bedfordshire Lace 'English bobbin lace, 
introduced in the 17th Century. It is 
similar to the L/ille lace (see) made 
with reseau ground and wavy, geomet- 
rical patterns. 

Bedstout Striped or solid colored stout 
cotton, woven in four-leaved twill. 
Called also inlet. 

Beer An arbitrary but customary number 
of threads (in Leeds 38, in Bradford 
40 threads), which is taken in Eng- 
land as unit to express the war,p ends 
of a fabric. 

Beetling A finishing process for cotton 
and linen fabrics, consisting of ham- 
mering the fabric wound around an 
iron cylinder, producing a linen finish. 

Begasse Trade term for the short, waste 
fibers out away from the sisal hemp 
during the scraping. 

Beggars' Lace Sort of braid lace, a 
species of coarse torchon and other 
bobbin laces, made at Gueuse, France; 
now obsolete. 

Beggars' Velvet, also Velours de Gueux 
A Lyons velvet of linen warp and 
cotton filling and pile. 

Beguin Coarse, stout fabric, made of nat- 
ural colored wool; used for garments 
by religious orders. 

Behaai Sort of East Indian cotton mus- 
lin. 

Bei bazar 'Second grade of the goat hair 
from Asia Minor. 

Beige 1, natural color, as of wool; 2, 
French serge, woven in Poitou, 
France; of natural black, brown or 
gray wool; 3, worsted or cotton dress 
goods, made in twill or plain weave 
in a mottled gray effect which is pro- 
duced either by the ply yarns being 
spun of black and white or gray and 
white strands, or by printing the yarn 
in the sliver. 

Beige Damas Natural colored thin wors- 
ted dress goods made with Jacquard 
figures. 

Beige Yarn Spun of a mixture of vari- 
ous natural colored wool. 

Beilik A coarse Turkish woolen or cotton 
scarf. 



Bejuco Tough, very dark colored and 

coarse fiber, obtained from the bark 

of a creeper in South America; used 

for heavy cordage. 
Beldia Very heavy shrinking, coarse 

wool of Morocco. 
Beledin 1, sort of raw silk from the 

Levant; 2, inferior grade of cotton 

yarn from the Levant. 
Belelac or Belelais Sort of East Indian 

silk taffeta. 

Belesmes Coarse hemp canvas, made in 
'France, used as ticking. 

Belgamire 'Linen with flower patterns of 
silk, formerly made at Rouen. 

Belgian Laces Include Antwerp, Brus- 
sels, Malines and Valencienne laces, 
all pillow, except the modern Brus- 
sels pointgaze. At the present the 
grounds are machine made and the 
patterns or twigs on the pillow. 

Belgian Tapestry English jute drapery 
with an admixture of linen. 

Belgian Ticking Stout linen and cotton 
fabric with satin face. Used for up- 
holstery and bedding. 

Belgrade Braid Open work flat braid, 
made of cotton yarn, sized and glazed 
to imitate straw braid; used for mil- 
linery. 

Belgravian Embroidery Patterns of 
leaves are traced on a broad braid, 
filled in with bugles sewn with floss 
silk, then the braid ie cut around the 
edges of the leaves. 

Bel inge Stout, twilled (French suiting, 
made with linen warp and woolen 
.filling. 

Bell -Isles 'Eighteenth century woolen 
fabric in England. 

Bellacosa JBrocaded silk cloth, interwoven 
with gold and silver threads, made in 
imitation of the old Venetian bro- 
cades. 

Bellchester Sort of English velvet. 

Belle Creole <A commercial variety of 
American cotton, having a long, 
strong, soft and silky staple of high 
percentage of yield. 

Sellings English dress goods of flax or 
hemp warp and woolen filling, or made 
entirely of wool. 

Belting 1, narrow, very stout warp-face 
fabric, woven plain or in satin weave, 
made of cotton or hemp, also hair, 
used at the waistline in skirts, waists 
and other garments; it comes usually 
black, white or gray; 2, a narrow elas- 
tic fabric, made of cotton, wool or 
silk, often ornamented with woven fig- 
ures, used for dress belts; 3, a very 
heavy and strong fabric of cotton, 
hemp or linen, used for power trans- 
mission. 

Beluchistan 'Heavy rugs made of wool, 
goat's and camel's hair, the long pile 
is tied in Senna knot. The design con- 
sists of geometrical figures, angular 
hooks, etc., in rich, dull reds, browns, 
blues mixed with a little white. 

Belwarp .English worsteds with cork- 
screw patterns. 



BEL 



19 



BIA 



Belzamire See Belgamire. 

Bembergizing A German process for de- 
veloping a high lustre on wool. The 
worsted yarn is treated in a bath of 
bisulphate of soda at a high tempera- 
ture under mechanical tension to pre- 
vent shrinking. The yarn is then boiled 
for an hour in a weak mineral acid 
under relaxing tension and rinsed in 
water. It produces a high lustre and 
a considerable elongation of the yarn, 
said to be one-third. 

Ben Smith A commercial variety of cot- 
ton from Louisiana; the staple, ma- 
turing in medium time, measures 23- 
26 millimeters, forming medium size 
bolls; the yield of lint is about 33 per 
cent. 

Benares 'Sort of East Indian silver tis- 
sue. 

Benares Work Embroidery in colored 
silk and gold and silver on velvet 
ground. 

Bender General trade name for cotton 
grown along the Mississippi, Arkansas 
and the White rivers; the staple has 
a good body, measuring from 1% to 
1 3-16 inches in length. 

Bend era Native East African name for 
plain woven or twilled cotton fabrics, 
dyed deep red. Used for flags. 

Bengal 1, East Indian cotton having a 
strong, harsh staple of dull golden 
color; is very dirty; 2, thin cloth of 
silk and hair, originally from B., India. 

Bengal Linen A lustrous East Indian 
cloth, woven from the fibers of the 
bolls of a native plant. 

Bengal Stripes Stout cotton fabric hav- 
ing alternate narrow, yarn-dyed blue 
and white warp stripes; used for 
dresses, aprons, etc. Also made of 
cotton and wool. 

Bengaline Lightweight dress goods, 
woven with silk warp and heavier 
cotton or woolen filling, forming col- 
ored cross ribs heavier than in poplin. 
Sometimes two picks are in the same 
shed. Often also printed. The 
cheaper grades are all cotton. 

Berampaat Plain woven, coarse cotton 
cloth, made in Surat; now obsolete. 

Berbiche Cotton Trade name for 
Brazilian cotton. 

Berdelik Turkish name far Oriental rugs 
intended as wall hangings or cur- 
tains. They are generally of silk, 
light in weight and have delicate 
colors. 

Bergamo, Bergamot or Bergamee All- 
wool rugs made in Asia Minor; warp 
and weft are usually dyed; the 
medium long pile is tied in Ghiordes 
knots. The designs are floral or large 
geometrical figures; orange and reds 
are often used. The ends are finished 
with a red selvage and short fringe. 
The coarser grades are made with 
hemp or linen warp and cotton pile. 

Berlin Canvas 'Every two threads in the 
warp and filling are drawn together, 
thus forming squares and leaving 
open spaces for the wool yarn with 
which it is embroidered. 



Berlin Wool Yarn for knitting and em- 
broidery on open or coarse canvas, 
made of fine merino wool in single 
and double yarn. 

Berlin Work Embroidery in wool over 
open canvas or perforated Berlin pat- 
terns with flower, bird or landscape 
designs. Originally cross, cushion 
tapestry satin and tent stitches were 
used. 

Berluche See Breluche. 

Berne Embroidery In white or gold 
beads or silver and gold wire upon 
black velvet in small, detached sprays 
of conventional flowers and leaves. 

Berupate See Berampaat. 

Besooty Sort of East Indian cotton mus- 
lin; now obsolete. 

Bessonette Improved system of baling 
cotton. The ginned fibers are pressed 
into a continuous sheet and wound 
around a core, producing a cylindrical 
bale of 22 inches diameter and 34 or 
48 inches long. The weight of the 
bales is 275 and 425 pounds, accord- 
ing to the length. No ties are used, 
the bale being covered with bagging. 

Betinada Strong and durable bast fiber 
yielded by the Melochia arborea in 
the Andaman Islands; used for fish- 
ing nets. 

Bethilles East Indian, loosely woven cot- 
ton cloth, with white stripes or white 
window plaids. See Allegias. 

Bet i lies It is similar to an open texture 
Swiss muslin; used for waists, etc., 
in the Philippines. They come plain, 
striped, checked or figured. 

Bezane In France, various bleached, 
striped or dyed Bengal cottons and 
calicoes. 

Bezetta See Nacarat 2. 

Bhabui Silky leaf fiber yielded by th 
cotton grass in India; used for ropes, 
twine and cordage. 

Bhangulpore East Indian raw cotton. 

Bhatial Strong, coarse Indian jute; used 
for ropes. 

Bhavalpui Striped or checked silks made 
in East India. 

Bhownuggar East Indian cotton having 
a medium long, white staple, often 
dirty. 

Biambonnees East Indian cloth, made 
wholly of bast fibers and dyed dark 
brown or dark yellow. 

Biaritz A light, corded, woolen dress 
goods, made in France; obsolete. 

Biarritz Fantasia A mercerized, dobby, 
fine cotton cheviot in Spain; export- 
ed to the Philippines. 

Bias White cotton goods in the Bokhara 
and Siberian trade. 

Biasse Sort of raw silk of Levant. 

Biaz Lightweight, white, glossy cotton 
cloth of Russian origin; used for 
summer garments. It is more or less 
starched, heavily pressed and beetled, 
often mercerized. Comes in narrow 
widths. 



BIA 



20 



BLA 



Biaza Sort of camlet, made of camel's 
hair by the Astrakhan Tartars. 

Bibeli Silk pillow lace, made in Smyrna. 

Biboci Native Bolivian name for the 
fibrous bark of the couratari tree; 
used for blankets, clothing, etc. 

Biege A loosely woven dress goods, orig- 
inally of worsted yarn, but now also 
made of cotton. It is woven in two- 
and-two twill and is either piece dyed 
or printed, or the better grades woven 
of mixture yarns. 

Bielefeld Very good quality of linen 
made in B., Germany. 

Big Boll A commercial variety of cotton 
from California, the staple, measuring 
25-28 millimeters, forms large bolls; 
the yield of lint is 34-35 per cent. 

Bijar Rugs Heavy, all-wool Persian 
rugs, the thick pile being tied in 
Ghiordes knots. Primary reds, blues, 
etc., are most used in medallion, scroll 
and floral designs. 

Bikasab Fabric made of mixture of cot- 
ton and silk in Central Asia, and 
beetled in finishing. It has narrow 
stripes. 

Bilagai Navajo blankets woven with 
narrow red and white cross stripes 
and a blue border. Formerly used 
as shawls by the native women; now 
obsolete. 

Bilatu East Indian cotton having a 
coarse, weak and brittle staple. 

Billiard Cloth Thick, stout and wide 
fabric, made of fine merino spun on 
the woolen principle and felted in the 
finishing. It is dyed green in the 
piece. Woven in a three-harness 
twill. 

Bimlipatam Jute Strong fiber yielded by 
a species of hemp, the hibiscus can- 
nabinus, in India; used as jute sub- 
stitute; also called Bombay hemp. 

Bin Bagging Plain woven, coarse jute 
cloth, dyed yellowish brown to imitate 
hemp. 

Binche Lace Belgian bobbing lace, origi- 
nally very similar to the Valenciennes 
(see), consisting of mesh patterns 
over spider and rosette ground. The 
modern b. lace is made of flat bobbin 
sprigs applied to machine net founda- 
tion. 

Bindelli Gold, silver or silk galloons 
made in Milan. 

Binder Pick^A filling in pile fabrics, 
serving to hold the pile in place. 

Binders Fibers which connect the staple 
so as to form a fleece. 

Binding 1, plain woven cotton muslin, 
heavily starched and embossed; used 
for binding books; 2, the process of 
tacking the two separate fabrics in 
the double cloth together in the loom; 

3, any thread which is woven into 
a double or triple cloth in order to 
hold the various layers together; 

4, solid colored tape or braid, used to 
bind the edges of garments. 

Bingo- i Fine grade of Japanese mat 
rush; used also for lamp wicks. 

Bionde Italian blond lace (see). 



Birdseye Small, diamond pattern with a 
dot in the center. 

Birdseye Diamond An 18th century pure 
worsted fabric, in England. 

Birdseye Diaper Called so after its small 
design; made in linen or cotton. 

Birdsnest Mat Knitted wool mat with 
combed-out napped surface. 

Biredshend Persian knotted carpet of 
very close texture, often made with 
motifs of palm leaves and shawl de- 
signs. 

Biretz 'Double-faced woolen fabric, hav- 
ing ribs on one side and cashmere 
twilled on the reverse. 

Birrus See Burel. 

Bisette 1, French term for an em- 
broidered braid; 2, narrow and coarse 
white linen pillow lace made by the 
peasants in Seine et Oise, France; 
originated in the 17th century. 

Bishop's Lawn A very light, fine, plain 
woven cotton dress goods, given a 
bluish starch finish. Originated in 
England, where it is made usually 32 
inches wide, weighing five or six 
ounces a yard; used by the clergy. 

Bislint Very narrow ribbon made in 
Westphalia. 

Bisonne A French woolen fabric, made of 
natural gray wool used for lining 
garments. 

Bissonata Coarse woolen cloth, dyed 
black or brown, made in France for 
clerical garments. 

Bissuti See Amamee. 

Bitlis Oriental wool carpet made in B, 
Asiatic Turkey (Anatolia). 

Bitre Description of linen of Brabant. 

Bivouac Woolen dress goods, made with 
nub yarn in mixture effect. 

Black Fiber (Commercial name for a dark, 
smooth and glossy fiber, obtained from 
the leaves of a species of the Car- 
yota palm in Ceylon. It is similar 
to and a substitute for horsehair. 

Black Faced A medium long and usually 
kempy lustrous wool, yielded by the 
sheep of the same name in Scotland; 
used for homespuns, carpets. 

Black Seed Commercial term for vari- 
ous American cottons with a smooth 
black seed. 

Black Superfine -Commercial term for the 
finest grade of -black woolen suiting 
formerly made in West of England; 
fulled napped, shorn and finished with 
a eoft, lustrous face; used for dress 
suits. 

Black Thread In flax spinning yarn 
spoiled by oil. 

Black Watch A very dark tartan worn 
by the Forty-second Royal Highland 
Regiment, composed as follows: Very 
dark green bar, split in the middle by 
a group of narrow black, navy and 
black lines; 'black stripe, half the 
width of the green bar; narrow blue 
stripe, narrow black stripe, narrow 
blue stripe, narrow black stripe; *dark 
blue stripe, half of the green in width; 
repeat group described between the 
two * in reversed order. 



BLA 



21 



BLY 



Blackjack Staple Trade term for cotton 
staple containing large pieces of 
leaves. 

Blanc In the 'French dry goods trade 
everything which is bleached, irre- 
spective of material. 

Blancards French linen made in Rouen 
of half bleached flax yarn. 

Blandford Lace Fine English pillow lace 
of the 18th Century; made in B. 

Blanguin Plain woven, bleached cotton 
sheeting in Cuba. 

Blanket 1, a thick and heavily napped, 
twilled woolen fabric, often with an 
admixture of cotton; used for bed 
covers; horse blankets are very heavy 
and felted. iBlankets are used by un- 
civilized tribes as clothing. See Nava- 
jo; 2, name for the 2-2 twill and also 
an eight-harness satin weave; 3, 
weave room term indicating a short 
leng-th of a fabric showing one or a 
number of ranges of patterns made in 
a variety of colors. 

Blanket Stitch A fancy buttonhole stitch 
used as castover on the edges of the 
applique patterns. 

Blaquets Stout heavy, milled woolen fab- 
ric; used on the cylinders of the 
printing machines. 

Blarney 1, fine Irish tweed suiting; 2, 
Irish woolen knitting yarn, heavier 
and harder than the Connaught. 

Blassas 'Inferior Spanish raw wool. 

Blatta, Blatthin Medieval silk fabric 
dyed .purple and interwoven with gold. 

Bleaching The process of destroying the 
natural coloring matter in textiles and 
rendering them white, either by ex- 
posing them to the sun, stretched on 
a lawn and subjected to repeated wet- 
ting, or by treating the textiles with 
chlorin, sulphuric acid or other chem- 
icals. 

Bleaching Powder Used very extensively 
in weak solution for bleaching vegeta- 
ble fibers (only). Strong solution will 
form oxycellulose on cotton and turn 
linen yellow. Bleaching powder will 
give a lustrous or crinkled finish to 
animal fibers after a brief treatment 
but will rot them if treated too long. 
Also called chlorine. 

Bleeding Running color in the fabric or 
yarn. 

BlendingProcess of mixing various fibers 
together, -producing mixtures in colors 
or qualities. The different fibers are 
placed in thin layers on top of each 
other, taking care that no particular 
fiber is given prominence. The length 
of the fibers ie a very important mat- 
ter and short fibers are usually best 
adapted for blending. 
Bley Irish term for unbleached beetled 

linen. 

Blicourt Fine French serge made in nar- 
row widths of fine wool; used for lin- 
ing garments; obsolete. 

Blind Chintz Plain woven printed and 
calendered cottons, made in various 
colors and designs, mainly in stripes, 
and resembling Venetian blinds. 



Blind Cord Hade of linen, cotton or jute; 

used for blinds. 

Blind Ticking Stout twilled material, 
combination of linen and cotton in all 
colors and stripes. 

Blind Twill Trade name in England for 
a twill showing only indistinctly. 

Bliss Tweed Fine English woolen, similar 
to whipcord; used for liveries, etc. 

Blister Cloth Usually a double fabric, 
woven to produce blister effects. 

Blister Effect Novelty silk dress soods 
with Jacquard figures on crepe foun- 
dation; the crepe shrinks in the fin- 
ish, .producing blisters in the figures. 

Blodbende 'Medieval English name for 
narrow silk ribbon, worn tied around 
the arm after bleeding. 

Blondes Bobbin or needle point laces 
made originally of natural yellow silk 
in the l'8th Century, later also of black 
or colored silk. Originally called 
blondes ecrus or Nankings, whence 
the silk came. Blondes de fantaisie 
had machine made silk net ground 
with the design darned into. Blondes 
en persil with small parsley leaves 
strewn over the ground. Blondes des 
application have bobbin or needle 
point sprigs appliqued over machine 
made ground. Fausse blondes are silk 
tulles embellished with floss silk in 
various stitches. 

Blonde de Fil Sometimes applied to mig- 
nonette lace (see). 

Blondes en Persil 'See Blondes. 

Blond Quilling Resembles bobbin quilling 
but made of silk, is highly sized and 
finished; used for frills, ruffles. 

Blondines 18th Century woolen fabric in 
England. 

Blood Denotes the fineness of the wool as 
compared with pure merino, which is 
called full blood. 

Bloom The glossy finish imparted to cer- 
tain woolen fabrics in the calender- 
ing. 

B| ue .English and crossbred wool, taken 
from the best part of the average lus- 
ter fleece; spins to 36s. 

Blue Bafts 'Coarse muslin made in Man- 
chester for the African trade for 
wearing apparel. 

Blue East Indian Linen^Sort of bafta 
(see). 

Blue Flax Trade term for flax from 
Bruges, Malines, Ypres, Lokeren, 
Ghent and other places in Belgium; 
it is steeped in still water and has 
a dark color. 

Blue Mottle Light and sheer narrow cot- 
ton fabric made in England; it has 
a mottled blue effect. 

Bluette Plain woven cotton fabric, dyed 
blue. 

Blumly Linen Swiss twill linen with 
printed ground, leaving out white, 
blue or red flowers. 

Blunk In England a stout cotton or linen 
fabric made to be printed in colors. 

Blyat, Bleaunt or Pliat Rich silk dress 
goods of the Middle Ages. 



BOA 



22 



BOM 



Boardy 'Wool fabrics which have a hard, 
board-like feel, said to be caused by 
being dyed in the grease. 

Bob 1, a commercial variety of American 
cotton, the early ripening staple meas- 
uring 25-28 millimeters, forming me- 
dium size bolls; the yield of lint is 
30-32 per cent. Also called Ozier; 
2, in pillow and needle laces the orna- 
ment connecting the bars between the 
patterns. Identical with the crescent 
crown, spine or thorn. 

Bobbin A cotton cord employed in 
dressmaking for making a ribbed edge 
by enclosing it in a strip of the ma- 
terial. 

Bobbin Fining Trade term for machine 
made laces similar to the shadow lace, 
usually with a heavy thread outlining 
the pattern. 

Bobbin Lace Lace made with bobbins on 
a pillow over which the pricked pat- 
tern is stretched. Also called bone 
lace and pillow lace. 

Bobbinnet iMachine-made, hexagonal net, 
used for quillings, trimmings, etc. 

Bobbin Quilling >Plain cotton net used 
for frills. 

Bobbin Tape 'Made in cotton and in linen, 

both round and flat. 
Bocasine A plain woven, very firm linen 

fabric, given a high finish; obsolete. 
Boccadillos In the Spanish and South 

American trade a thin, bleached and 

sized linen, used for shirts, etc. 
Boccage A damaek table linen, made in 

Calvados, France. 
Boccassini 'Fine, muslin-like, bleached 

cotton cloth, made in the southern 

Balkan States. 
Booking Coarse English woolen flannel 

resembling baize. 
Booking Bay An 18th Century English 

worsted fabric. 

Bodiasse Common Chinese silk. 
Body 'The solid, compact feel of textile 

fabrics. 
Bofu 'French silk drese goods of the 

Middle Ages. 
Bogotana White madapolam in Colombia 

from 28 to 35 inches wide, having a 

soft finish. 

Bohemian Flax Fine flax of long, clean 
and lustrous fibers. 

Bohemian Lace Bobbin or machine lace 
with flowing tape on a net ground as 
characteristic feature. Mostly made 
as applique lace (see). 

Boil Out Test to find out if the cloth 
contains other fiber than wool. The 
fabric is boiled in solution of potash, 
which will dissolve the wool fibers, 
while cotton and other vegetable 
fibers remain intact. 

Boiled Linen Trade term for linen cloth 
boiled in soda lye and thus degummed. 

Boiled Off Silk Which has all of its nat- 
ural sum removed by warm solution 
of soap. The gum is from 17 to 25 
per cent of the weight. 

Bokas Sort of blue and white cotton cloth 
of Surat. 



Bokeram (Same as Buckram (see). 

Bokhara or Tekke Turkoman 1, all-wool 
knotted carpet with long pile. Ground 
is usually of bright red or reddish 
brown with various ochre and other 
colored patterns. The weave is not 
close, the patterns being mostly of 
geometrical nature; 2, very light, 
transparent, natural colored silk of 
plain weave. 

Bokhara Khilim 'Made in Turkestan by 
embroidering square and octagonal de- 
signs on a dark red, woven founda- 
tion; used for .portieres. 

Bola 'Strong and long fiber, not affected 
by water, yielded by the bark of the 
hibiscus tree in India; used for cord- 
age. 

Bolbees 1, coarse, bleached linen made in 
Normandy; 2, light blue colored 
French linen. 

Bolivar 'Light and loosely woven all-wool 
flannel dyed in gray. 

Bolivar County A commercial variety of 
cotton from Louisiana, the early ma- 
turing bolls yielding: about 30 per cent 
of lint. 

Boll The seed pod of the cotton. It has 
from three to five cells, each cell con- 
taining from 6 to 11 seeds, these seeds 
being covered with the cotton fibers. 

Bollies 'Cotton obtained from the half 
open or small bolls. 

Bolo-bolo A West African, very strong 
and long fiber, yielded by the Honck- 
enya ficifolia. 

Bologna Gauze Finest silk gauze,, craped, 
and dyed black; used for mourning 
veils; white for veils. 

Bolsa 'Cotton bagging in Argentine; 
usually a three harness drill. 

Bolt A piece of cloth rolled or folded for 
the retail market. 

Bolting Cloth Sheer, veil-like gauze, used 
for sifting flour, etc.; made of strong 
hard spun silk or cotton yarn, also 
of hair or wool. 

Bolton Counts Fine cotton yarn made 
of Sea Island cotton in England. 

, Bolton Sheeting English thick, coarse, 
twilled and unbleached cotton: used 
for crewel embroidery, for dresses, 
aprons, hanging. 

Bombanas Fibers yielded by the leaves 
of the Panama palm; used for hat 
braids, etc. 

Bombasi 1, cotton bunting in Venezuela; 
2, printed cotton cloth, napped on one 
side; used in Paraguay. 

Sombasin 1, obsolete silk or cotton fab- 
ric made in Italy and France; used 
for lining; 2, various fabrics in the 
present trade made usually of wool. 
Among them an English dress goods 
made of silk warp and worsted filling 
in serge weave and dyed in the piece, 
usually black; used for mourning. 

Bombasin Cotton Early name for Bra- 
zilian cotton. 



BOM 



23 



BOU 



Bombast 1, any soft fabric which is used 
for padding; hair or wool stuffing for 
clothing, during Elizabeth and James 
in England; 2, a medieval Oriental 
cotton fabric. 

Bombax 1, cotton tree of the Malvacea 
family, the white or brownish fiber 
used for stuffing pillo'ws, etc., in South 
America and West Indies; 2, medieval 
name for Bombasine (see). 

Bombay Medium weight, gray cotton 
sheeting in Canada. 

Bombay Aloe Fiber Strong fiber, yielded 
by the leaves of the bastard aloe in 
India; used for cordage. 

Bombay Hemp, Gambo Hemp or Bimlipa- 
tam Strong fiber, yielded by a va- 
riety of hemp in India; used as sub- 
stitute for jute. 

Bombazet In France a smooth, plain 
woven or twilled cloth of hard spun 
English worsted yarn, with single 
warp, finished without a glaze. 

Bombazine 1. in the 16th Century a white 
worsted and silk fabric in England; 

2, see Bombasin. 

Bombe 'French term in embroidery, dress- 
making, meaning puffed or rounded. 

Bonbon Fine French hosiery. 

Bone The hard feel in some woolen fab- 
rics which have been fulled too stiff. 

Bone Lace 'Similar to pillow or bobbin 
lace (see). 

Bongra Plain woven, coarse fabric made 
by the natives of East India from net- 
tle fibers. 

Bonne Femme French, stout silk taffeta 
of very good quality, made black 
without any luster or finish; used for 
scarfs, etc.; obsolete. 

Bonnaz Embroidery Made by the Bonnaz 
machine in chainstitch design over a 
mesh foundation; used for curtains. 

Bontane Oblong pieces of cotton cloth, 
usually dyed blue and red; worn as 
loincloth in Africa. 

Bonten Coarse, sailor's linen, with blue 
and white or red and white checks. 

Book Silk reeled by the natives of China 
in home industry, is done up in 
"books" containing a dozen large 
hanks. 

Book Cloth Usually a calico, which is 
colored, heavily sized and embossed 
between hot rollers. The dyeing is 
either in the piece, as in the ordinar- 
ily colored book cloths, or simply 
colored on the face, called fancy col- 
ored cloths. 

Book Harness Muslin A light cotton 
muslin, upon which the figures are 
formed by a heavy, extra weft 
yarn of slack twist, the floats being 
cut away; used for curtains, etc. 

Book Muslin or Buke Muslin 1, coarse, 
open and heavy cotton fabric, dyed 
In the piece and sized very heavily 
and given a glazed finish; used for 
underlining, millinery; 2, plain mus- 
lin, stiffened to imitate French lawn; 

3, hard, bluish and heavily dressed 
cotton muslin; 4, soft muslin made 
in Imitation of the Indian buke; used 
for tambour embroidery. 



Bookbinders' Cloth Plain woven cotton 
fabric, heavily starched and glazed; 
used for book binding. 

Bookfold Certain sheer linen and cotton 
fabrics are folded once lengthwise 
and twice crosswise. 

Boomazey Twilled Russian cotton cloth, 
printed on the face and napped on 
the back; used for shirts, dresses, 
etc., in the winter. 

Boombi Leaf fiber yielded by the Xerotes 
longifolia in Australia; used for 
coarse bags. 

Borandjik A very fine, white cotton mus- 
lin, often crinkled; used for dresses 
by peasant women in Sertvia and 
Roumania. 

Borato 17th century, very light, English 
fabric of silk and fine wool. 

Borax Used in calico printing and to 
ferment logwood. 

Bord Same as Burda. 

Bordat Coarse cotton cloth used in lower 
Egypt by the poorer classes for 
clothes. 

Bordati Mixture of cotton and silk made 
in Genoa; made plain or with flower 
or stripe patterns; some grades used 
in the Orient as loincloth. 

Borde French term for edged or bound 

or bordered. 
Border Printed or woven pattern which 

runs along the edge of the fabric; 

part of pattern in lace, which forms 

the outer edge. 

Borrat Black cotton, similar to the 
berkan, made in Saxony; now ob- 
solete. 

Borre East Indian cotton or nettle cloth. 
Borsley 18th century, English, pure 
worsted fabric. 

Bosnia Rug Originally knitted on plain 
frames in widths of about 16 inches; 
patterns composed of straight lines. 

Bostous 'French fabric, woven stout of 
ply yarn of silk, wool or linen. 

Bota Persian name for the palm pat- 
terns in Oriental rugs. 

Botany 1, fine merino wool grown around 
Botany Bay, Australia; 2, general 
term for all classes of fine wool. They 
are sorted according to counts they 
will spin, without any other names. 

Botany Twill English twilled fabric 
made entirely of Botany wool. 

Botany Yarn English coarse knitting 
yarn for stockings. 

Baubl in Stout, twilled, summer cotton 
dress goods, changeable in blue and 
green; made in Bohemia for the 
Polish trade. 

Boucassin French lining canvas, dyed, 
sized and calendered. Also a coarse, 
French linen ticking, heavily dressed. 

Bouche Fine, French woolen cloth in 
plain weave, undyed; worn by the 
Spanish and Italian clergy as shirt- 
ing. 



BOU 



24 



BRA 



Boucle 1, medium weight, soft, twilled 
dress goods, made of cotton or wool, 
having nub or loop yarn for filling. 
The same effect is produced with a 
knitted fabric; 2, sometimes used to 
denote terry fabrics. 

Bouillon, Bullion, or Purl Sort of tinsel 
or flattened wire; used for embroider- 
ies, plaits, etc. 

Bouilloner French for cockle (see). 

Bouloire Sort of French linen made in B. 

Boulvardee Half-bleached, coarse, French 
hemp canvas; used by the country 
people. 

Boura French fabric made of wool and 
silk. 

Bouracan Obsolete, stout, waterproof, 
French coating camlet, made with 
warp ribs; it was not fulled. 

Bourat Strong, French canvas made of 
unbleached tow. 

Bourbon Cotton growing in India, the 
West Indies, East Africa, etc., having 
a medium long, silky, white and soft 
fiber. 

Bourdaloue Figured, French linen, with 
various geometrical designs, ofr in 
damask weave, with small dobby pat- 
terns; used as tablecloth, etc.; obso- 
lete. 

Bourdat See Bordat. 

Bourdony Woolen dress goods, formerly 
made at Gera, Germany. 

Bourette 1, silk yarn spun of the carded, 
short fibers of waste silk; 2, French 
for hard-spun nub yarn; 3, rough- 
faced, lightweight, plain woven or 
twilled dress goods, made with nub 
yarns; 4, Printed cloth made for table 
covers, etc., of nub silk waste 

Bou rme Sort of Persian raw silk. 

Bourras Obsolete, all-wool, coarse suit- 
ing; used by the lower classes in 
France. 

Bourre 1, best grade of silk waste; 2, 
white striped cotton cloth from Asia 
Minor; 3, French for stuffed or 
wadded. 

Bourre de Soie or Filoselle See Spun 
Silk. 

Bout One complete round made in knit- 
ting. 

Boutane Sort of dimity made in Cyprus 
and Chios. 

Boutonne Cloth Cotton cloth in plain or 
Jacquard effects; made of nub yarn. 

Boutonniere, Point de Buttonhole stitch 
in hand-made point laces. 

Bowking The process of boiling the cot- 
ton fabric in a solution of lime water 
for hours during the bleaching 
process. 

Bowstring Hemp Elastic and very strong 
and durable leaf fiber yielded by sev- 
eral species of the Sansevieria in Asia, 
Africa and America; used for ropes, 
strings, etc. 

Box Cloth Thick, coarse melton, usually 
buff, but also comes in any color; 
used for riding apparel, coach trim- 
mings and overcoats. 



Boy, Boi Coarse, loosely woven flannel 
lining, made of cotton warp and wool 
and noil filling. 

Boyau Dress goods with alternated 
stripes of satin and rep over a fig- 
ured taffeta foundation. 

Boyaux .Hard spun, ply cotton yarn, used 
as warp in genuine Beauvais and 
Gobelin tapestries. 

Boyd Prolific A commercial variety of 
upland cotton, the staple, maturing in 
medium time, measures 20-24 milli- 
meters, forming small bolls and yield- 
ing 30-32 per cent lint. 

Brabancon Lace >Xame given to Brussels 
lace. 

Brabant Gray or half-bleached canvas, 
made of flax waste in Belgium. 

Brabant Edge Combination of Brussels 
and Venetian edge worked alternate- 
ly; used in needle-point lace. 

Brabant Lace Same as Brussels Lace. 

Brabant Linen or Blaams Linen Made 
around Ghent, Belgium, by the peas- 
ants. 

Brabantine In Italy, a bleached linen of 
various fineness, imported from 
Holland. 

Bracking Trade term for the compulsory 
sorting or grading of flax in Russia. 

Bradford Stuff Fine worsted dress goods 
made at Bradford, England. 

Bradford System or English System In 
spinning worsted yarns, the wool is 
oiled before it is combed, the slivers 
are drawn by rolls, are twisted into a 
rope and wound on bobbins; the yarn 
is composed of parallel fibers and is 
quite smooth. See French System. 

Bragg Long Staple A commercial vari- 
ety of American cotton; the staple is 
long, but not of uniform length, form- 
ing large, late maturing bolls; the 
yield of lint is 30 per cent. 

Braid Woven or plaited flat, round or 
tubular narrow fabric; for binding 
or trimming. 

Braid Wool Trade name for the long, 
lustrous wool grown in Indiana and 
Kentucky. 

Braided Rug The old fashioned rag rug; 
the strips of rags are first twisted into 
wide, flat braids, which are wound 
spirally around a center, forming a 
mat. 

Braiding Ornamental needlework by 
sewing braid over cloth or braid 
formed into lace or other work. 

Braize Narrow, sheer and light dress 
goods made of silk warp and wool 
filling, in solid colors and plaids; ob- 
solete. 

Bramante White cotton cloth with stiff 
starch dressing and semi-glazed 
finish, in Colombia; from 26 to 35 
inches wide; is coarser than the Bogo- 
tana. 

Bran or Kleanka Sort of Russian buck- 
ram. 

Branching Fibei The main veins of the 
leaves in bobbin lace sprigs. 



BRA 



25 



BRI 



Brandenbourg French for frogs and 
other ornamental trimming for but- 
tonholes. 

Brandeum Rich silk-and-wool fabric in 
medieval England; used for palls, 
girdles, etc. 

Brannon A commercial variety of cot- 
ton from Texas; the staple, measur- 
ing 18-22 millimeters, forms small 
bulls; the yield of lint is 32-35 per 
cent. 

Brasovian Piece-dyed diagonal or twilled 
woolen fabrics, dyed usually blue; 
used for women's dresses in the Bal- 
kan States; imported from Austria- 
Hungary. 

Bratos Purled Wool fabric made in Nor- 
wich, England, in the 17th century. 

Brattice Cloth A very coarse, heavy and 
closely woven cotton or hemp fabric; 
used in England in the mines. 

Brawels or Chiadder Boraals White and 
blue striped East Indian calico of 
loose weave; used by the African 
tribes for turbans, etc. 

Braying Term used in England to denote 
the scouring of woolen fabrics after 
taken from the loom. 

Brazier Peterkin See Peterkin. 

Brazilian Baize In England, a medium 
grade of baize dyed orange color. 

Brazilians In England regattas woven 
of Brazil cotton; also madapolams 
made of that cotton. 

Breacan Original (Gaelic) term for the 
tartan. 

Breannes Bleached, French linen of 
loose texture, similar to the BrionnB 
(see). 

Breaune See Brionne. 

Breech In English or crossbred wool the 
lower part of the fleece grown on the 
legs. 

Breluche Coarse and stout French 

twilled suiting, made in solid solors, 

with linen warp and woolen filling; 
obsolete. 

Brenne Lightweight woolen cloth, often 
with silk stripes; formerly made in 
France. 

Bresilienne Corded French silk dress 
goods and vesting; also an all-wool, 
twilled fabric made in France in the 
19th century. 

Bretagne Sort of bleached linen, made 
in B. 

Bretanas Variety of plain woven fabrics 
of pure linen, or mixed with cotton; 
used in Latin America, imported from 
England. 

Breton Embroidery In silver, gold and 
colored silk thread over cloth, silk 
or mesh; to be used as borders. 
Flowers, geometrical designs and 
Breton patterns are the motifs, out- 
lined and then filled out, usually 
chain and satin stitches being used. 

Bretonne A fine net, similar to Brussels, 
but having larger mesh; used for lace 
ground. 



Bribe English term for a piece of 
cloth containing flaws and cut away 
from the length. 

Brick Stitch Used as background in an- 
tique embroideries; sort of couching 
(see), the effect being similar to a 
brick wall. 

Bridal Lace Drawnwork in the 16th and 
17th centuries, worn at weddings. The 
designs represented coats of arms of 
the families. 

Bride In needle-point laces the threads 
connecting the various parts of the 
pattern. 

Bride Epingle A needle-made mesh 
ground for real lace, each side cov- 
ered with buttonhole stitches- To be 
found on early samples of Argentan 
point. 

Bride Ornee Bride (see) covered with 
buttonhole stitches and ornamented 
with picots, etc. 

Bride Picotee In point laces a hexagonal 
buttonholed net, each side orna- 
mented with a couple of picots or 
pearls (see). 

Bridgewater Light English broadcloth 
made in the 16th century. 

Brighton^Not reversible diamond pat- 
terns; used on dress and other fab- 
rics; the diamonds are alternately 
small and large. It is a honeycomb 
weave made in straight draft, the 
threads in a repeat being divisible 
by four. 

Brighton Embroidery iHas geometrical 
patterns upon coarse canvas founda- 
tion. 

Brighton Nap Said to be another name 
for Russels (see) in the 16th century; 
made with nubs on the face. 

Brilliants Lightweight cotton dress fab- 
ric or shirtwaisting, made with fine 
warp and a heavier, slack twist filling 
which forms little, geometrical fig- 
ures with floats on a plain woven 
ground. The fabric is often mercer- 
ized. 

Brilliantine Lightweight, twilled dress 
goods, woven with cotton warp and 
luster worsted or mohair filling, dyed 
in the yarn in the same or various 
colors. The filling covers the face. 
The patterns are usually formed by 
floats. 

Brin 1, French for a single warp or fill- 
ing; 2, various grades of coarse, stout 
linen, made in France for the Ameri- 
can trade; 3, 'fine, sheer and plain 
woven linen fabric; used for lining 
fans. 

Brins The two single filaments of pure 
silk, encased in natural gum, thus 
forming the silk -fiber as produced by 
the silk worm. The two brins are 
produced by two glands in the worm. 

Brioche A fancy, now obsolete, knitting; 
used for sofa cushions and waist- 
coats. 

Brionne Bleached, sheer, French linen of 
various grades; used for curtains. 

Britannias 'Stout linen cloth, bleached or 
in gray, made in in Germany for th 
West Indian markets- 



BRI 



26 



BRO 



Britch The lowest grade of wool in a 
fleece, taken from the thighs and 
spins 26s to 28s. 

British In the trade gray cotton hose. 

British Raised Work Short ends of 
heavy wool yarn are fastened by the 
middle to a coarse canvas foundation 
and then brushed out, resembling a 
pile. 

Broach East Indian raw cotton, having a 
moderately strong and fairly clean 
staple of golden color. 

Broad Couching Similar to the brick 
stitch, only the laid threads are 
slightly drawn together. 

Broad Rash Heavy coating, made of 
worsted warp and woolen filling in 
the 18th century in England. 

Broad Silk Wide silk dress goods and 
linings. 

Broad White Eighteenth century trade 
name for camblets. 

Broadcloth Fine all- woolen or worsted 
warp dress cloth or coating of stout 
texture; the fabric is fulled and 
napped, shorn and pressed on the face, 
which has a velvety feel and a little 
gloss. The back is twilled. 

Brocade 1, originally a rich and heavy 
silk fabric, with flowers, foliage, fig- 
ures, etc., woven in gold or silver core 
yarn. It was of Oriental origin; used 
for state and church vestments; 2, 
silk fabric having usually large flower 
or other pattern design woven in a 
color different from the foundation, 
each filling thread usually reaching 
from selvage to selvage. The pat- 
terns are usually of an embossed 
character; 3, collective name for a 
large class and variety of silk, wool 
and other dress fabrics, having pat- 
terns usually in a different color, 
often of an embossed character. Sil- 
ver or gold brocade is a fabric with 
silver or gold tinsel figures on taffeta, 
satin or twill foundation. 

Brocaded satin has a foundation 
made in satin weave, the pattern be- 
ing woven in another weave or made 
in velvet. Brocaded velvet can be 
either pile over pile (see) or velvet 
patterns over a plain woven or other 
foundation. See also Lame, Swivel 
and Lappet. 

Brocade Embroidery The designs traced 
over the foundation are outlined or 
also -filled in with stem stitch in vari- 
ous colored heavy wool or floss silk 
yarn' 

Brocading Weaving process for intro- 
ducing extra silk, gold or silver 
threads into the cloth to form pat- 
terns. 

Brocart or Brocat French for torocade. 
Brocatelle 1, originally a heavy, cross- 
ribbed furniture and drapery fabric, 
similar to the brocade, having Jac- 
quard figures and usually made of 
silk warp and cotton filling, but also 
of all silk, all cotton, or all wool; 
2, modern dress goods and vesting, 
similar to the furniture drapery, but 
made in lighter weights and often all 
silk; 3, silk fabric having glossy, satin 
figures on a less glossy taffeta ground 
of same color. 



Brocatelle de Passementerie Stout drap- 
ery fabric, made of cotton warp and 
wool filling. 

Brocatine Brocade with raised patterns. 

Broche 1, French term for swivel and 
lappet figures; 2, also a large num- 
_>er of fabrics decorated with special 
threads, which are introduced, to- 
together with the regular warp or 
filling threads, but which do not form 
a necessary part of the structure it- 
self. These threads are carried as 
floats at the back of the fabric, or 
are clipped away and form colored 
designs. 

troche Carpets Wool carpets, made with 
figures formed by cut pile over a 
Brussels ground. 

Brodequin Embroidered hosiery. 

Broderie 'French name for embroidery. 

Broderie en Lacet 'Braid stitched to 
satin foundation, the patterns being 
filled in with stitches imitating lace. 

Broderie de Malines Early name for 
Malines lace (see). 

Broderie de Nancy^Drawn work, orna- 
mented with colored silk. 

Brodie A tartan, consisting of equal 
wide black and green stripes, both 
ways; these are broken up in the 
middle by a narrow red stripe (both 
ways and two still narrower stripes, 
one on each side of the red). Half 
of the green stripes is taken up in 
the middle by a blue stripe each way. 

Broella Coarse woolen fabric; used for 
clothing by the English country peo- 
ple in the Middle Ages. 

Broken Ends Warp threads which have 
broken during the weaving or finish- 
ing, showing as a defect In the cloth. 

Broken Picks Weft threads broken in 
the weaving and showing as a flaw. 

Broken Twill iName for a large number 
of modifications of the ordinary twill 
weave, produced by missing certain 
threads of the twill, the repeat taking 
an opposite direction. See also Her- 
ringbone. 

Brokes Short staple taken from the neck 
and the belly parts of the fleece; term 
used in the woolen trade. It is the 
same as skirting. 

Bromsia Sort of Levant raw silk. 

Brooks Improved An early maturing 
commercial variety of cotton from 
Louisiana, yielding about 31 per cent 
of short staple. 

Brown 1, an early maturing commercial 
variety of -cotton from Mississippi, 
yielding a short staple; 2, wool-sort- 
ing term for about 30s quality, taken 
from the haunches of the fleece; is 
lower grade than "neat." 

Brown Egyptian 'Cotton, having a long, 
strong, clean and easily worked sta- 
ple of golden brown color. 
Brown Hemp Trade name for Sunn 

hemp. 

Brown Holland Originally unbleached or 
partly bleached plain woven linen, the 
latter sized and used as furniture 
cover or summer clothing. It comes 
also in dark gray and black. 



BRO 



27 



BUF 



Brown Matching Wool taken from the 
flanks of the English crossbred fleece; 
spins 28s. 

Brown Osnaburgs Coarse, unbleached 
linen, made in Ireland and Scotland 
of strong hemp or linen yarn for the 
American trade. 

Brown Silesia Unbleached stout Silesia 
linen. 

Bruce Tartan with bright red ground, the 
plaid formed by groups of four (two 
wider in the middle and two narrower 
at the sides) stripes in dark green, 
which are together as wide as the red 
squares. In the mfddl; of the re-d 
squares alternated narrow yellow and 
white stripes run each way. 

Bruges Obsolete Belgian and French sat- 
in, made with siik warp and hard 
twist cotton filling. 

Bruges Lace 1, fine Belgian bobbin lace 
similar to the Valenciennes, having 
ornamental bold patterns and brides 
ornees (see) ; is called also point 
duchesse. It has a circular mesh 
ground, the threads being twisted 
three times; 2, guipure de Bruges 
consists of various sprigs joined with 
brides. 

Bruir Process of fixing dyes on cloths by 
passing damp throug'h the texture. 

Brunswick Twilled fabric, similar to 
cassimere, made of wool and cotton. 

Brush Binding A braid with a stiff fringe 
along one edge, used to bind the bot- 
tom of skirts. 

Brush Length Trade term for narrow 
haircloth. 

Brushed Loosely knitted material, made 
of several different colored, loose twist 
yarns, the long nap of which are 
brushed after knitting, producing col- 
or mixtures. Used for caps, jackets, 
etc. 

Brushing A finishing profess, consists in 
raising the nap with circular brushes- 

Brussa 'Loosely woven half silk veiling 
of varying weave, made in B., Asia. 

Brussels 18th century woolen fabric in 
England. 

Brussels Carpet 1, the body Brussels is 
made of worsted with warp loop pile; 
it is spoken of as six -frame, five- 
frame, etc., according to the number 
of threads in the thickness of the car- 
pet. Each thread forms loops and 
then is carried in the body of the 
carpet. There are two picks to each 
wire. Usually all the threads in each 
frame are of one color, and there are 
as many frames as colors. The range 
of colors is limited; 2, tapestry 
Brussels is similar to body Brussels 
but only one warp is used which is 
printed in the pattern before weaving. 

Brussels Edge 'Used as finish or needle- 
point laces. 

Brussels Ground Hexagonal mesh net 
ground for lace, made of four threads. 



Brussels Lace Bobbin or point lace. 1, 
the bobbin lace has hexagonal 
ground, two sides being of four 
threads plaited four times and four 
sides of two threads twisted. The 
outlines of the flowers and the veins 
of the leaves are of raised plaited 
cordonnet- The ground was worked 
around the flowers, the brides and 
toile are very elaborate; 2, in needle- 
point lace, the hexagonal ground is 
made in strips of one inch width and 
then joined with the raccroc stitch. 
The cordonnet is not buttonholed; 
3. Modern B. lace is composed of 
sprigs appliqued to machine made 
ground. 

Brussels Quilling Plain cotton net with 
an extra twist around the mesh; used 
for frills, etc. 

Buaze Strong, fine and durable bast 
fiber, yielded by the twigs of a spe- 
cies of securidacea in Zambesi; used 
for fishing net by the natives. 

Buchanan Tartan; even sided plaid with 
the following stripes in a repeat both 
ways; red, narrow blue, yellow 
(split in the middle by a narrow blue), 
narrow blue, narrow green, narrow 
blue, narrow green and narrow blue. 
The wide red stripes are split in the 
center by a narrow white stripe. 

Buoioche Sort of common woolen cloth 
made in France for the Egypt trade. 

Buckinghamshire Lace Bobbin lace with 
plaited ground similar to that of Lille 
or Valence. It is made in one piece, 
usually in narrow widths, used as 
baby lace. Characteristic is the 
trolly (see). 

Buckle Stitch In bob-bin laces the stems 
and fibers of the sprigs are often 
formed of a braid made in b. s. 

Buckram 1, originated from Bokhara as a 
costly material, called also Bokeram. 
In the 16th century a rich English 
woolen fabric, used for church vest- 
ments; 2, plain woven or twilled 
coarse, open fabric, dyed in the piece, 
and heavily sized if used for hat 
shapes. It is made of coarse hemp or 
cotton yarn, hair, etc. Also used for 
under lining and stiffener for clothes, 
in this case not sized. 

Buckskin A thick, stout and very dura- 
able woolen fabric woven in an eight- 
leaf satin weave with a warp face. 
It is napped, fulled thoroughly and 
shorn, the face being finished very 
smooth. Used for overcoats, riding 
breeches, etc. Summer buckskin is 
made of hard spun worsted yarn of- 
ten mixed with silk. 

Buckskin Weave An eight-leaf warp 
satin weave, each warp crossing over 
six picks and carried under two picks. 

Buffalo Cloth Heavy twilled woolen 
overcoating with a long nap. 

Buffalo Wool Very fine wool, growing 
among the coarse hair on the buffalo. 
Used for fine felt hats, shawls, etc. 
Little available. 



BUF 



28 



BUR 



Buffinei A coarse English woolen fabric 
in the 16th and 17th centuries used 
for clothing. (See Buffyn.) 

Buffline 'Trousering of linen and cot- 
ton. 

Buffyn Sort of English camlet of the 
17th century, also called catalowne. 
(See Buffiner.) 

Bugazeen Obsolete for calico. 

Bugis 'Fine, plain woven cotton fabric 
used for scarfs in East India. It has 
a checked or striped border only along 
one selvage. 

Buke Muslin See Book Muslin. 

Bulac A Philippine species of cotton; 
used for cordage. 

Bulbul 'Fine cotton muslin made in 
India. 

Bulgarian Embroidery .Made in various 
bright colored silks, cottons and gold 
or silver thread over a coarse, un- 
dressed black or white muslin, it is 
alike on both sides. 

Bull Muck In England imperfect tops. 

Bull's Wool Trade term for very coarse 
and low grade woolens. 

Bullion Originally gold or silver lace, 
also thick gold wire braid for uni- 
forms. 

Bullion Embroidery Of antique origin, 
used now chiefly on church vestments 
and for heraldry. The gold or silver 
thread is laid down over the pattern 
and sewn to it. 

Bullion Fringe Made of gold or silver 
threads, used on uniforms. 

Bullion Knot Round spots made 'by lay- 
ing down the metal or silk thread in 
small flat coils, used for ground in 
embroideries. 

Bullion Lace Made of gold or silver 
thread. 

Bulobulo A coarse Philippine fiber; used 
for cordage. 

Bun Ochra Fine, white and strong bast 
fiber of the Caesar weed in India; 
used for twine and bags. 

Bunch Contains 130,000 yards of linen 

yarn. 

BundleLinen yarn measure, equal to 
60,000 yards, weighing 10 pounds. 

Bundle Handkerchief Of linen and also 
cotton, made in England with plaid 
patterns in dark blue color. 

Bunraj See Arree- 

Bunt Lace Obsolete Scotch bobbin lace, 
originated about the middle of the 
18th century, usually made of coarse 
thread in lozenge patterns. 

Buntal Fibei Is obtained from the stalks 
of the unopened leaves of the Bun 
palm in the Philippines; it is a very 
light fibber, used for hat braids. 

Buntine Same as Bunting (see). 

Bunting 1, an all-worsted English fabric 
of the 18th century; 2, a narrow fabric 
made of long staple, coarse English 
'Wool in an open and plain weave, hav- 
ing two-ply warp and single filling; 
used for flags and dresses, also made 
partly or entirely of cotton. 



Burail Plain woven light weight French 
dress fabric, similar to ferrandine 
(see) the warp being of floret or other 
silk and the filling of cotton, wool, 
etc.; obsolete. 

Burano Lace Made on the island of 
Burano near Venice, originally it was 
point lace of the finest quality with 
net ground; at the present the 
choicest specimens of Alencon, Brus- 
sels, Argentan and other laces are 
also made there. 

Burat or Buratee 'Light and plain woven 
French dress goods, dyed in the piece; 
made of floret silk and worsted yarn. 
It i sstronger than etamine; used for 
mourning, also ecclesiastical vest- 
ments, judges' robes; obsolete. 

Burat a Grosgrain Same construction as 

burat, made with weft ribs. 
Bu ratine Persian raw silk. 

Buratte 1, fabric of southern Italy, with 
warp of Bologna silk, filling tram silk; 
2, stiff, transparent linen; ueed in 
Italy for drawnwork. 

Burberry 1, lightweight mercerized and 
waterproofed cotton fabric, with 
fine warp ribs: used for raincoats; 
2, fancy, twilled woolen cheviot suit- 
ing. 

Burda Arabic name for black and 
white warp striped fabrics; used for 
garments in North Africa. 

Burdalisander Medieval silk fabric in 
various colored stripes, believed to 
originate from northern Africa. See 
Alexander. 

Burden Stitch Used in embroideries to 
reproduce flesh. The silk threads are 
laid down evenly and are caught in 
even distances. 

'Sure or Bureau 1. a heavy and coarse, 
plain woven or twilled French dresj 
fabric and suiting, .finished with a 
dense nap on the face. It is made 
with cotton or hemp warp and wool- 
en filling; 2, a light very open, 
French woolen dress goods. 

Burel Coarse, brown colored English 
woolen fabric; used for clothing, etc., 
by the poorer classes in the 13th 
and 14th centuries. 

Burgos A calico, dyed blue and printed 
in fancy colors; made originally in 
East India. 

Buri Raffia A finer and weaker fiber 
than raffia, obtained from the un- 
opened leaves of the Buri palm in the 
Philippines; used for coarse bagging. 

Buring Crane >An all-worsted English 
fabric of the 18th century. 

Burity 'Fine and lustrous leaf fiber, ob- 
tained from the Muriti palm of 
Brazil; used for cordage, hats, 
baskets. 

Burlap Plain woven, heavy coarse cloth, 
made of jute, usually 40 inches wide 
in Scotland, made of single yarn in 
plain weave; the limit of the weight 
is between 6 and 14 oz. per yard. 



BUR 



CAB 



Burling "Process of removing all knots, 
burrs, slubs, etc., from the cloth In 
order to improve its appearance. 

Burnet A fine woolen fabric of brown or 
black color; used for dresses in the 
13th century in England- 

Burnetising Impregnating canvas or 
cordage with the solution of chloride 
of zinc to prevent dry rot; used in 
nautics. 

Burning Test for detecting wool, cot- 
ton or silk h'bers. Wool and silk wall 
burn slowly with an unpleasant odor, 
leaving black ashes behind. Cotton 
burns with a flame depositing white 
ashes. 

Burnley Printers Plain woven, bleached 
cotton oloth, made un England in 
pieces measuring 116 yards in length, 
32 inches in width, with 64 ends and 
64 picks in a square inch; used for 
prints. Also called B. lumps. 

Burr 1, the seeds of weeds entangled in 
the wool; 2, knotty silk waste. 

Burrah A plain woven, heavy colored 
cotton fabric in East Africa, used 
for garments by the natives. It is 
either dark blue or made in narrow 
blue and black stripes with border 
stripes in other colors and a center 
stripe in red or yellow. There are 
also headings at both ends of the 
piece. 

Burring Process of removing the burrs 
from the fleece, by means of hooks. 

Burrom Sannah East Indian cotton 
cloth. 

Burry Wool, the fibers of which are en- 
tangled with burrs. 

Burry Blanket A plain woven and 
slightly napped blanket. 

Burrys An interior, coarse and heavy 
woolen fabric in England. 

Bush A commercial variety of cotton 
from Louisiana; See Ben Smith- 

Bushireh Inferior coarse carpet wool 
from Persia. See Bussorah. 

Bussin Wool fabric made in Norwich, 
England, in the 18th century. 

Bussorah Inferior carpet wool from 
Mesopotamia, has an irregular fleece. 

Bustian (Medieval worsted fabric, used 
for dresses, made with three treadles. 

Butcher's Linen Heavy, stout bleached 
linen, used as backing for shirt 
bosoms; a plain woven, soft but 
coarse muslin, used for aprons, etc.; 
comes in the gray or bleached. 

Buts In the Bible denotes fine linen. 

Butter Cloth Similar to cheesecloth 
(see). 

Butternut Obsolete American heavy 
woolen homespun trousering, dyed 
brown with extracts from the butter- 
nut tree. 

Button Lumps of fibers collected on the 
warp during weaving. 



Buttonhole Stitch A very important 
stitch consisting of a short and long 
stitch in needle-point laces; also 
called point none and close stitch. 

Buttonhole Twist Thick, loose cotton 
thread, made of 24 strands; used to 
strengthen the edges of buttonholes. 

Buz 1, plain woven gray cotton fabric 
made in Central Asia; used for shirts 
and drawers, made 11 inches wide; 
2, in the Bible means byssus (see). 

Byssine A fine cloth in medieval Eng- 
land; its construction is unknown. 

Byssus 1, old Greek name for fine sheer 
linen fabric of white or yellowish 
color, woven in Egy.pt; 2, long and 
silky hair-like beard of some sea 
mussels; used for gloves and stock- 
ings in southern Italy- 

Byzance Stitch In canvas embroidery 
producing a close zig-zag pattern. 

Byzantine Carpet Similar to Brussels 
carpet with the addition of metal 
threads at intervals. 

Byzantine Embroidery Applique em- 
broidery, heavy worsted or floss silk 
yarn being laid and sewn on to leath- 
er or other thick ground, often orna- 
mented with pieces of cloth. 



Caaporopy Fine, flax-like fiber, yielded 
by a species of the Urtica family in 
Paraguay; used by the natives for 
ropes, etc. 

Cab or Cabbage Tailor's clippings in 
England. 

Caballeros Spanish raw merino wool; 
used in large quantities in France. 

Cabeca A very fine grade of East In- 
dian sil'k. 

Cabesa Raw wool from Estramadura, 
Spain. 

Cable 1, the heaviest ropes, over 10 inch- 
es in circumference, made usually of 
hemp, the yarn, strand and hawser 
(usually three in number), being giT- 
en alternately a right hand and left 
hand twist before made into cables; 
2, a variety of corduroy, having broad 
races. 

Cable Net Is made of heavy cotton yarn 
with large mesh; used in England for 
draping and curtains. 

Cable Thread iSewing thread, composed 
of three ply threads, which are 
twisted together against the original 
twist. 

Cable Webbing Twilled webbing, woven 
with heavy round thread. 

Cable- Laid Rope 'Formed by three ropes 
of three-strand yarn, twisted into 
one, alternately to the right and left 
hand. 



CAB 



30 



CAL 



Cablet Trade term for cables measuring 
less than 10 inches in circumference. 

Cabling Name in England for the pro- 
cess of doubling cotton strands and 
twisting them alternately to right and 
left hand direction in making cotton 
thread. 

Cabo Negro A dark, straight, smooth 
and glossy fiber, similar to horsehair, 
yielded by the leaves of a palm in 
the Philippines; used for ship cord- 
age. 

Oabot General term for coarse gray or 
bleached, heavily sized cotton sheet- 
ing in the Balkan States and Asiatic 
Turkey. 

Cabuja or Cabulla Central American 
and West Indian name for the Mauri- 
tius hemp (see). 

Cabuya Hemp growing in Colombia, 
Peru and Central America. Yields 
very strong fiber for ropes, bags, etc. 

Caceres Spanish raw wool of medium 
quality. 

Cacharado A plain woven linen fabric 
from Spain. 

Cachemire French for cashmere. 

Cachemire Shawl The finest French 
make is made with woven colored 
figures on a foundation of fine cache- 
mire wool and organzine Tvarp and 
very fine and close Cachemire filling. 
Genuine cashemire shawl is made in 
one color, and then embroidered. 

Cachemirette Originally from England; a 
trousering and coating, made of cot- 
ton or silk warp and woolen filling; 
occasionally it is fulled. It is wov- 
en in twill and given a clear face, 
while the back is napped. 

' i Inferior medieval silk fabric. 

Caddis 1, worsted lace and ribbon; 2, 
stout and very durable twilled wool- 
en fabric of various colors, used by 
the French clergy. 

Cadene Coarse and durable rug made in 
Asia Minor. Has a long pile and is 
sewn together of narrow strips. 

Cadet Cloth (Bluish gray, strong, fulled 
and shorn woolen fabric; used for 
uniforms in military schools. 

Cadicee An obsolete twilled woolen 
cloth. 

Cadilla L,ight brown colored, very long, 
lustrous, strong bast fiber, yielded by 
the Urena plant in South America; 
used for bags, ropes. 

Cadillon French twilled woolen cloth. 

Cadis 1, all-wool, lightweight French 
serge, made about 22 inches wide, ob- 
solete; 2, very fine all-wool French 
cloth, slightly fulled; obsolete. 3, 
coarse twilled worsted fabric; used by 
the Scotch Highlanders. 

Cadis Soubeirams Obsolete, fine French 
serge; used for lining. 

Cadiz Stitch In needle-point laces, con- 
sists of successive rows of buttonhole 
stitches. 



Caen A grade of French serge made of 
wool. 

Cafe con Leche In Paraguay white 
ponchos with brown stripes. 

Caffa 1, a 16th century English silk fab- 
ric, the patterns of which were either 
woven or printed with hand blocks; 
2, an East Indian fancy calico. 

Caffard 1, satin made in various col- 
ored stripes, the warp being of silk 
and the filling of silk or wool; ob- 
solete; 2, French suiting, made of 
all-wool or wool and linen; used by 
the country people. 

Cage Work Same as open work. 

Caiana^Sort of raw cotton from Brazil. 

Cajantes Stout French camlet, made of 
pure worsted or worsted and silk; 
obsolete. 

Cajun Strong leaf fiber yielded by the 
Furcraea cubensis in Central Amer- 
ica; similar to sisal. 

Caked 'Flaw in the fabric, consisting of 
hardened portions of size. 

Calabria Italian cotton, having a medium 
long, fairly strong but irregular 
staple of dull white color; contains 
much leaf. 

Caladaris East Indian calico made with 

black or red stripes. 
Calamacho Italian silk satin. 
Calamanco See Calimanco. 
Calamatta Italian raw silk in the gum. 

Calamenque Name in Holland for cal- 
mande (see). 

Calanca East Indian calico. 

Calcutta Hemp Trade term for jute. 

Caldera Bush Yields tough, white, glos- 
sy leaf fibers; used for rapes, nets, 
etc., in India. 

Calendering A finishing process, pro- 
ducing smooth and glossy surface by 
passing the fabric between heated 
steel rollers; used on a great variety 
of cotton, linen, wool and other fab- 
rics. 

Calico 1, plain and closely woven, thin 
lightweight printed, cotton cloth; 
used for dresses, aprons, etc. The 
early calicoes had linen yarn and 
cotton filling; 2, in England a plain 
woven, bleached cotton fabric heavier 
than muslin. 3, up to the end of the 
18th century every kind of cotton 
goods was called calico. 

California Fancy English alpaca fabric 

in the 19th century. 
California Blanket Originally of San 

Francisco, made of fine wool, with a 

long soft nap. 

Calimanco or Calmanco or Callimanco 

In the 19th century a plain or striped 
stout worsted in England made in 
imitation of the camel hair cloth with 
single warp and finished with a high 
luster; used for petticoats and chair 
seats. See also Calmande. 

Callamancoe 1, stout twilled cotton fab- 
ric from Yorkshire; 2, See Calimanco. 



CAL 



31 



CAM 



Calloose Hemp A very strong stem fiber, 
yielded by the Urtica plant in 
Sumatra; used for cordage. 

Calmande Of French and Dutch origin, 
made from 20 to 44 inches wide; used 
for men's clothes, skirts, dresses, etc. 
It was usually made of all-wool, the 
warp occasionally mixed with silk or 
goat's hair, especially for the figured 
C. The C. was made mostly in satin 
weave, but also in ribbed effect with 
a high gloss on the face; many were 
made of natural colored wool, but 
also dyed or striped. It was made 
single or double faced. See also 
Calimanco. 

Calmuc or Kalmuk 1, wool yielded by the 
Calmuc sheep in Central Asia; 2, 
loose woven, twilled woolen made of 
loose twist yarn, fulled and finished 
with a long nap, used as winter dress 
goods. 

Calquiei East Indian silk taffeta made 
with double-and-twist or printed 
yarn. 

Calum Kouree An East Indian chintz. 

Camayeux 1, effect produced by the pat- 
tern, and the ground of a design be- 
ing different shades of the same color; 
2, silk cloth of colored warp and black 
filling, the latter alternately shot in 
single and double. 

Cambayes -Strong East Indian cotton 
fabric of coarse structure, finished to 
resemble linen. 

Camblet 18th and 19th century English 
and French, plain woven or twilled 
fabric, made with single or double 
warp of wool mixed with silk or 
goat's hair- It was woven in the 
gray and dyed in the piece; used for 
cloaks. Originally came from the 
Orient, where it was made of Angora 
hair. 'Compare with Camlet. 

Camblettee A 19th century pure worsted 
fabric in England. 

Camboulas 'Southern French fabric, 
made of ply cotton warp and woolen 
filling. 

Cambrai 1, see Cambric; 2, a machine- 
made lace. 

Cambre Very light, 'sheer, veiling-like 
linen in Italy. 

Cambreaine French term for plain wov- 
en very fine cottons and sheer linens, 
similar to the cambric; originally 
imported from various parts of Asia. 

Cambric 1, same as batiste (eee); 2, a 
light, plain woven, sized and well 
glazed fabric of inferior grade, made 
of cotton or linen yarns in white, or 
dyed in the piece and used for lining 

Cambric Muslin Fine cotton fabric, 
bleached and glazed, used for under- 
wear. 



Camel Hair 1, used for dress goods, 
shawls, carpets, hosiery, tweeds, etc. 
Gray is the cheapest, white and black 
the most expensive and red of me- 
dium price; 2, a fine, soft and warm 
dress goods, with a high glossy finish, 
woven of long staple wool and hav- 
ing loose hair on the face. 

Cameleon French for changeable in 
three colors. 

Cameline 1, a coarse medieval fabric, 
made of camel hair in twill weave, 
similar to the cashmere; 2, woolen 
dress goods in fine basket weave and 
finished with a soft nap. 

Camelot Coarse fustian used for work- 
ing clothes in England. 

Camelot Baracane 'French term for 
baracan (see) made with the warp 
heavier than the weft. 

Camelotee 18th century French fabrics of 
smooth finish made with pebbled or 
granulated effect, produced by the 
colored filling. 

Camelotine Now obsolete name of vari- 
ous camlets made of hard twist wors- 
ted yarn. 

Camera Coarse, loosely woven French 
linen, unbleached or dyed yellow. 

Camera Work Photographs attached to a 
linen ground and surrounded with em- 
broidered flowers and scrolls. 

Camerick 16th century name in England 
for cambric. 

Cameron of Erracht Highland tartan, 
made as follows: Wide dark green bar, 
split with a group of four narrow red 
stripes in the center (the outer stripes 
being wider than the inner ones), a 
black stripe (about one-third of the 
green), a very narrow red stripe, a 
dark blue bar, as wide as the green, 
split by a pair of the wider red 
stripes with a yellow stripe between 
(the three not touching), a very nar- 
row red stripe, a wide black stripe. 

Cameron of Lochiel^A Highland tartan 
with a red ground, the stripes ar- 
ranged as follows: Narrow white, 
edged with narrower blue on both 
sides, the large, even sided red square 
is traversed both warp and weft wise 
by two wide stripes, narrow white 
stripes, edged with narrower blue on 
each side. The next large red square 
is uneven sided, traversed by the two 
blue stripes continued from the even 
sided square and these are crossed 
by two narrower green stripes. 

Camientries Wool fabric made in Nor- 
wich, England, in the 17th century. 

Camlet 1, heavyweight, waterproof cam- 
el's hair cloth, originated in Asia; 
later made mixed with angora wool; 
2, imitations of hard twist woolen or 
worsted yarn with the admixture of 
silk or goat's hair. Compare with 
Camblet. 



CAM 



32 



CAN 



Camletee or Camletto A 19th century 
English worsted, made narrower and 
thinner than the Camblet or Camlet. 
See Canrbletee. 

Camleteen Imitation camlet, made of all- 
worsted. 

Cammaka or Camoca or Camak Fine 
medieval fabric, believed to be of cam- 
el's hair and silk; used for church 
vestments and bed hanging. 

Camocato Chinese damask satin. 

Camogi Long and fairly strong vege- 
table fiber from Southeast Africa; 
used as substitute for hemp. 

Camona Peruvian palm, yields leaf 
fibers; used by the native Indians. 

Camoyard Twilled French fabric, made 
of goats' hair. 

Campane or Campaigne 1, narrow French 
bobbin lace of the 18th century, made 
of flax or silk with scalloped edge; 2, 
gold, silver or silk fringe with bell- 
shaped small tassels; used as dress 
trimming. 

Campatillas Woolen dress goods in the 
Spanish trade. 

Campbell of Argyll A Highland tartan, 
made with wide green bars and twice 
as wide blue bars. The green bars 
are alternately split with a yellow and 
white stripe. The blue .bars are out- 
lined on both sides with a wide and 
two very narrow stripes (on the in- 
side) of black- 
Campbell of Breadalbane A Highland 
tartan, arranged as follows: Large 
checks are formed by two wide black 
stripes and a twice as wide blue bar 
between (the latter split in the center 
by a narrow black stripe). Between 
these groups are two solid green bars 
(as wide as the blue) with a narrower 
black stripe between. The wide green 
.bars are split with a narrow yellow 
line in the center. 

Campbell of Cawdor An even sided High- 
land tartan, made as follows: A wide 
black stripe, wide dark blue stripe, 
narrow red stripe (edged with black 
lines), wide blue stripe, wide black 
stripe, wide green stripe, narrow pale 
blue stripe with black lines on each 
edge, wide green stripes. 

Campbell of Loudon Even sided High- 
land tartan composed as follows: Very 
wide dark blue bar with a black stripe 
on each side and two narrow black 
lines in the middle, wide green bar, 
the same width as the pure blue bar, 
the green bars are alternately split 
with a narrow white or yellow stripe, 
edged with a black line. 

Campbell of Strachur A Highland tartan, 
composed of wide green and narrower 
black stripes, and crossed by yellow 
lines. 

Campbell Twill An irregular, eight- 
thread twill. See Mayo. 

Campes A French twilled woolen fabric. 

Campos A grade of Spanish clothing 
wool. 



Canabassette Obsolete French fabric, 
made with silk stripes or without any 
silk. 

Canadaris Chinese and East Indian pure 
silk or cotton mixed satin, made with 
fancy stripes or window plaids. 

Canadas 'French woolen blankets. 

Canadian Embroidery 'Made by the na- 
tives of C. by using finely split and 
dyed porcupine quills as embroidery 
material or cutting leather or skins 
into very small pieces and sewing 
them together into shapes of trees, 
animals, etc., with hair. 

Canadian Patchwork Made of various 
colored ribbons into a succession of 
squares, something like a "log cabin." 

Canapina Strong and silky fiber of 
Argentine, yielded by the abutilon 
plant; used for cordage. 

Canapone Weak and poor fiber, yielded 
by the female seeding hemp in Italy- 

Cancanias East Indian, warp striped silk 
satins. 

Candagang Bast Indian fifoer, yielded by 
the Hibiscus eriocarpus. 

Candied Flaw in weighted cloth caused 
by the crystallization of the filling 
chemical on the face of the fabric. 

Canebrake Cotton grown on the south- 
ern central prairie of Alabama, the 
staple is strong, measuring about 
1 1-16 inches. 

Cangan Narrow and inferior cotton fab- 
ric, made in China and used for cloth- 
ing by the poorer classes. 

Cangette Coarse all-wool, lightweight 
French serge; used'for clothing, dress- 
es, etc.; formerly made at Caen, now 
obsolete. 

Cannamazos 'Spanish term for various 
grades of unbleached linens. 

Cannele^l, silk fabric, made with two 
sets of warps, one single and the other 
ply yarn. The single warp forms the 
foundation, the ply yarn floating over 
eight fillings, forming ribs. It is also 
made double faced by dividing the 
heavy warps and letting them float 
alternately both over the face and the 
back; 2, fabrics woven with several 
picks in the same shed, forming short 
ribs which appear alternately on the 
face and the back, imitating the 
joints of the bamboo. 

Cannequin 'East Indian bleached cotton 
cloth. 

Cannette 1, French make single chappe 
yarn; 2, a fine wide cotton fabric, 
made with warp cords; used in the 
Philippines for dresses. 

Cannetille 1, lace or military braid 
made of gold or silver thread. See 
Bullion; 2, French dress goods and 
furniture drapery, havin.? warp ribs, 
made with two sets of warps and eight 
leaves and eight fillings in a repeat. 

Canons -Wide lace ruffles worn in the 
18th century around the legs of boots- 
Canon's Cloth 'Medieval English worsted, 
a piece made five yards long and 63 
inches wide. 



CAN 



33 



CAR 



Canotier French term for dress goods; 
used for yachting and boating cos- 
tumes. 

Canourge French woolen serge. 

Canques Cotton shirting in China. 

Cant In nautics, the strand of the rope. 

Cantai Inferior East Indian cotton mus- 
lin. 

Cantaloon See Cantiloon. 

Canterbury English fancy dress goods of 
silk warp and cotton filling. 

Cantille -See Bullion. 

Cantiloon or Cantaloon An 18th century 
pure worsted, made in England; used 
for women's wear. 

Canton Crepe A crepe made with fine 
silk or cotton warp and heavier fill- 
ing, forming light cross ribs, is high- 
ly finished; it is made of Canton silk 
and Is heavier than crepe de chine. 

Canton Finish A firm feel and dull finish 
without any boardiness, given in Eng- 
land to cotton fabric by means of 
mangling. 

Canton Flannel Twilled, medium or 
heavy weight soft cotton fabric, with 
a long nap raised on one or both 
sides, after which the fabric is dyed. 
It is made of low grade stock and 
slack twist yarn; used for underwear, 
house dresses, and overcoat pockets. 

Canton Silk iRaw silk reeled in 14-16 
deniers in Southern China from very 
small cocoons, the fiber is very light 
and weak but regular. Graded in two 
classes, both for tram. 

Cantoon A very stout, compact cotton 
fabric having fine diagonal wales on 
the face and napped in the back. It is 
woven in a 3-and-3 diagonal twill, 
having great many picks in an inch; 
used for riding breeches, etc. 

Canvas A plain woven cotton or linen 
fabric, made in various grades; used 
for sails, tents, garments, etc. The 
finest grade is called mosaic, irres- 
pective of the material. 

In England the Royal Navy canvas, 
which is used for sails, has eight dif- 
ferent grades; it is one-third strong- 
er than the next grade, the Merchant 
Navy canvas. The yarns for the 
Royal Navy canvas are made without 
chlorine, are twice boiled with ashes. 
It is made without stripes. There are 
from 776 to 1,300 warp ends and from 
15% to 27 picks (per inch). 

The Merchant Navy canvas in Eng- 
land is used for awnings by the Ad- 
miralty. It is 24 inches wide, has 
single stripes and comes in seven 
grades from 1,364 to 1,420 warp ends 
and from 14% to 24 picks (in an inch). 

The United States Government 
Navy canvas is made of pure flax, 20 
inches wide and 40 yards long. Nos. 
1 to 5 are made in various weights 
with double warp and two-ply twisted 
filling. Nos. 7 and 8, the lightest are 
made of single yarns. They all have 
a blue stripe near to the selvage. 

Canvas Cloth In England a plain woven 
cotton, made of hard spun yarn. 



Capah Damask A rich, purple colored 
silk damask mentioned in the times of 
Henry VIII. 

Capanaki Coarse cotton pillow lace, made 
in Smyrna. 

Cape Wools From South Africa; the 
staple is fine, silky but short and 
dirty; used for woolens. 

Capiton <A coarse grade of waste silk in 
France. 

Capmeal Coarse woolen fabric of the 
18th century, made in England 

Capot French men's wear for sailors 
clothes, waterproof coats, etc-; made 
very strong with napped and fulled 
face. Similar cloth made of shoddy in 
England. 

Cappadlne 'Silk waste yielded by the in- 
ner side of the cocoon. 

Caragach Fine cotton yarn, made in Asia 
Minor. 

Caraguata Very long, soft, silky leaf 
fi'ber of good strength, yielded by the 
Bromelia plant in South America; 
used for ropes. 

Caraua >Fine glossy fiber, yielded by a 
species of the Bromelia in Brazil; used 
for ropes. 

Caravonica Tree-cotton, prcduced by the 
crossing of a long staple Mexican cot- 
ton with a coarse long staple Peru- 
vian growing in India, Mexico, etc. 
Will grow in hot climate with not too 
much rain. There are two varieties: 
1, wool caravonica, adapted for mix- 
ing wiith wool and 2, silk earavonica, 
which has long, lustrous strong fiber. 

Carbonization Chemical process for re- 
covering wool from mixed rags by 
treating them with diluted sulphuric 
acid which destroys all vegetable 
.fibers and leaves the wool behind. 

Carcami Silk waste in Italy. 
Carcanes An East Indian cotton cloth. 

Carcassonnes Light woolen dress goods, 
made in C., France. 

Carda Inferior silk fabric of the 13th 
century, believed to have been used 
for lining. 

Cardigan In knitted fabric a stitch which 
is used to shape underwear or Is 
employed in knitting jackets. 

Cardillat Sort of French melton. 

Cardinal Cloth Red woolen cloth; used 

by high church functionaries- 
CardingPreliminary process in the spin- 
ning of wool or cotton yarn; the 
fibers are disentangled and thoroughly 
mixed. 

Carding Wool or Clothing Wool Has 

short staple measuring up to four 
inches, therefore shorter than comb- 
ins or worsted wools but has a 
greater felting property. They are 
used for woolens (see) although they 
can be also combed into French yarn. 

Cardis Twilled woolen cloth, fulled and 
calendered; now obsolete. 

Cardouzille Obsolete; light weight, all- 
wool twilled French dress goods. 



* -*<" 



CAR 



34 



CAS 



Carelles Obsolete black trousering, made 
of camels' hair. 

Cargaison A medium weight French lin- 
en. 

Carisol Thin, open canvas, made for em- 
broidery foundation in France. Also 
called Creseau. 

Carlett Wool fabric made in Norwich, 

England, in the 18th century. 
Carlowne -17th century English worsted. 

Carmeline Medium grade of the vicuna 
wool; used in France. 

Carmelite French all-wool, light, plain 
woven dress goods, made of natural 
wool and fulled; similar to bunting; 
used for clothing by the Carmelite 
monks. 

Carnauba Leaf fiber yielded by the 
carnauba palm in Brazil; used for 
ropes, cordage, hats, baskets. 

Garnet -A French bleached linen. 

Carnestolendas iSilky seed hair yielded 
by a tree in Venezuela. 

Carnival Lace A 16th century reticella, 
similar to the bridal lace in make 
and worn at festive occasions. 

Caroa A fiber growing wild in the inter- 
ior of Brazil and said to be much 
stronger than Manila hemp. It is lit- 
tle known as yet- 

Carocolillo 'Cotton yarn dyed red with the 
carocol shell in the West Indies. 

Carole Obsolete, twilled woolen trouser- 
ing, made in fancy colors with two- 
ply, hard twist warp and single filling. 

Carolina Pride A commercial variety of 
early maturing cotton from South 
Carolina, the staple measuring 23-26 
millimeters and forming clustered 
bolls; the yield is about 31 per cent. 
Also called Early Carolina. 

Carol inas Cheap ginghams in Colombia. 

Caroline 1, plain French serge dress 
goods, made with eight leaves and 
eight picks in a repeat; 2, bleached 
linen of medium grade, made in 
Silesia. 

Caroline Plaid An early 19th century 
English dress goods, three-quarters 
wide, made with cotton warp and 
worsted filling in plaid design. 

Caroset^-General term for various French 
flannels twilled on both sides and 
thoroughly fulled. Also sort of melton, 
made in the Vendee. 

Carpet Thick and strong floor covering, 
reversible or otherwise woven, knitted 
or felted, made of wool, cotton, hemp, 
etc. It is made in widths which are 
sewed together to cover the entire 
floor. 

Carpet Binding A tape to bind the edges 
of floor coverings; comes in wool or 
cotton. 

Carpet Thread Heavy three-ply sewing 
thread; used for joining carpets. 

Carpettes 'Coarse French twilled bagging 
for raw wool, made of tow, unbleached 
and striped. 



Carpmeals A stout and coarse English 
woolen fabric; used for clothing 
in the northern parts of England. 

Carradars East Indian gingham with 
multi-colored narrow stripes. 

Carranclanes Narrow ginghams in the 
Philippines, coming mostly in checks 
and plaids. 

Carreau French for check- 

Carrelet Inferior, lightweight, French 
woolen; obsolete. 

Carretine 'Changeable silk dress goods 
with small check pattern; now obso- 
lete. 

Carrickmacross Lace Irish lace. 1, the 
sprigs consist of fine lawn with but- 
tonholed edges, connected with each 
other by 'brides picotees (see) making 
a guipure. 2, the sprigs are bobbin 
made and appliqued over a machine- 
made ground. 

Carsey Old English for Kersey. 

Carthagena West Indian cotton, grown 
from American seed; has a fairly 
strong staple. 

Cartisane Parchment; used for padding 
the cordonnet or the foundation of the 
ipoint laces and also to pad raised em- 
broidery patterns. 

Cartouche French gros de Tours, the 
warp is made in repeated ombre, div- 
ided by stripes at equal distance. It 
was often given a moire finish; obso- 
lete. 

Casa East Indian cotton cloth. 

Casban (Stout twilled cotton lining with 
a gloss finish. 

Cascara Native Peruvian and Bolivian 

name for a cloth-like bast of the 

couratari tree; used for blankets, 
clothing, ropes, etc. 

Casement Cloth Plain or printed sheer 
fabric in white or cream color, made 
of cotton, monair or wooi; uised in 
England for the household and sum- 
mer dresses. 

Cashghar Woolen fabric, made in Kash- 
mir. 

Cashmere 1, very fine and soft wool 
yielded by the cashmere goat. The 
undergrowth is one of the very finest 
animal fibers known, called pashmina, 
while the longer hair is somewhat 
coarser. It is used for the best grades 
of Indian shawls, rugs and also dress 
goods; 2, a closely woven, soft, fine 
and light dress fabric, made with 
single cotton or wool warp and fine 
Botany filling in a 2-1 weft face twill- 
The color eit'ect is usually mixture; 
3, soft, loosely woven twilled cotton 
dress fabric, printed to imitate the 
mixed woolen. 4, knit goods, made of 
slack twist Saxony or other fine wors- 
ted yarn. 

Cashmere Atlas All-wool, highly finished 
weft satin dress goods, the filling is 
finer and of slacker twist than the 
warp. 



CAS 



35 



CAU 



Cashmere Shawl One of the finest tex- 
tiles known, made by the natives of 
Kashmir and Thibet on hand looms of 
pashmina wool (see). Some of them 
are embroidered, showing the pattern 
alike on both sides, others are only 
dyed in one or more colors. The 
French cashmere shawl is woven on 
.jacquard loom in multi-colored de- 
signs, which show only on one side. 
The shawls made at the present in 
Kashmir are inferior in color and de- 
sign. The warp is two-ply while the 
filling is single yarn. The latter is 
wound around small sticks used as 
a shuttle. 

Cashmere Twill A closely woven 2-1 
weft twill weave. 

Cashmere Wool 'See Cashmere 1. 

Cashmerette 1, a twilled, soft and lus- 
trous cotton fabric, often lightly 
napped, made to imitate cashmere; 2, 
fancy woolen for waistcoats; obsolete. 
3, twilled dress goods of spun silk 
warp and woolen filling. 

Casimii An all-wool, twilled summer 
dress goods, made in narrow, diagonal 
twill without any fulling, usually of 
worsted warp and woolen filling. Also 
an obsolete stout twilled French cot- 
ton cloth. 

Casinetes Cheap cotton trouserings in 
Bolivia, Peru, etc. 

Casket Cloth .Light, black fabric, made 
of wool and cotton; used for covering 
caskets- 

Cassas or Cossaes East Indian fine and 
soft cotton muslin made of very 
slack twist yarn. 

Cassimere 1, variety of plain woven or 
twilled woolen or worsted fabrics, in 
checks, stripes, etc., soft finished but 
not napped; used for men's wear; 2, 
twilled woolen or cotton dress goods, 
made with two sets of warps in vari- 
ous colors and given a soft finish. 

Cassimere Twill An even sided, four 
harness twill weave, each thread pass- 
ing alternately over and under two 
threads. 

Cassimerette Cheaper grade of cassi- 
mere. 

Cassinett 'Fancy English alpaca fa'bric in 
the 19th century. 

Cassi net English twilled stout trousering 
and waistcoating in various colors, 
made of fine cotton warp and woolen 
yarn dyed in the wool. It is slightly 
fulled and calendered. The double 
cassinet is made with alternate wool- 
en and cotton yarn filling. Three- 
quarters of the wool filling is thrown 
on the face and three-quarters of the 
cotton filling is on the back of the 
cloth. 

Cast A rough, coarse, bad-bred fleece of 
wool. 

Castagnettes Obsolete; double faced 
French serge, made of wool, silk and 
linen yarns. 

Castalogne Fine woolen blanket made in 
France and Spain. 



Castel Branco A good Portuguese car- 
pet wool. 
Castellamare 'Sort of raw cotton from 

Italy. 

Castilla 'Coarse homespun or imported 
woolen, having a long nap; used for 
shawls and cloaks by the natives of 
Peru. 

Castinette Obsolete; French etamine 
dress goods, made with a warp com- 
posed of one strand of hard twist 
worsted, usually of dark brown color 
and several silk strands of a lighter 
shade- The filling was a two-strand 
silk yarn of dark color, usually brown. 

Castor 'Heavy, stout, fulled and calen- 
dered broadcloth overcoating. 

Castorine Obsolete; term for astrakhan 
cloth with a short pile; used for win- 
ter coating. 

Castravane Raw silk from Asia Minor; 
used for braids. 

Castuli (Philippine fiber; used for cord- 
age. 

Catablattion Purple colored silk fabric of 
the Middle Ages. 

Catacaos A variety of the tree cotton 
from Peru. 

Catalapha A silk fabric mentioned in a 
17th century English manuscript. 

Catalowne Same as Buffyn (see), made 
with double and twist yarn and a dif- 
ferent colored filling. 

Catasfittulum A medieval fabric of un- 
known structure. 

Catawba A late maturing commercial 
variety of cotton from South Caro- 
lina, the staple measuring 22-25 milli- 
meters, the yield being 35-36 per cent. 

Cate Caatjes 'East Indian cotton cloth. 

Catechu, Cutch A dyestuff derived from 
the leaves and wood of various acacia 
trees in India and marketed as a dark 
colored paste. Gives a fast, rich 
brown color. 

Catena White bast fiber, yielded by a 
species of the heliocarpus tree in 
Mexico. 

Caterpillar Point Rich Italian needle- 
point lace of the 17th century, the 
raterpillar-like patterns are outlined 
with raised cordonnet and connected 
with brides picotees. 

Catgut An open, plain woven linen fab- 
ric, made of hardspun yarn and sized; 
used for embroidery. 
Cathay East Indian striped satin- 
Catherine Wheel An ornament in em- 
broidery to fill up round holes. 
Catifah Obsolete; name for Arabian vel- 
vets. 

Cattivella Italian silk dress goods, made 
of fine floret silk. 

Cattle Hair Cloth Commercial name for 
a stout twilled fa'bric, containing wool 
waste and some calf hair, heavy nap 
is raised by gigging; used for carriage 
robes. 

Caul Gold net; used in the Middle Ages 
as part of the headdress. 

Caul Work Obsolete: term for netting. 



CAU 



36 



CHA 



Caungeantries 'English changeable fab- 
ric, made of worsted and silk in the 
16th century. 

Caustic Soda Used for bleaching and in 
indigo printing and especially mer- 
cerizing cotton. Its solution com- 
pletely disintegrates wool when at 
boiling temperature but concentrated 
caustic soda is used to give scroop 
and luster to wool. 

Cavalleys 'Fine dyed cotton fabric, im- 
ported to England from Central 
America in the 18th century. 

Cayenne 1, sort of raw silk from Guy- 
ana: 2, lightweight, loosely woven, 
unbleached French linen. 

Ceara 'Mexican and Brazilian raw cotton, 
having a fairly clean, medium strong, 
good, cohesive staple of dull white 
color. 

Ceba (Fine and silky cotton, grown in 
Mexico on the ceba tree. 

Cebu Hemp Trade term for a certain 
grade of Manila hemp (see). 

Cefiros 1, liht cotton cambric in Colom- 
bia v often made with white or blue 
warp and white filling; 2, cotton 
zephyr in Venezuela. 

Ceiba 'Yellowish, silky seed hair, grown 
on the Bomibax tree in South America; 
used for stuffing. 

Celestine 'A woolen fabric, made in Eng- 
land under Edward VI., said to have 
been of light blue color, and made 
with wide selvage. 

Cellular Cloth Term ,for various open 
faibrics irrespective of weave or mate- 
rial. In England an open cotton leno; 
used for underwear. 

Celtic A term used in Scotland to denote 
the hopsack weave, with a satin base. 

Cendal or Sandal Obsolete; silk cloth of 
Chinese origan, made thin in plain 
weave; used for lining, flags, etc. 
Also a rich silk fabric of the Middle 
Ages. 

Cendati A medieval silk fabric made in 
Italy. 

Center Fiber In bobbin laces the main 
vein of the leaves. 

Cere Cloth A cloth treated with wax; 
used for wrapping dead bodies in 
England; obsolete. Also called cere- 
ment. 

Ceylon A fulled shirting, made of cotton 
warp and wool and cotton mixture 
yarn filling, containing little cotton. 

Cha Very light and thin Chinese silk 
cloth, made in plain weave but usu- 
ally printed with very closely placed 
floral patterns; used for summer gar- 
ments by the natives. 

Chabnam Obsolete; very thin East In- 
dian cotton muslin. 

Chacart East Indian calico, printed with 
bright; multi-colored checks. 



Chadar or Chadder 1, plain woven cotton 
fabric; used for garments in Arabia. 
It has a very wide blue or black warp 
stripe on one side with two narrow 
white weft stripes appearing four 
times at intervals at the ends. The 
"width is about 40 indhes and the 
length 100 inches; 2, East Indian 
shawl, made of wool or goat's hair, 
having woven figures on a solid 
ground; 3, trade name in East Africa 
for half bleached cotton fabrics, im- 
ported from India; used for loin cloth. 

Chadder Ulaya 'Native name in East Af- 
rica for half bleached, bordered cot- 
ton fabrics imported from England; 
used for loin cloth. 

Chafe Marks In silk goods displacement 
of the fibers caused when the cloth is 
wet. 

Chafed A flaw in the cloth, caused by 
cthajfing the yarns. 

Chaferconne 'Fine East Indian linen 
fabric, printed in colors (often with 
hand blocks) ; used for scarfs, muf- 
flers and handkerchiefs. 

Chagrin 1, English book cloth, made of 
cotton; 2. silk dress goods with peb- 
bled surface resembling leather. 3, 
narrow rich braid, made of silk or 
gold thread. 

Chaguar 'Strong leaf fiber, yielded by a 
species of the wild pineapple in Ar- 
gentine; used by the natives for 
cordage, hammocks, .bags and also for 
weaving a sort of cuirass. 

Chain iSee Warp. 

Chain Boulee Part of the macrame, made 
by knitting two threads into a cord. 

Chain Cotton Trade name for Brazilian 
cotton. 

Chain Stitch 'In embroidery and crochet- 
ing, similar to a chain. 

Chain Twill A weave producing a twill 
similar to a chain. ' 

Chain Twist Yarn first made two-ply to 
which a third ply is added with a 
reverse twist. 

Chain Weave Piece dyed worsted fabric, 
finished without any nap, woven in 
double corkscrew. 

Chainette 1, French serge suiting, made 
with eight leaves and three or four 
picks in a repeat. 2, obsolete; stout 
twilled French silk vesting, 'made with 
small patterns. It was usually black. 

Chakhi A warp faced fabric, made of silk 
warp and cotton filling; used in 
Egypt. 

Chakmak A Turkish fabric, made of 
silk, often with cotton filling, and in- 
terwoven with gold thread. 

Chalinet See Challis. 

Chalk Used in dyeing with sumach and 
Turkey red. 

Chalk Stripes General term for narrow 
white stripes over a dark ground. 



CHA 



37 



CHE 



Challi or Challis A very light and soft, 
plain woven dress goods in the 19th 
century in Kngland, made of silk warp 
and worsted filling or of all wool, fin- 
ished without any gloss. The figures 
were either woven or usually printed 
over a white or pale colored ground. 

Chalon All-wool, twilled light English 
suiting and dress fabric, calendered 
on the face, and usually made in 
black, about one yard wide. 

Chalys See Challis. 

Chambers A commercial variety ot cot- 
ton from South Carolina, the late ma- 
turing staple measuring 22-25 milli- 
meters, the yield of lint being 32 per 
cent. 

Chambery Very light French dress goods, 
made with silk warp and goat hair 
tilling. 

Chamblette .Seventeenth century English 
pure or silk mixed worsteds, watered 
or plain. 

Chambord 'French mourning dress goods, 
made of all-wool. The warp some- 
times contains silk or is made of 
cotton. It is woven with ribbed ef- 
fect, often with alternating heavy and 
light ribs. 

Chambray Plain woven light dress goods, 
made of cotton or silk with a dank 
blue, brown, bladk, etc., warp and 
'white filling. 

Chambray Gingham 'Fine cotton ging- 
ham, given a glossy finish; comes 
mostly in solid colors. 

Champ Same as fond (see). 

Champion Cluster A commercial variety 
of late maturing American cotton, the 
staple measuring 25-28 millimeters, 
the yield of lint being 30-31 per cent. 

Chandar Unbleached, bleached, dyed or 
printed cotton cloth, exported to India- 

Chandul East Indian fiber, yielded by the 
Lepuranda succidora; used for bag- 
ging. 

Changeable Effect A color effect exten- 
sively applied in silk fabrics, produced 
usually by weaving the cloth of dif- 
ferent colored, yarn dyed warp, and 
weft. 

Changeant 1, all-wool, French camlot; 
obsolete; 2, see changeable. 

Chantilly Lace Originally white linen, 
later black silk bobbin lace of fine 
net ground, untwisted flat cordonnet 
and delicate flowers. The ground is 
the socalled double ground. 

Chappe or Schappe Silk 'Waste silk which 
has only a part of its material gum 
removed by means of soaking it in 
water or by fermentation. 

Charara Long staple cotton grown in 
Egypt. 

Chardonnet Silk An artificial silk named 
after its inventor, made by dissolving 
nitrated cellulose in ether. 

Charkhana Checked muslin of cotton and 
silk or pure cotton in India, four-ply 
colored threads, forming the checks. 

Chartreuse A very light silk satin crepe 
with a pebbled effect on the back; 
the face is finished with a high lustre. 



Charmoy Indian ribbed silk fabric. 

Chasselas Cotton cloth in the West Afri- 
can coast trade. 

Chassum >Silk waste, produced in reeling 
in India. 

Chatoyant French for shot colors. 
Chats Fulled French woolen, made with 

white warp and blue or black filLing; 

obsolete. 

Chattan A Highland tartan, worn by the 
chiefs of the clan Ch.; it is composed 
as follows: *narrow black and white 
line; wide dark green stripe; white 
line; yellow, red (split with black 
line) and yellow stripes of equal 
width, these three together being as 
wide as the green; white line; gray 
stripe, somewhat narrower than 
green; black stripe, being half the 
width of the gray; red stripe, same 
as black * ; yellow stripe, same as 
gray, split with a white line; re- 
peat, in reversed order, group de- 
scribed between two * ; red bar, one- 
third in width of entire group. 

Chaussettes White thread hosiery made 
in Vitre, France, by the peasants. 

Chavonnis .Sheer East Indian cotton 

muslin. 
Chayong A corded silk velvet from 

'China. 

Cheanyes Seventeenth century English 

worsted, made in Norwich; believed 

to have been watered. 
Chebka Hand-made lace from Tunis, 

made with Moorish designs; used for 

dresses and furniture. 

Check A pattern in weave, produced by 
two or more yarns of warp and filling 
of the same color. 

Checks il, medieval English worsted fab- 
rics; 2, blue and white or red and 
white checked fabrics, made as linen 
checks, cotton checks and mixed 
checks. 

Check Canvas Open embroidery canvas 
containing double and single threads, 
both in the warp and filling, which 
produce a plaid-like effect. 

Check Mohair .Made of mohair with 
small checks in white ground; used 
for children's dresses in England. 

Checked Muslin White muslins with col- 
ored cord stripes or checks and plaids; 
used for dresses, curtains, etc. 

Checlatoun Rich medieval silk fabric; 
see Ciclatoun. 

Cheese ClothA cheap, plain woven, very 
loose, soft open faced, white or col- 
ored, light cotton fabric, made of sin- 
gle yarns and used for wrapping 
cheese, for underlining, curtains, flags, 
etc. 

Chekeratus A 13th century checked fab- 
ric; used by the clergy. 

Chelais Plain woven cotton fabric; used 
for loin cloths and scarfs in East 
India; it is made with a checked or 
striped border and a wide heading. 



CHE 



CHI 



Chelem A variety of sisal from Yucatan. 
Chelos East Indian calico shirting, print- 
ed with fancy colored checks or plaids- 
Chemical Fibei One which is not made 
by nature, as the vegetable and ani- 
mal fibers are, but which are pro- 
duced artificially through chemical 
process, like the artificial silk. 
Chenille A cotton, wool or silk yarn, 
having a pile protruding all around 
at right angles; similar to a cater- 
pillar; used as weft for fancy goods, 
curtains, and carpets; also for em- 
broidery and fringes. It is woven in 
gauze weave with cotton or linen warp 
and silk, wool or cotton filling; the 
warp threads are taped in groups and 
the filling beaten in very closely. 
After weaving the fabric is cut be- 
tween the bunches of warps, and the 
latter twisted, forming the chenille. 
Chenille Axminster A cut pile carpet, 
made by binding printed chenille 
thread from side to side, to tlhe foun- 
dation. 

Chenille CarpetOriginal name for the 
patent Axminster (see). 

Chenille Cloth -Made with cotton wool or 
silk yarn warp and chenille filling; 
used for millinery. 

Chenille Lace French needlepoint lace of 
the 18th century; it has a hexagonal 
silk net ground with patterns out- 
lined with white chenille. 

Chenille Shawl 'Made originally in Eng- 
land with chenille weft. 

Chequer Stitch Used in bobbin lace 
spri'gs as filling for berries and flow- 
ers. 

Chequermolles Obsolete East Indian cot- 
ton cloth. 

Cherolee East Indian striped cottons. 

Cherconnee Indian silk and cotton taf- 
feta; made with stripes and checks. 

Cherquemolle 'Indian fabric made of bast 
fibers mixed with silk. 

Cherry Commercial variety of early ma- 
turing cotton from South Carolina, 
the small bolls yielding 30-32 per cent 
lint, the staple measuring 18-22 milli- 
meters. 

Cheshire 'Plain woven bleached cotton 
fabrics, made in England, 36 inches 
wide, with 76 ends and 88 picks per 
square inch; used for calicoes. 

Chessboard Canvas Stout white embroid- 
ery canvas with alternate Checks, 
woven plain, and in honeycomb. 

Cheverett 'Seventeenth century English 
worsted. 

Chevillier Process to import luster to the 
silk filament after dyeing by twisting 
and winding the filaments around 
themselves under pressure- 
Cheviot 1, Scotch wool, has a soft, fine 
staple; used for cheviots; 2, origi- 
nally an all-wool, twilled and closely 
napped fabric, made of cheviot yarn 
coarser than 56s. Now usually adul- 
terated with cotton and weighted with 
flocks. 



Cheviot Britch Britch wool from the 
cheviot fleece. 

Cheviot Shirting 'Stout, twilled cotton 
shirting made of coarse yarn; the 
pattern consists of small dobby de- 
signs or fancy warp stripes, formed 
by single warps and ribs by double 
warps. It comes usually in blue or 
brown, while the filling is white. 

Chevrette Hair obtained from the skin 
of the Angora kid by a liming pro- 
cess. 

Chevron 1, same as Herringbone (see); 
2, French serge dress goods, made 
with eig'ht leaves and four picks in a 
repeat. 

Chichi Rugs All-wool rugs made in Cau- 
casia; the pile is of medium length, 
tied in Ghiordes knot. The colors are 
dark, blue is often used. The pattern 
consists of irregular and varied fig- 
ures in the field, of crosses, conven- 
tionalized flowers and geometrical 
designs. There is a wide border of 
several stripes, iBoth ends are fin- 
ished with a narrow knotted fringe. 

Chiffon 1, general term for bleached cot- 
ton shirtings in Roumania; 2, a very- 
light, transparent fabric, made of silk 
in plain weave; it is very soft and 
pliable; 3, used in connection with 
other textile terms, as velvet, etc., to 
denote <pliancy; 4, in Germany and 
Austria a stout and fine, plain woven 
linen fabric, given a smooth finish; 
used for shirts and underwear. 

Chiffon iNet In England a very fine grade 
of black silk net; used for laces. 

Chiffonized In England and France wool 
and si 14c velvets having a lustrous 
'pile, finished dull on the face. 

Chijimi A narrow Japanese silk fabric of 
solid color; used for drapery. 

Chikan 'Hand embroidered fine cotton 
muslin in India. 

Chikti Soft, strong, glossy 'fiber, similar 
to jute, yielded by the Triumfetta 
rhomboidea in India. 

Chikun Fibrous bast of the Indian nettle 
tree, used for clothing by the native 
tribes. 

Chilima Very stnonig bast fiber, yielded 
by the Bombax tree in Peru. 

Chilkaht Blanket woven 'by the Ch. In- 
dians in Alaska of the hair of the 
mountain goat. The colors are yellow, 
black, white, blue and red, usually 
with a black border around- The 
blanket has a deep fringe at the bot- 
tom and narrow at the sides. The 
designs usually consist of eyes and 
faces. 

Chilli A icoarse calico in the African 
trade, made in England. 

Chimayo Woolen blankets woven in New 
Mexico and Mexico by the Indians. 
The design consists of straight cross 
stripes in blue, black, red and white; 
formerly woven in two pieces which 
were sewn together, now made in one 
piece of two-ply yarn. 

Chin Brocaded silk fabric made in China. 
China Crepe 'See Crepe de Chine. 



CHI 



39 



CHO 



China Finish In England a very bright 
finish given {0 cotton fabrics (mostly 
made for export) by using a heavy 
sizing of china clay and calendering. 

China Grass See Ramie. 

China Jute Bast fiber of the Indian mal- 
low. 

China Mull Very soft, light, plain woven 
fabric, made of cotton and silk. 

China Ribbon A now obsolete very nar- 
row ribbon in solid or fancy colors; 
used for book markers or to embroider 
with. 

China Steam Filature Very brilliant, 
strong and white and regular raw 
silk, reeled in 13/15 deniers in north- 
ern China on modern machinery. 
Graded in 3 classes; Nos. 1 and 2 for 
organzine; No. 3 for tram. 

Chinchilla A heavy but spongy woolen 
overcoating or cloaking, made with 
one or two sets of warp and from 
one to four sets of filling. It is made 
with 'plain or fancy back. The face 
is woven with long floats, formed by 
fine, slack twist thread, which is 
teazled into a long nap and rubbed 
into curly nubs in the finishing by 
special machinery. 

Chine General term for various designs 
or colors printed in faint and indefi- 
nite outlines on the warp before the 
weaving of certain fabrics, as taf- 
feta, gros de Tours, serges and satins. 
In warp pile velvet the design printed 
on the warp is about six times the 
length of the pattern seen in the 
finished fabric, owingto the "take-in" 
during the weaving. 

Chinese Burr Triumfetta pilosa of 
Queensland, Australia; yields a clean, 
etrong, lustrous, soft and fairly resil- 
ient fiber, similar to jute. 

Chinese Jute White, lustrous, fairly 
strong 'fiber, yielded by the Indian 
mallow. 

Ching Ma Silky and strong fiber in 
China, yielded by the abutilon plant; 
used for cordage. 

Chintz 1, general term in Russia for all- 
cotton cloths, printed in simple de- 
signs, stripes, checks, flowers, etc.; 2, 
cotton cloth of plain, sometimes da- 
mask or diaper weave, made with 
hard spun, fine warp, often taped and 
a much coarser, slack twist filling, 
printed with flowers, birds, and other 
patterns, in bright colors on white or 
colored ground, and glazed by calen- 
dering; used for furniture coyer and 
drapery. Originally from India. The 
full chintz has a ground in two 
shades of madder red, while the half 
chintz is only printed on white or 
cream ground. 

Chintz Braid <Cotton braid, printed and 
finished like chintz, used for dress 
trimming. 

Chintzing A process in weaving, by 
which the colors in the extra weft 
yarns are replaced with other ones 
in horizontal sections of the pattern. 



Chioggia Lace Coarse, Italian bobbin 
lace, similar to the early Flanders 
laces. 

Chique Inferior French raw silk; used 
for threads. 

Chiquechique Very strong, durable and 
light fiber, yielded by the leaves of a 
palm in Venezuela; used for brooms, 
ropes, and cordage. 

Chirimen Japanese lusterless silk crepe, 
the warp and filling consisting of 
equally thick yarns; the filling yarn 
is twisted to the right and to the 
left; the fabric is dyed in the piece. 

Chisholm Even sided Highland tartan, 
made as follows: Wide bright red 
and narrower dark green bars alter- 
nating. The red bars are spdit with 
a pair of white lines in the middle. 
The green bars are edged with three 
blue stripes ((wider on the outside, 
narrower inside), and are split with 
a red line in the middle. 

Chitrak Turkish fabric, made with cot- 
ton warp and silk filling. 

Chitrang Bast 'fiber, yielded by the Ster- 
culia Wightii in China; used for cord- 
age. 

Chits Plain and close woven fine calico 
from East India. 

Chiverett Eighteenth certury woolen 
fabric in England; see Cheverett. 

Chlidema Square Carpet made 27 inches 
wide, with an unmitered border. 

Chloralum A 25 per cent solution of alu- 
minum chloride; used in carbonizing 
wool. 

Chloride of Chrome Used as mordant for 
alizarine on silk and cotton. 

Chlorinated Wool Which was treated 
with solution of hydrochloric acid; 
such wool is very harsh, does not felt, 
has a high gloss and a greater affinity 
for dyes. 

Chlorination A process consisting of 
treating all-wool or union fabrics 
iwith an acid solution of bleaching 
powder, which increases the strength 
of the wool, gives it a luster and 
harsih feel; makes it unshrinkable and 
unfelting and increases its affinity 
for dyes. 

Chlorine iSee Bleaching Powder. 

Choel 'Strong fi'ber, obtained from the 
young roots of the Butea gum tree in 
India; used for cordage. 

Choice 1, merino clothing wool taken 
from the best part of the neck of a 
fine fleece; 2, in the woolen trade the 
third quality of wool, taken from the 
middle of the sides. 

Cholet 1, unbleached light French linen, 
finished without any dressing; 2, 
fancy colored handkerchiefs; 3, light- 
weight linen with narrow blue and 
yellow or blue and red stripes. 

Chom 'Native name in Yucatan for the 
strong, silky leaf fiber of the wild 
pineapple. 

Chongkwen Light silk taffeta, made in 
China, about 27 inches wide; used 
for umbrellas. 



CHO 



40 



CLO 



Choquettes French term for cocoons of 
diseased silkworms. 

Chop Brands of Chinese and Japanese 
raw or reeled silks. 

Choppat Bast Indian lightweight silk 
taffeta. 

Chosheb In the Bible textiles having 
patterns woven with gold on a varie- 
gated ground. 

Chouca Strong leaf fiber, yielded by spe- 
cies of the aloe in South America; 
used for cordage. 

Chowtar East Indian cotton muslin. 

Chrome Fluoride Used in mordanting 
wool- 

Chrysoclavus Rich Byzantine fabric, 
made of white or purple silk, embroid- 
ered with large gold nail heads; worn 
by state dignitaries. 

Chucumci Hard, rough sisal fiber from 
Yucatan. 

Chuddah 'Solid colored wool shawl, made 
in India of pashmina in very fine twill 
on hand looms. 

Chuddei See Chadar. 

Chumese East Indian trade name for 
sunn hemp (see). 

Chuna South American sheep, descend- 
ant of the Spanish merino, yields 
long wool. 

Cliuncu iBast fiber, yielded by the Cala- 
dium tree in Peru. 

Chunri Piece dyed cotton fabric in In- 
dia, dyed as the bandanna handker- 
chiefs are. 

Chuquelas 'Striped Indian taffetas, made 
of silk and cotton. 

Church Laces (Needle point laces of the 
17th century; used for ecclesiastical 
purposes, originally with designs of 
Biblical character. 

Chusan Dress goods of cotton warp and 
worsted filling, with Jacquard pat- 
terns; obsolete. 

Ciciclia (Silk or half-silk damask dress 
goods 'figured with flowers over satin 
foundation; made in Asia Minor. 

Ciclatoun, Siglaton, or Cyclas -Medieval 
golden fabrics in Europe; originated 
from Persia. 

Cinq Trous French lace made with a 
five sided mesh ground. 

Cintas General term for ribbon in I^atin- 
America. 

Ciporovica Bulgarian tufted rug, made of 
native wool on hand looms. 

CircassianEnglish worsted fabric of the 
19th century. 

Circassian Rugs All-wool rugs, made in 
Asia Minor; the short and loose pile 
is tied in Ghiordes knot, both ends 
are 'finished with a narrow, knotted 
fringe; usually elementary colors ara 
being used, white extensively. 

Circassienne 'French twilled summer 
dress goods, similar to cashmere, 
made of pure wool or cotton warp 
and woolen filling, dyed in the wool- 
It was made in solid or mixed colors; 
now obsolete. 



Citamci An inferior grade of sisal fiber 
from Yucatan. 

Civil Coarse but strong bast fiber, yield- 
ed 'by a species of the Malvaceae in 
Mexico. 

Claires 'Fine, open batiste, made in 
France. 

Claith 'Scotch mill parlance for cloth. 

Clandian 'Fine, lightweight woolen sum- 
mer dress goods, consisting of alter- 
nating stripes of a dark color inter- 
changed with a number of lighter 
colored threads and stripes of mix- 
ture or mottled colors. 

Clarines 'See Claires. 

Classical The second best grade of raw 
silk. 

Classing Process of dividing the fleeces 
into groups, according to their quali- 
ties. 

Classiques French, stout, all-cotton 
sheetings. 

Clauthse Very soft, obsolete French 
woolen trousering and coating, made 
with a comparatively very heavy 
warp; fulled in the finish; obsolete. 

Clays Originally English worsted serge 
for men's wear, made of slack twist 
warp and filling, woven with six-har- 
ness twill, forming very flat diagonals 
and finished with a soft 'but clear 
handle. 

Clear Finish Fabrics having the nap re- 
moved from the face, .showing the 
weave. 

Clergy Tartan A tartan formerly used 
by the Scotch Highland clergy for 
every day wear. It consisted of wide 
dark blue and black bars of even 
width. The -black bars were split 
in the middle with a fine green stripe. 
The blue bars were alternately split 
by a pair of fine green stripes or 
five fine green stripes. The latter 
arranged in pairs at the edge and one 
in the middle. All green stripes were 
edged with a fine black line. 



Ball of thread or yarn- 



Cle 

Clinchamps 'Coarse French canvas of 
hemp. 

Clinquant Flat gold braid for military 

uniforms. 
Clip One season's yield of wool. 

Clippings Irregular small pieces of cloth, 
the waste of the cutting room; used 
for patch work, quilts, or are re- 
worked into shoddy. 

Clisson Obsolete, medium fine, bleached, 
French linen shirting, made 28 and 42 
inches wide. 

Cloaking Large variety of woolen, wors- 
ted or silk fabrics used for cloaks or 
coats; usually of heavier weight, as 
chinchillas, sibeline, etc. 

Clochepied Three-thread organzine for 

gauze; made by twisting first two 

threads together, then adding the 
third thread. 



CLO 



41 



coc 



Clock Embroidery at the ankles of the 
hosiery, consisting of two lines meet- 
ing at an angle, one line going up 
the leg, the other toward the toe. 
In French is called coin. 

Close Leaf In bobbin-made sprigs leaves 
entirely filled out with cloth stitches. 

Close Stitch In needle-point laces all 
buttonhole stitches made without any 
loops. 

Cloth 1, general term for fulled woolen 
fabrics; 2, general term for any tex- 
tile fabric having some body; 3, me- 
dieval English worsted made six 
yards long and two yards wide. 

Cloth of Areste Medieval rich fabric 
woven with gold figures; used for 
church vestments. 

Cloth Blanket Made in plain weave and 
slightly napped. 

Cloth of Bruges Gold brocaded silk fab- 
ric; used for church vestments in 
England during the Middle Ages. 

Cloth of Cologne Medieval fabric made 
at Cologne, Germany, with gold pat- 
terns over blue or other colored silk 
foundation. 

Cloth Embroidery In Asiatic countries 
work made of joining together vari- 
ous shaped and colored small pieces 
of cloth with the aid of fancy stitches. 

Cloth of Gold Fa'brics mentioned in old 
manuscripts, made entirely of gold 
wire, narrow flat strips of gold, or 
imixed with other fibers, as silk. 

Cloth Ingrain Medieval English worsted, 
worn by the rich. 

Cloth of Pall Rich medieval silk fabric 

dyed in crimson; used for church 

vestments- 
Cloth of Raynes Fine medieval linen, 

originally from Brittany; used for 

shirts and bed linen. 

Cloth Serge An 18th century English 
serge, made of worsted warp and 
woolen filling. 

Cloth Stitch In bobbin laces interlacing 
the threads like the weaving of a 
cloth. 

Cloth of Tars A costly medieval fabric, 
believed to 'be of silk and cashmere 
wool; usually dyed purple. 

Clothing Wool Of short fiber unfit to 
comb and used in the manufacture of 
woolens. It possesses the property of 
felting readily. Also called carding 
wool. 

Clouding Process of producing large 
spots on silk fabrics in the dyeing. 

Cloudy 1, defect in the cotton sliver 
caused by thick uncarded rough 
places; 2, defect in yarn, showing thin 
and thick places; 3, defect in the 
piece dyed fabrics, showing uneven- 
ness in color. 

Cloudy Yarn 1, fancy ply yarn, having 
flakes held by the strands; 2, ply yarn 
with irregular twist, made by alter- 
nately twisting the different colored 
strands around each other. 



Clout Pieces and remnants of cloth, quite 
valueless. 

Clouties English linen cloth. 

Clove English measure of wool, equal to 
7.7 pounds. 

Club Check Small checks in quiet two- 
colored effects. 

Cluny 1, originally a sort of darned net- 
ting with raised stitches; 2, at the 
present a bobbin guipure lace with 
geometric patterns. 

Cluny Guipure^Hand-made lace, the pat- 
terns being worked over square net- 
ting ground, similar to the darned net 
laces. 

Cluny Tapestry iStout, thick fabric made 
in England with woolen warp and 
silk filling, forming warp cords; used 
for hangings. 

Coarse Bobs In England same as cable 
net. 

Coarse Tow The entire fiber of flax, af- 
ter the shives have been removed. 

Coat 'Piece of stout canvas tarred or 
painted and nailed around the mast 
or pumps of the ship where they en- 
ter the deck- 
Coating 'Heavy woolen, worsted, also 
silk fabrics of a great variety of 
weaves and patterns; used for outer- 
garments. 

Cobbler In England piece goods which 
have been returned because of unsat- 
isfactory make or dye. 

Cobourg or Coburg An English fabric in- 
troduced after the marriage of Queen 
Victoria; made of closely placed silk 
or cotton warp and worsted filling, 
woven in a 2/1 cashmere twill weave; 
used for coat lining and dress goods. 
They come dyed in the piece or 
printed. 

Cobweb 1, name applied to very sheer 
hosiery; 2, a commercial variety of 
late maturing cotton from 'Mississippi, 
the very fine and silky staple 'meas- 
uring 35-40 millimeters; the yield Is 
'28-29 per cent. 

Cochineal Crimson dye derived from the 
dried 'bodies of the coccus cacti, small 
insects in Central America, and mar- 
keted as fine grain. It is ground up 
in hot water and is still used for 
mordant dyeing wool and silk. 

Cochran A commercial variety of cotton 
from Georgia, the staple measuring 
35-40 millimeters; the yield is 32-33 
per cent. 

Cockle 1, flaw in the fabric, showing as 
puffs, blisters or crimpiness; caused 
in the .finishing or by unequal tension 
of the yarn in the weaving; 2, flaw 
in the cotton yarn, consisting of knots, 
caused by the mixing of short and 
long staple. 

Cocuiza A strong, smooth fiber, yielded 
by the leaves of the Furcraea gigantea 
in Venezuela; used for ropes, bags, 
etc. 

Cocoa nada East Indian cotton, having a 
short staple of dull brown color. 



coc 



42 



CON 



Cocoon An oval shell, consisting of raw 
silk, spun by the silkworm around it- 
self. The outer and inner layers can 
be used only for floss or spun silk, 
while at>out 10 per cent of the weight 
can be reeled off in a single filament, 
averaging about 300 yards in length. 
About Ii2 pounds of cocoons will yield 
one pound of raw silk. If the chrysalis 
is permitted to pierce the cocoon and 
escape, the eilk can be used only for 
spun silk. 

Cocos Fibei Same as coir (see). 

Codilla The scutching tow, a coarse by- 
product or waste of the flax and hemp. 

Codrington Fancy English alpaca fabric 
in the 19th century. 

Coeur Fleuri 'French ticking and linen, 
woven w.ith small geometrical figures 
and bleached- 

Coffin Cloth Made with cotton warp and 
woolen filling in plain weave, dyed 
black; used for lining coffins and for 
shrouds. 

Cogware A coarse English woolen fab- 
ric of the 15-th century, made like a 
frieze. 

Cohras Prints East Indian colored cot- 
tons; the design is printed with wax, 
which throws off the coloring matter 
which the ground is dyed with. The 
wax is later removed. 

Coin 'French for clock (see). 

Coir Reddish brown, strong, stiff and 
elastic fiber, yielded by the outer shell 
of the unripe cocoanut; used for 
mats, cordage, etc. 

Colbertan Lace Coarse French lace 
named after Colbert, with ground of 
square meshes. 

Colchonetas 'Cotton quilts filled with 
tatting in Cuba. 

Colias Coarse Philippine 'fiber; used for 
cordage. 

Collar Twine Trade term in Scotland and 
England for a coarser and cheaper 
grade of cable thread. 

Collar Velvet Fine silk velvet of very 
short pile; used for collars. 

Collette Unbleached canvas of medium 

grade. 
Colombiana In the Philippine Islands 

worsted piece dyed lastings. 

Colombo Yarn Second grade of coir 
yarn; made in Ceylon; used for ropes 
and coarse fabrics. 

Colonial Silk English trade term for arti- 
ficial silk- 
Colorado River Hemp 'See Wild Hemp. 

Colored Goods Trade term denoting all 
sorts of printed and dyed fabrics as 
against white goods. 

Colored Grays Gray mixture woolen fab- 
rics, having other colored yarns in- 
terwoven. 

Colored TwillSolid colored, twilled cot- 
ton fabric; used for drapery. 



Colquhoun A Highland tartan, consisting 
of the following: Black bar, dark blue 
bar, twice as wide, split by a pair 
of black lines in the center, black 
bar, narrow white stripe, two dark 
green bars, each as wide as the black, 
separated by a red line; a narrow 
white stripe. 

Colthorp Pride A commercial variety of 
late maturing cotton from Louisiana; 
the staple measures 28-32 millimeters; 
the yield is 28-30 per cent. 

Comaca 'Silky, yellowish seed hair of the 
Bombax tree in British Guiana. 

Comashes A fabric mentioned in 17th 
century English manuscripts, as im- 
ported from Turkey; structure and 
composition unknown. 

Combed Yarn 1, cotton yarn made of 
combed, long staple cotton, hard or 
slack twist, and used for hosiery, 
underwear, sewing thread, laces, and 
fine cotton fabrics; 2, worsted yarn, 
made of top and used for worsted 
fabrics. 

Combing Process by which the short 
fibers (noil) are separated from the 
long fibers and the latter are straight- 
ened out and laid parallel to each 
other. Combing wool is at least 1% 
inches long, of good strength and used 
for worsteds. 

Combourg Ordinaire Coarse French 
linen. 

Comeback Wool Yielded by the sheep 
which is the crossing ot a half-brecf 
ewe with a merino ram; this is ai 
English trade term. 

Comforter iSee Quilt. 

Commercial Twins 'Made of cotton; 
used in stores to tie packages. 

Commodore 'Stout English navy drill. 

Common Twill An even sided four-har- 
ness twill weave, each thread passing 
over and under two threads alter- 
nately. 

Company's Nankeen Very .fine, natural 
buff colored, broad, Chinese cotton 
cloth. 

Composition ClothWaterproofed cotton 
or linen duck; used for bags, covers, 
etc. 

Comptah East Indian cotton, having a 
weak staiple of dull brown color, 
usually containing large quantity of 
broken leaves- 

Condeaux Stout, half bleached hemp 
canvas. 

Conditioning Process to ascertain the 
percentage of moisture present in 
the textile fibers or fabrics. 

Cone Large bobbins on which cotton and 
woolen yarn is wound from the spin- 
dles for the use of knitting machines. 
It is cone shaped at one end. 

Congo Red The first artificial dyestuff 
imade which would dye cotton di- 
rectly. 

Congress Canvas Strong, open face cot- 
ton or woolen canvas made of hard 
spun thread; used for embroidery. 



CON 



43 



COR 



Conkanee Hemp Trade name for sunn 
hemp. 

Connaught Open cotton canvas for em- 
broidpry; see Basket Cloth. 

Connaught Yarn Soft, fine, loose woolen 
yarn for knitting: made in Ireland. 

Constitution A variety of corduroy, hav- 
ing broad races. 

Con tallies Inferior French silk, made of 
floret silk. 

Convent Plain woven woolen dress goods 
with two or three-ply warp and sin- 
igle filling, made in solid colors and 
in stripes, mixtures, etc. 

Convent Cloth A very light dress goods, 
made with wool warp and silk filling, 
having a pebbled face. 

Convict Stripes Cotton fabrics made in 
England for the export trade; have 
one inch wide filling tripes in black 
over white ground. 

Cook A commercial variety of late ma- 
turing cotton from Mississippi; the 
staple measures 35-40 millimeters; 
the yield is 26-28 per cent. 

Coothay East Indian satin made with 
colored stripes. 

Cop A conical shape into which cotton or 
worsted weft yarn is wound over a 
paper tube or a bare spindle, which is 
withdrawn after the winding. The 
yarn is crossing itself at sharp angles. 

Copees East Indian gingham with fancy 
check patterns. 

Copou Very light Chinese muslin, made 
of vegetable fibers; used for wearing 
apparel- 
Copper Sulphate Used in after treating 
direct dyes; used also in catechu and 
aniline black dyeing. 

Coptic Cloths Various linen, woolen and 
mixed fabrics, formerly used as mum- 
my wrappings and recovered from old 
Egyptian tombs. The weave is plain 
or twilled, the latter often showing 
striped and geometric designs. 

Coquita Strong bark fiber, yielded r>y 
the Jubaea spectabilis, a palm tree in 
Chile; used for ropes. 

Coquille In French hand ma,le lace? with 
shell like or fan shaped edges. 

Corah 'East Indian light, washable silk 
dress goods of natural cream or 
white color. 

Coral Stitch In embroidery a stitc.h hav- 
ing a stem from which short and 
paraaiel branches start out at an 
angle. 

Coralline Point Italian needle-point lace, 
similar to the Venise point, having 
coral like trailing patterns. 

Coram Bleached German linen, made 
very stout of heavy warp and finer 
filling. 

Cord 1, in needle-point laces the raised 
or padded part of the pattern, also 
called Cordonnet. 2, corded dress 
goods, like Ottoman, rep, faille, Bed- 
ford, etc. 3, or twine, made of cotton, 
jute, but mostly hemp of various 
sizes measured by inches in diame-ter. 



Cord Braid A soutache with a cord in 
the middle. 

Cord de Chine A lightweight fabric of 
botany warp and eilk filling; two 
warp ends are in each reed, forming 
cords. 

Cord Stitch In embroidery and needle 
laces, a thread twisted around by an- 
other thread. 

Cordaline Strong linen or silk thread at 
the selvedge of -many silk fabrics. 

Cordat 1, strong French canvas, made 
of tow; 2, heavy, all-wool coarse 
French serge, thoroughly fulled. 

Corde Closely woven heavy silk dress 
goods, made in France, with narrow 
warp ribs. The color was usually 
black; norw obsolete. 

Corded 'Fabrics having ribs running 
lengthwise (produced by the warp) 
crosswise (produced by the weft) or 
diagonally (produced by a twill 
weave). 

Corded Dimity EngMsh dimity, made of 
goat's hair. 

Cordelat 1, stout twilled woolen cloth, 
made around Aure, France. 2, coarse, 
long napped woolen dress goods from 
Languedoc, France. 3, light loosely 
Tvoven woolen, finished like a flannel, 
from Beauvais, France. 

Cordelat Molleton Heavy grades of cord- 
elats. 

Cordelat Refins Cordelats, made of fine 
yarn. 

Cordeliere Obsolete; smoothly finished 
French serge, made in part of Span- 
ish merino wool. 

Cordelia Lace, having patterns outlined 
with a heavy thread over a net foun- 
dation. 

Corderette 18th century woolen fabric 
in England. 

Cordettes French cloth made of hemp 
for headdress. 

Cordetum A coarse fabric; used in me- 
dieval England. 

Cordillat Heavy French iwoolen dress 
goods, not felted; obsolete. See also 
Cordelat. 

Cordington A heavy boucle. 

Cordon 'French term for cord, made of 
various materials; used for trimming- 

Cordoncillos Coarse, plain woven, 
bleached or unbleached cotton fab- 
ric; used for garments by the poorer 
classes in Mexico. 

Cordonnet 1, raised outer edge of the 
point lace in Alencon, made of horse- 
hair and completely covered with 
stitches; 2, crochet, knitting or em- 
broidery silk yarn, made of three 
threads twisted together to the right, 
each thread composed from four to 
eight filaments twisted loosely to the 
left. 

Cordonnet en Laine Cord, made of wool 
or camel's hair; used for upholstery, 
etc 

Cordonnet Silk See Cordonnet 2. 



COR 



44 



COT 



Cordonnet Yarn Heavy and usually two- 
ply cotton yarn, each strand number- 
ing below 10. It is made of combed 
stock, given a comparatively slack 
twist and gassed once or twice. 

Cordons Gold or silver braid. 

Cordova Raw wool from Argentine. 

Cordovan Embroidery Applique work by 
cutting out the patterns of oilcloth, 
pasting it over coarse canvas of which 
the patterns are shaped out and the 
two are sewed to a foundation of 
serge. 

Cordurette^Plain woven woolen fabric, 
made with weft ribs. 

Corduroy Cotton pile fabric, dyed in 
the piece, the pile being formed of an 
extra set of slack twist filling, form- 
ing warp wise ribs; used for trous- 
ers, dresses, etc. 2, stockings knit- 
ted with two ribs alternating on the 
face and back. 

Core YarnMade with a central thread, 
around which is wound a covering of 
usually more expensive fibers, the core 
being concealed. The Urgoite core 
yarn consists of a core of paper 
wrapped around with jute, flax, hemp, 
etc., also wool. The Leclercq-Dupire 
process is for the making of core 
yarn with cotton core which measures 
as much as 70 per cent of the total 
and a worsted covering. 

Cork Carpet Has a layer of ground cork 
pressed over a coarse and strong cot- 
ton or jute foundation. 

Corkscrew 1, a weave composed of the 
regular twills of 40 degrees, the mini- 
mum number of harnesses being five 
and the maximum 13; 2, a warp 
faced fabric, woven in fancied re- 
semblance to a corkscrew; the best 
grades have French yarn worsted 
warp, while the filling can be of cot- 
ton or wool; used for men's wear and 
shoe tops; 3, flaw in doubled yarns, 
consisting of one yarn being loosely 
coiled around the other. 

Corojo Long and strong leaf fiber, yield- 
ed by the corojo palm in Central and 
South America; used for ropes. 

Coromandel 'Coarse English cotton fab- 
ric for the African trade. 

Coronation Cloth 'Fulled mixture suiting 
in black, blue and red colors, brought 
out at the coronation of Edward VII. 
and George II. 

Corotte Coarse East Indian calico. 
Corsery East Indian cotton cloth. 

Corset Jean Very strong, stout jean, 
made of pure cotton or linen, in twill 
or broken twill weave, in white, and 
for corsets, etc. 

Corset Lace A narrow cotton braid; used 
to lace corsets with. 

Corsicaine 'French silk dress goods, made 
with printed warp. It has small 
squares placed on the bias over black 
or colored ground. 

Cortega A white, tough bast fiber in 
Panama; used for cordage. 



Corteza del Damajuhato 'A fibrous bast, 
yielded by the Couratari tree in 
Brazil; used for clothing. 

Cosmos 'Fibers recovered from flax or 
jute rags by tearing them up. 

Cossa 'East Indian unprinted cotton 
fabric. 

Cossack CordEnglish stout, bleached 
woolen, twilled and finely striped; ob- 
solete. 

Cossai^-Coarse East Indian calico. 
Cot "Matted or felted part of the fleece. 
Cote French term for ribbed. 

Cote Anglaise Faconnee Solid colored 
iFrench serge, made with eight leaves 
and eight picks in a repeat. 

Cote de Cheval Cotton, wool or silk fab- 
ric, made with warp ribs, similar to 
the Bedford cord. 

Cote Menue French serge dress goods, 
made with 10 leaves and five picks in 
a repeat. 

Cote Pali The warp is of fine linen, the 
filling of hard twist silk, made very 
light and sheer in fancy colored pat- 
terns finished with size; also made of 
silk warp and wool filling or cotton 
warp and grege filling; obsolete. 

Cote Piquee Solid colored French serge 
having eight leaves and eight picks 
in a repeat. 

Cote Satinee (French serge of solid colors, 
made with eight leaves and eight 
picks in a repeat. 

Cote Syrienne Solid colored French 
serge, having eight leaves and eight 
picks in a repeat. 

Cotelaine 'Bleached, corded muslin in 
France. 

Cotele 'French for wide, flat ribs. 

Coteline Warp ribbed dress goods, the 
heavy cotton ribs alternating with 
four or six fine warp threads. The 
filling is often in two colors; used for 
summer dresses. It is often printed 
in colors on white foundation; also 
made in silk. 

Coti Americano Bed ticking in Chile, 
usually stiffened. 

Cotillion Black and white striped woolen 
dress fabric. 

Coton Azul /Stiffened denim, made with 
blue warp and white filling in Chile. 

Coton- Pierre Trade name for Brazilian 
cotton. 

Cotonine Stout and very strong cloth, 
made of cotton warp and hemp filling; 
used for household purposes, sails, etc. 

Cotonis Fabric from India, made In 
fancy patterns of silk warp and fine 
cotton filling. 



COT 



45 



cou 



Cotton 1, fiber yielded by the seed pod 
of the Gossypium shrub, grown in 
sub-tropical countries, shewing about 
130 different varieties. The fiber is 
either white or yellowish, in many 
cases turning into reddish brown, the 
average length varying between 0.89 
and 1.61 inches, the coarsest and 
shortest commercial varieties coming 
from India, the finest and longest 
from Sea Island and along the shores 
or Georgia and Carolina. Under mi- 
crosco'pe the cotton fiber is similar to 
a twisted ribbon and consists chiefly 
of cellulose. The main commercial 
varieties are the Sea Island, Ameri- 
can (upland), Egyptian, Peruvian, 
Brazilian, West Indian, East Indian, 
Turkish and Chinese. The commercial 
full grades of the American cottons 
are: Fair, middling fair, good midd- 
ling, middling, low middling, good or- 
dinary and ordinary; the half grades 
are: Strict middling fair, strict 
good middling, strict middling, 
strict low middling, strict good 
ordinary and strict ordinary; the 
quarter grades are: Barely fair, 
fully middling fair, barely midd- 
ling fair, fully good middling, barely 
good middling, fully middling, barely 
middling, fully low middling, barely 
low middling, fully good ordinary, 
barely good ordinary. The grades of 
the Indian cotton are: Fair, good fair, 
good and fine, the Egyptian cotton 
has three: Fair, good fair and good,; 
the South American cottons have 
three: Middling fair, fair and good 
fair. The grades for Sea Island cot- 
ton are: Ordinary, common medium, 
good medium, medium, medium fine, 
fine, extra fine. 

The standard American bale meas- 
ures 54x27x27 inches and weighs 500 
pounds. The bessonette bale is a 
cylinder shape of 22 inches diameter, 
and 34 or 48 inches long, weighing 275 
or 425 pounds. The average weights 
of the other cotton bales are: Indian 
390 pounds, Egyptian 700 pouunds, 
Brazilian about 200 pounds, Levant 
(great divergence) about 300 pounds. 

Cotton burns freely. It is decom- 
posed by concentrated nitric acid, but 
concentrated sulphuric acid renders it 
more elastic, resembling horsehair. 
Cotton is not or very little affected 
by solution of sulphuric acid. Cold 
alkalies or their solutions have no 
effect on cotton but hot solutions de- 
stroy the fiber. Concentrated solution 
of caustic soda causes mercerization 
(see). 

2, in Austria and Germany a cheap, 
plain woven cotton fabric made of 
fine yarn, comes usually printed and 
used for shirts, etc. 

Cotton Back iSilk fabrics, mostly satins, 
made with cotton back. 

Cotton Bagging Very coarse and heavy 
jute bagging; used for baling cotton. 



Cotton Blanket Cloth Very soft, napped, 
all-cotton cloth, made with two sets 
of warp and one filling, the face and 
the back of the cloth being reverse 
of each other; used for bathrobes, 
blankets, etc. 

Cotton Checks In England blue and 
white checked or striped, all-cotton 
cloth. 

Cotton Ferrets Cheap bindings or un- 
sized tapes in England in gray or 
black. 

Cotton Thread See Sewing Cotton. 
Cotton Velvet See Velveteen. 

Cotton Warp Trade term for fabrics hav- 
ing a cotton warp and wool filling. 

Cotton Weave^Same as plain weave. 

Cotton Worsted Smooth finished twilled 
cloth, made of hard twist 'cotton yarn 
woven and finished to imitate worsted 
cloth; used for cheap clothing, over- 
coats. 

Cottonade Originally plain, also serge or 
twill woven all-cotton fabrics made 
with single yarns and heavy filling, 
made in solid colors, checks, stripes, 
plaids, etc., always dyed in the yarn; 
used for dress goods, table cloths, etc., 
and the stronger grades for trousers. 

Cottonette 1, knitted cotton fabric, cut 
and made up into bathing suits. 2, 
cotton fabric, containing one-third 
wool. 

Cottonee Cotton back silk satin, made in 
Turkey. 

Cotton ize See Fibrilize. 

Cottonwood Yields soft, fibrous bark; 
used by the Western Indian tribes for 
ropes, garments, etc. 

Cotts 'Brittle and matter parts in the 
wool, caused by poor feed. 

Couche See Velours Couche. 

Couching >1, in embroidery heavy threads 
are laid on the foundation and fastened 
to it by another finer thread. It is 
used especially in church embroidery. 
It is flat or raised; 2, a very thick, 
two-strand thread made of mercerized 
cotton, wool or silk; used for embroid- 
ery and fancy work. 

Count A number indicating the size or 
fineness of a yarn. 1, for cotton yarn 
it is the number of hanks (each meas- 
uring 840 yards) necessary to weigh 
one pound; 2, for linen yarns one lea 
(300 yards) per pound is the unit; 3, 
for woolen and worsted yarns 560 
yards per pound is the unit; there 
are five different French systems for 
the numbering of worsted yarns: The 
metric system, measuring 496 yards 
per pound; the new Roubaix, 354 
yards per pound; the old Roubaix, 708 
yards per pound; the Reims, 347 
yards per pound and the Fourmies, 
352 yards per pound; 4, for silk 840 
yards. The count of a cloth is ex- 
pressed by the number of warp and 
weft threads contained in a square 
inch or other standard unit. 



GOU 



46 



CRA 



Coupling process In dyeing the applica- 
tion of an organic compound to a fab- 
ric which is dyed already, thus form- 
ing an insoluble color. 

Couratari In South America a fibrous 
bast of the same tree; used for blank- 
ets, clothing, clothes, etc. 

Courimari In Venezuela the fibrous bast 
of the Couratari tree; used for 
blankets, clothes, etc. 

Couronne Little loops on the outer edge 
of the cordonnet (see). 

Courtaille 'Coarse French hemp canvas. 

Courte Pointe Bed quilts, made in 
'France of pique or calico and stuffed 
with cotton batting. 

Courtrai 'French bobbin lace similar to the 
Val, the threads of the mesh ground 
'being twisted three and a half times. 

Coutance Strong, French ticking, made of 
plain hemp. 

Couteline 1, coarse stout cotton ticking 
of East Indies, striped blue and 
white; 2, French ticking made of flax 
yarn with bright colored stripes. 

Coutil 1, French and German stout drills, 
made of linen, hemp or cotton; 2, 
French and English fabrics, made of 
pure cotton; used for bed covers, 
drapery, trousers, etc., often printed; 

3, a fine worsted trousering in France; 

4, very strong, stout cotton or linen 
fabric, woven in herringbone twill; 
used for corsets. 

Coutils de Brin Coarse French ticking. 

Coutil Facon de Bruxelles (French coutil 
(see), made with narrow stripes. 

Coutil Jaspe Obsolete; French coutil 
(see), made with two-ply linen warp, 
composed of two different colored 
strands, and single linen yarn filling. 
It was made 30 inches wide and used 
for sporting and working clothes. 

Coutille 'French jean of zigzag pattern 
for corsets. See Coutil 4. 

Coventry 'Bright blue worsted yarn made 
in England and 'used for embroidery; 
obsolete. 

Coventry Cloths 17th century English 
worsteds. 

Cover Appearance of fullness and dens- 
ity in the cloth, given by the nap. 

Covert Cloth Twilled, closely woven mix- 
ture effect wool coating or dress fab- 
ric, having a warp face; the warp is 
a double and twist yarn of a dark and 
light colored strand, while the filling 
is two-ply or single in the same dark 
shade. Woven mostly in five-leaf 
warp satin weave and finished like 
cassimeres. 

Covert Coat iSee Covert Cloth. 

Cow Hair Is used for cheap carpets, etc., 

mixed with wool. 
Cow Tail In worsted sorting means 

coarse staple taken from the tail end 

of the low luster fleece; spins 26s to 

28s. 

Cox Royal Arch Commercial variety of 
early maturing cotton from Georgia, 
the staple measuring 25-28 millimet- 
ers; the yield is 30-32 per cent. 



CoxcombSee Bar. 

Crabbing A finishing process, consisting 
of stretching the fabric by passing it 
over a steaming roller. The object 
is to set the fabric at a certain width- 
Crack A flaw in the fabric, consisting 
of an open space across the fabric. 
It is caused by the action of tne beat- 
er when a pick is missed. 
Craiganputtach A Scotch tweed. 
Crammed Certain parts of a fabric are 
said to be crammed when they con- 
tain more thread per unit space than 
in another part of the cloth; usually 
made with several warps through one 
dent. 

Cranky iBed ticking, made of linen and 
cotton with irregular patterns. 

Cranston A highland tartan, composed of 
dark blue and light blue stripes and 
red and blue lines. 

Crapaud (French for mispick. 

Crapaudaille Fine silk crepon in France. 

Crape In the 18th century a woolen fab- 
ric in England, made either crimped 
for deep mourning or smooth; 2, the 
extremely fine knitting on some of the 
'Shetland shawls. 3, see Crepe. 

Crape Cloth Crinkled black woolen cloth, 
dyed black; used for mourning. 

Craping Process of rendering a fabric 
crimpy or crapy. The most important 
processes are: 1, the filling is com- 
posed of right hand twist and left 
hand twist yarns, interchanged at 
every two or four picks; 2, certain 
warp threads are wound on a separate 
beam and held much slacker than the 
rest of the ends, forming stripes of 
crepe; 3, cotton is treated with caus- 
tic soda, wool or silk with concen- 
trated sulphuric acid for a short time 
at certain places, producing crepe el- 
feet; 4, warp and filling made of 
different fibers with different shrink- 
age; 5, combinations of these pro- 
cesses; 6, produced by causing the 
fabric to adhere at certain parts to 
stretched rubber bands which, when 
released, will cause the crinkle. 7, 
produced by using yarns of various 
degree of twist. 

Craquele Net Machine-made net with ir- 
regular polygonal meshes, imitating 
the cracked effect of glazed ware. 

Crash 1, plain or twilled igray, bleached or 
checked cotton and jute cloth, sized 
and calendered to resemble linen; used 
for towels, suits, etc.; 2, light, plain 
iwoven, coarse linen fabric, made of 
uneven, slack twist yarn; used for 
summer suits, towels. 3, coarse plain 
woven light woolen fabric, made of 
rough hard spun yarn. Dyed in the 
piece or made in mixture effect. 

Cravenette A waterproofing process for 
fabrics, made of cotton, wool or silk. 

Crawford 1, a commercial variety of 
early ripening cotton from South 
Carolina, the staple measuring 23-27 
millimeters; the yield is 32-33 per 
cent; 2, a highland tartan, composed 
of green stripes over a crimson red 
ground and narrow white lines. 



CRA 



CRE 



Crazy Quilt Made by joining irregular 

pieces of cloth together with various 

fancy stitches, without arranging the 

pieces into any pattern. 
Crea A more or less stiffened bleached 

cotton cloth in Chile. 
Crea Para Sabanas 'Bleached cotton 

sheeting in South America. 
Cream DamaskLinen damask, ma.de of 

partly bleached yarn. 
Creamed Linen Linen yarn partly 

bleached. 

Creas Stout, bleached linen canvas, 
made of hard spun yarn; the pieces 

made 30 metres long in Germany and 

Austria. 
Creeks General trade name for various 

cottons of light body, measuring from 

11-6 to 1% inches in length. 

Crefeld Velvet Light German velvet 
made of silk and cotton; used for 
dresses, millinery, etc. 

Crehuela Light osnaburg in Venezuela. 

Crenele The edge of the dress or mate- 
rial, made like a battlement. 

Creoulo Raw cotton, grown on trees in 
iBrazil. 

Crepaline Light weight silk or cotton 
fabric, made with a crepe border, 
produced either by slack warp threads 
or chemical treatment; used for sum- 
mer dresses; name obsolete. 

Crepe 1, cotton, wool or silk falbric, of 
various weight, having a crinky sur- 
face, formed 'by using alternately right 
hand and left hand twist yarns, in the 
filling. See also Craping. 2, name 
for weaves producing .small grain ef- 
fects but without any twill design. 

Crepe de Chine A very light and fine 
fabric, made with si'lk warp and silk 
or hard spun worsted fiUinz, the lat- 
ter being alternately two picks at 
right and two picks of left twist; in 
the finishing process the worsted, in 
trying to regain its original position 
causes the fine crepe surface of the 
fa'bric; used for dresses, etc. When 
only one kind of yarn is sh.t in sev- 
eral times in succession wavy crepe is 
produced. 

Crepe Crepe The warp has a larger num- 
ber of twists than in ordinary crepe, 
producing a very deep crepe effect. 

Crepe de Dante Crepe, made of silk and 
wool warp and silk, lisle an3 wool 
weft. 

Crepe d'Espagne Very light fabric, made 
with silk warp and fine woal filling 
woven like gauze. 

Crepe de Labor A cotton crepe wash 
dress goods in France; obsolete. 

Crepe de Laine French thin woolen dress 
goods, made in plain weave and 
slightly creped. 

Crepe Lisse Very light highly finished 
crepe, made in gauze weave, slightly 
stiffened, comes in pale colors; the 
warp has fewer twists than in the 
crepe crepe; used for dresses and 
trimmings. 



Crepe Meteor A highly finished silk 
crepe. 

Crepe Morette Light weight crinkled 
fabric, made of fine hard spun wors- 
ted warp, widely set and a heavier 
slack twist filling. 

Crepe Rachel Fancy colored French 
dress goods of cotton warp and wors- 
ted filling; obsolete. 

Crepe de Sante Porous and close woven 
crepe with a coarse face, made of un- 
dyed wool and silk; used for under- 
wear. Also made of cotton or linen. 

Crepele French for craped. 
Crepeline See Crepon. 

Crepine 1, black or colored French silk 
dress goods with very small dotted 
patterns; 2, a fringe. 

Crepoline Light sheer fabrics of silk or 
cotton, woven to produce a rib-like 
crepe effect warp wise. 

Crepon^Dress fabric similar to crepe but 
stouter, made of cotton, \voo, silk or 
mixtures, the blistered effect is pro- 
duced either by different degree of 
twist in the yarn, or by using right 
and left hand twist yarns in the same 
fabric, or by having some of the warp 
threads slacker than the others. Of- 
ten made with large Jacquard designs 
in black. 

Crepon d'Alencon Obsolete; light weight 
French dress goods. The warp con- 
tained one strand of hard twist wors- 
ted and one or more strands of silk 
yarn of a color different from the 
worsted. The filling was of slack 
twist worsted in the same color as 
the worsted strand of the warp. 

Crepon d'Angleterre See Castinette. 

Crepon Givre A twilled crepon (see) with 
frosted effect. 

Crescent In needle-point lace the usually 
crescent shaped part of the flower pat- 
tern surrounded by raised cordonnet. 

Crescentin Cloth made of waste silk in 
France. 

Creseau 1, see Carisol; 2, twilled French 
woolen, napped on both sides, similar 
to the kersey. 

Crespine Silk net in the 16th century; 
used as covering for the hair. 

Crespinette Silk hair net in France. 

Crespolina .Cotton goods in South Amer- 
ican countries. 

Crete A fancy braid, composed of two 
groups of straight threads holding a 
heavy, trailing cord, forming picot 
edges. 

Crete Lace Bobbin lace made of various 
colored slack twist silk or flax in 
geometrical designs which are outlined 
with colored thread. Similar to Tor- 
chon. 

Cretona 'Cotton oxford in Venezuela. 



CRE 



48 



CRO 



Cretonne 1, good quality, stout, bleached 
French linen, named after its origina- 
tor; used for shirts; 2, a printed 
cotton fabric or stout texture. The 
weave is either plain, or the warp 
threads are taped in pairs, often the 
weave is in damask or diaper. It is 
printed in bright floral or other de- 
signs visible mostly on the face but 
sometimes on both sides. It is not 
glazed, this fact toeing the disting- 
guishing mark from chintz; used 
for drapery and upholstery. 

Creva 'Coarse drawn work, made in 
Brazil. 

Crevelle Pile faibric, made with two sets 
of weft, one of cotton for the web 
the other of silk, for the pile. 

Crewel Loosely twisted, fine two-ply 
worsted yarn for embroidery. 

Crewel Lace Narrow edging, made of 

crewel yarn. 
Crewel Stitch Same as stem stitch. 

CricketingFine twilled flannel dress 

goods; used in England for sporting 

costumes. 
Crimean Shirting A cotton shirting used 

in India. 
Crimp 1, the curliness of the wool fiber; 

2, same as 'Crapy. 
Crimping Fringe 'Craped silk fringe. 

Crimps Plain woven cotton cloth, made 
in England for the export trade. Cer- 
tain warp threads, wound on a sepa- 
rate beam, are held slack, forming 
crinkled warp stripes. 

Crin 1, French term for horse hair; 2, 
silk, heavier than cocoon silk, obtained 
by killing the silk worm and empty- 
ing its glands containing the silk sub- 
stance. 

Crin Vegetal French name for "vegetable 
horsehair," a stiff, strong and durable 
leaf fiber yielded by the scrub palmet- 
to; used as substitute for animal hair, 
stuffing, etc. See also Artificial Horse- 
hair. 

Crinkle Effect obtained 1, on wool by 
treating it with caustic soda; 2, on 
silk by treating it with acids; 3, on 
cotton by treating it with acids. See 
also Craping. 

Crinkle Fabrics 'Light or medium weight 
wash fabrics, made of cotton or mixed 
with silk, having crink'.ed warp stripes, 
formed by warp threads which are 
stretched less than the ground warp. 

Crinkling See Craping. 

Crinolin Sheer fabric, made of cotton 
warp and horsehair filling, heavily 
sized; used for hat forms, etc. 

Crinoline Smooth, stiff and strong fab- 
ric, made with cotton warp and horse- 
hair filling in plain twill or satin 
weave; used for interlining or hat 
shapes; in imitation made also entire- 
ly of hemp and finished with glue or 
varnish, made mostly in black, also in 
natural gray. 

Criolla 'Native South American sheep 
yielding coarse wool. 



Crisp 1, fine English linen; 2, original 
name for crepes in England. 

Cristal Dress goods, made with fine silk 
warp and wool filling which form al- 
ternate fine and heavy (often irregu- 
lar) ribs. 

Cristaline Loosely woven silk dress 
goods. 

Crochet Work consisting of various 
small stitches worked with a hooked 
needle into laces and other articles, 
made of wool, silk, cotton, or gold and 
silver and chenille yarn. 

Crochet Cotton Loose cotton thread of 
various count, made 'by doubling first 
several strands the opposite direction 
they were spun and then doubling 
them again the same direction they 
were spun. 

Crochet Quilt Twilled, or Jacquard fig- 
ured, bleached cotton quilt, woven 
with one set of warp and one set of 
filling. 

Crocodile Cloth An English woolen or 
worsted cloth, made like Bedford cord; 
used for dresses. 

Crofting Scotch term for bleaching linen 
on the grass. 

Croise 1, French term for twilled goods; 
2, commercial name for lightweight 
twilled worsted men's coating, made 
with cotton warp and worsted filling; 
also used for dresses. 

Crompton Axminster Rug or carpet, hav- 
ing a tufted pile, made on power loom. 

Cross Band Yarn with a left hand or 
warp twist. 

Cross Dyeing iSome of the yarn is 
dyed and afterward treated in 
tannic acid and woven into the 
cloth with other undyed yarn. 
When the fabric is dyed in the 
piece, the parts previously treated 
with tannic acid will resist the new 
dye. 

Cross Over Fabric In England fabrics 
with weft stripes. 

Cross Stitch Double stitch in embroidery 
taking in two or more threads of the 
foundation both in height and width, 
the two yarns crossing each other, 
forming the diagonals of a perfect 
square. 

Cross Stripes 'Running weft wise. 

Cross Weaving Where warp threads are 
crossed with each other, as in the 
gauze or leno. 

Crossbred 'Middle grade wool, taken from 
sheep crossed with merino. The fiber 
is usually of good length, coarser than 
merino. 

Crossing Warp Term for those warp ends 
which are deflected in the gauze 
weave and are wound around the 

straight war.ps. 

Crossland Another name for Peterkin 
(see). 

Crow Weave An uneven sided, four harn- 
ess twill weave, the warp crossing over 
three filling threads and depressed un- 
der one. 



CRO 



49 



CUT 



Crow Foot 1, flaw in the fabric, caused by 
defective yarns. 2, the 3-1 twill weave. 
See Crow Weave. 

Crown Lace English needlework of 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, having royal 
crowns in the design. 

Crown Lining Sized tarlatan or lighter 
weight of crinoline; used for lining 
women's hats. 

Croydon Plain woven stout and bleached 
cotton sheeting in England, given a 
stiff and glossy finish with the aid of 
size. 

Crudillo CoronaUnbleached linen cloth, 
made in Spain and exported to the 
Philippines. 

Crudillo Gallo Linen cloth made in 
Spain. 

Cruel Another name in the 17th century 
for Caddis (see). 

Crumb Cloth Coarse and heavy damask 
in gray, made to be embroidered in 
colored yarns around the patterns. 

Crusade ISth century woolen fabric in 
England. 

Crutchings .Wool which was removed 
same time before the shearing, in ord- 
er to improve the growth of the 
fleece. 

Crystal A very fine highly finished wool- 
en oif white color formerly made in 
England for the export trade; used 
for nun's clothes; now cJbsolete. 

Cuban Bast A fine, soft but strong cloth- 
like bast of the Hibiscus elatus in 
Cuba; used for millinery braids, etc. 

Cuban Hemp Strong smooth fiber, yield- 
ed by the leaves of the Furcraea cu- 
bensis of Central and South America. 

Cubi Hopi Indian, name for the aromatic 
sumac; used for baskets, which can 
hold water. 

Cubica Fine, thin English worsted serge, 
usually red; used for linings, suiting, 
etc. See also Plainback. 

Cudbear A violet dyestuff, obtained from 
a stone moss; used on animal fibers. 

Cuero de Diablo Stout cotton denim in 
Colombia. 

Cuir Laine French, wool winter dress 
goods, similar to the ratine,, woven in 
a twill. 

Cuirtain Fine twilled fabric, made of 
white wool and used for clothing in 
medieval Scotland. 

Cultivated In East Indian and other 
Asiatic countries silks, made of "culti- 
vated" silk worm as compared with 
the "wild" silk. 

Gumming A Highland tartan, composed 
of the following on a red ground: A 
narrow dark green stripe, two wide 
green bars and another narrow green 
stripe, separated from each other by 
red stripes half the width of the nar- 
row green stripes. The wide green 
bars are about four times as wide as 
the green stripes and are split in the 
Center by a single white line. Each 
group of green stripes and bars is al- 
ternated with a wide red surface, split 
with a narrow black stripe. 



Cunningham A Highland tartan, com- 
posed of wide black stripes and nar- 
row red, black and white lines over 
a red ground. 

Curl Pile Long wool or silk pile having a 
curl, usually found in artificial fur. 

Curl Yarn Usually a three-strand yarn; 
first a thin strand (well stretched) 
having curls and nubs, made by wind- 
ing slackly a thick thread around a 
thinner one, which is well stretched, 
after which a third strand, also thin, 
is wound around the whole, holding 
the thick yarn, which forms the curls; 
made in cotton, wool or silk; used for 
ratine, etc. See also Loop Yarn. 

Curragh Lace iSee Irish Point. 

Curratow .Strong leaf fi'ber, obtained from 
a species of the wild pineapple in 
Brazil. 

Currelles English faibric, made of wors- 
ted and silk in the 16th century. 

Curtain Serge Stout woolen serge; used 
for drapery. 

Curtrike Fine medieval worsted from 

Flanders. 
Cushion A padded pillow of barrel or 

some other shape; used as foundation 

in bobtxin lace making to which the 

pricked pattern is pinned. 
Cushion Stitch Similar to cross stitch in 

Berlin work. 

Cusir iSeiwing silk in France. 
Cussidah East Indian muslin. 
Cut 1, same as lea (see); 2, 300 yards 

length of single woolen yarn; 3, 

standard length of the warp; for 

worsteds is 70 yards; 4, jute yarn 

measure, equal to 300 yards. 
Cut Cashmere Twilled woolen dress 

goods, having fine runs warp wise. 

often of a different color. 
Cut Chinchilla (Showing colored warp 

stripes in the ground, formed by hard 

spun yarn. 

Cut Goods Flat or knitted fabric, made 
in piece length and cut up for un- 
derwear. 

Cut Pile 'Which is cut open after the 
loops were formed in the process of 
weaving. 

Cut Work Consists of partly filling with 
loops and stitches the various spaces 
cut into linen. It is of ancient origin, 
evidently coming from Greece. CaJled 
also Greek lace and reticella. 

Cuts Trade term for short length of fab- 
rics, less than a bolt. 

Cuttance (Fine heavy and stout silk satin 
of East India, with bright colored 
woven stripes and cotton back; used 
for upholstery. 

Cutting Stout cotton cloth with flower or 
trailing patterns. 

Cutting Thread Which forms the furrows 
dividing the rifes of corded fabrics. It 
is interlaced in plain weave with all 
the other threads and is stretched if 
it runs warp ways. Often it is of a 
different color than the ribs. 

Cuttle (Any desired length into which the 
finished cloth is folded. 



CUT 



50 



DAM 



Cuttling The folding of the falbric after 
finishing. 

Cymatilis iA camlet made formerly in 
Asiatic Turkey. 

Cypress Cloth 'Fine black colored, plain 
woven cotton lawn, finished with lit- 
tle size; used for mourning; obsolete. 

Cyprian Cloth (Silk and gold brocade, 
made in Cyprus in the (Middle Ages. 

Cyprian Thread 'Made of a silk or linen 
core twisted around with gilded cat- 
gut; used for embroideries; obsolete. 

Cyprus 'Fine silk gauze, originally from 
Cyprus; usually dyed black and used 
as mourning veil. See Cypress Cloth. 

Cyprus Crepe Light, sheer black crepe 
used for mourning during the Tudors. 

Cyprus Gold A thread in the Middle 
ages, having a flat gold strip wound 
around a silk core. 

Cyprus Lace Originally a gold and sil- 
ver lace extensively copied by Italian 
cities. There is also a sort of cut 
work called C. lace and a more re- 
cent coarse bobbin lace. 



D 



Dab Grass 'Yields very durable and fair- 
ly strong fiber; used for ropes in In- 
dia. 

Daba Coarse, plain woven, unbleached 
cotton fabric, made in Kashgar, Cen- 
tral Asia. 

Dabbakhis iStriped East Indian cotton 
muslin. 

Dabouis 'Narrow, bleached East Indian 
cotton cloth; used for calico. 

Dacca Muslin 1, the finest among the 
Indian cotton muslins; woven on hand 
looms; 2, a striped or finely checked 
English cotton muslin. 

Dacca Silk Embroidery silk. 

Dacca Twist Fine English plain or 
twilled calico; used for sheets, under- 
wear, etc. 

Dacey Coarse wild silk, produced by an 
East Indian silk worm from six to 
eight times a year. 

Dado \A usually two-colored, printed 
cotton; used for wall hangings in 
Italy; usually has a cream iground. 

Daghestan Rugs iMade in Caucasia, the 
web and the short and close pile be- 
ing of wool, tied in Ghiordes knot; the 
design is almost always geometrical, 
mosaic patterns with many angular 
hooks being used in blue, red, yellow 
and ivory colors, without any shading. 
Both ends are finished with a narrow 
selvage and knotted fringe; the sides 
are finished with a very narrow col- 
ored selvage. 

Daglock Inferior and unclean wool lock. 



Dags Parts of the fleece, consisting of 
matted fibers and dirt. 

Daka Un'bieached cotton muslin, made in 
Turkestan; the finer grades are used 
for turbans, the coarser for lining. 

Dalecarlian Lace Very strong Swedish 
ibobbin lace, made and worn by the 
peasant as starched ruffles. It is of 
'buff color. 

Dalmatian LaceCoarse, narrow bobbin 
lace, made in Dalmatia, Austria, by 
the peasent women. 

Dalzell A Highland tartan, composed of 
green stripes over red ground, split 
with white narrow lines. 

Damajagua or Majagua A fine, strong 
cloth-like bast, yielded by a species of 
the mellow in South America; used 
lor baskets, clothing and ropes. 

Damajuhato See Corteza del d. 

Damaras East Indian taffeta with small 
flower patterns. See also Armoisin. 

Damas 'French for damask. 

Damas Caffard Tapestry damask, made 
of wool, silk waste, cotton, etc., and 
given a high finish on the face. 

Damas Chine iFrench silk damask dress 
goods, made with printed warp. 

Damas en Dorure .French silk damask 
with gold flower designs. 

Damas Francais French silk damask, 
made reversible or not, the pat- 
terns being formed by satin weave 
on a gros de Tours foundation, each 
in two colors; obsolete. 

Damas Lisere Silk damask, the Jacquard 
design being outlined in gold. 

Damascene Lace 'Made of sprigs and 
lace braid joined with corded bars 
without any fillings. It is a modern 
adaptation of the Honiton pillow lace, 

Damask 1, originally a rich silk fabric 
ornamented with colored figures often 
in gold or silver; 2, an all-worsted 
twilled faibric made in England in the 
l>8th century; 3, the true or double 
or reversible damask is woven both 
the ground and the large floral Jac- 
quard patterns in eight-leaf satin and 
the single damask in -five-leaf satin 
weave. Single damask is also made 
with figures, not in satin but plain 
or twill weave. Usually made of cot- 
ton or linen and used on the table. 

Damask Satin Double satin, the ground 
and the figures formed by warp and 
weft satin. 

Damask Stitch In embroidery, a variety 
of satin stitch (see), it takes in four 
horizontal threads of foundation or 
two stitches in a slanting direction 
and over two upright threads. The 
remaining second lines of the damask 
stitch are taken over the two lower 
threads of the upper line and two new 
threads instead of all the threads be- 
ing new. 



DAM 



51 



DEF 



Damasquette An 18th century silk bro- 
cade of Venice, showing floral designs 
in ijold thread which was rolled out 
flat under heavy pressure, after taken 
from the loom, forming a continuous 
gold surface. 

Oamassade Very soft, obsolete French 
dress goods, made in single color or 
warp and ftlling of different colors. 
It has no reverse side. 

Damasse d, French shawl, made with 
combed wool warp and filling with 
large flower designs; 2, French for 
fabrics having both the ground and 
the large patterns woven in satin 
weave but of various colored or 
lustered yarn; 3, in French general 
term for fabrics woven on a Jacquard 
loom. See also Ouvre. 

Damassee de Chasse Obsolete French 
coutil (see), made very stout, about 
30 inches wide, having linen warp 
and cotton filling; used for sporting 
clothes. 

Damassin A gold and silver brocade, 
originally from Venice in 'the 17th 
century, later made in France. The 
gold or silver threads have 'been flat- 
tened out (after the weaving) under 
heavy pressure, forming the design in 
a continuous surface. 

Dame Joan Ground In needlepoint laces 
a hexagonal filling, each side com- 
posed of two parallel threads. 

Damier French for large square checks 
in solid colors. 

Danish Cloth Plain woven, stout cotton 
dress goods, made in solid colors and 
slightly sized. 

Danish Embroidery The lace-like white 
embroidery on the edges of handker- 
chiefs. 

Darale East Indian unbleached cotton 
falbric having a red stripe parallel 
with the selvage; used for garments 
by the native women. 

Dardanelles Canvas Coarse Turkish can- 
vas; used for sails and farmers' suits. 

Dari Thick, coarse, very durable and 
washable woven cotton carpet of 
small dimension; made in India. 

Dariabanis East Indian bleached cotton 
cloth. 

Darida East Indian cloth, made in vari- 
ous coflors of vegetable fibers. 

Darin French canvas of coarse hemp 
yarn. 

Daris Bast Indian cotton cloth. 

Darnamas Fine, bleached cotton fabric 
from Smyrna. 

Darnec <See Dorneck. 

Darned Lace or Darned Netting Plain 
square or other net; used for ground 
reseau and is decorated with stitches; 
also called open lace Siena point and 
point conte, in the latter the stitches 
being counted. 

Darnet A French wool and silk fabric of 
the loth century, brocaded with gold. 

Darnick Sixteenth century English wors- 
ted. 



Darning The filling up of holes, rents, 
etc., in textiles by means of forming a 
new texture with the thread and 
needle. 

Darning Cotton (Soft spun cotton thread; 
used for mending holes. 

Darya A rough faced, stout, natural col- 
ored fabric, made of wild silk in East 
India. 

Date Palm The leaf fibers are used for 
ropes, bags, hats, etc., in Asia Minor. 

Datil 'Leaf fibers yielded by a species of 
the cocoanut palm in Brazil; used 
for 'baskets, hats, etc. 

Dauglin Coarse Philippine 'fiber; used 
for cordage. 

Dauphine S'tout French silk dress goods 
of wool and silk, often made with 
flower powdering in many colors. It 
is similar to the droguets; obsolete. 

Davidson A Highland tartan composed 
as follows over a dark green ground, 
the stripes running both warp and 
weftwise; a group of black stripes 
with two narrow stripes at the edges 
and a wide bar between, the latter split 
by a narrow stripe of red in the 
center; a bar of dark green, about 
the width of the 'black group, split in 
the middle with a black stripe (of 
the same width as the edge stripes in 
the black group) ; a group of navy 
stripes, of the same dimensions as 
the black, the center bar likewise 
split by a red stripe; followed by a 
green bar as above and repeat. 

'Dead Cotton Undeveloped or unripe cot- 
ton fiber; it is difficult to dye or spin. 

Dead Wool Removed from the skin of 
dead sheep by sweating. 

Dean A commercial variety of upland 
cotton from South Carolina. 

Dearing A late maturing commercial va- 
riety of cotton, yielding very large 
percentage of lint; the staple meas- 
ures i20-25 millimeters. 

Debage French dress fabric, made with 
luster 'wool iwarp of natural color and 
dyed 'woolen filling. 

Debuani Native East African trade 
name for cotton falbrics, woven with 
red, yellow, black, or blue stripes, bor- 
ders or checks; used for turbans. 

Decan Hemp Soft, silky and strong fiber, 
yielded by the hibiscus plant in India 
and iSudan; used as substitute for 
hemp for ropes. 

Decating Treating wool and silk fabrics 
and yarn with steam or hot water, to 
taike the curl out. 

Dechets 'French for silk waste. 

Decorcioate Process of separating the 
woody substance from certain stem 
fibers, like ramie. 

Decrease In bobbin lace, knitting, cro- 
'cheting means diminishing the pat- 
terns by using less stitches or loops. 

Deerfield Rag rugs, counterpanes, quilts, 
etc., made at D., Mass., in arts and 
crafts style. 

De Fundato .Medieval silk, dyed purple 
and having a gold net pattern. 



DEC 



52 



DEV 



Degumming Process for removing the 
natural gum, sericin, from the silk. 

Dehbid Persian all-wool knotted rugs, 
similar to Kermanshaw, but of infe- 
rior quality. 

Delaine 1, French term, meaning "of 
wool"; 2, trade term for combing me- 
rino wool of medium fine quality; 3, 
wool raised in Ohio, said to have the 
strongest staple of all wools; 4, origi- 
nally a lightweight, plain woven 
French fabric, made of all-wool and 
dyed in 'the piece; at the present it 
is made in England of a mixture of 
cotton and wool and often printed. 

Delhi Embroidery Rich East Indian em- 
broidery, made in chain stitch, in 'gold, 
silver and silk over satin or other silk 
ground. 

Delinere 'French bleached linen of me- 
dium quality for the household. 

Delvei Gray cotton faJbric in the African 
markets. 

Demerara Raw cotton from Guiana. 

Demeshek In the Bible means silk. 

Demi In England worsted yarn of No. 30. 

Demi Drap Fine French woolen cloth of 
ligfhtweigiht, fulled lightly, shorn and 
calendered. 

Demi Hollande Obsolete, bleached fine 
French canvas, made of linen yarn. 

Demi Londres Loosely woven and lightly 
fulled French woolen, usually left un- 
finished. 

Demi Lustre 1, wool of fairly fine staple, 
not as long and lustrous as lustre 
wool; included are Cotswold, Devon, 
Roscommon, Romney, Wensleydale; 
used for yarns of 36s to 46s count; 2, 
yarns of 36s to 46s count, made of 
such wool; 3, see L/ustre Orleans. 

Demi Mousseline Very light French 
cambric of cotton or linen yarn, made 
plain or striped. 

Demi Ostade .Medieval Dutch woolen 
fabric, finished "with a napped face 
without fulling. 

Demi Satin Obsolete satin; used for 
drapery, etc. 

Demi Tories Thin French lining; obsolete. 

Demirdji Rugs All-wool rugs, made in 
Asia Minor; the loose and medium 
long pile is tied in Ghiordes knot. The 
destgns and colors show great vari- 
ety. 

Demittons Stout English cotton cloths 
for the Oriental trade. 

Demyostage Obsolete 'Scotch woolen 
cloth, lightly dressed. See Demi 
Ostade. 

Denes Blanket Woven by British Colum- 
bia Indians (Denes), both warp and 
'filling made of twisted strips of rab- 
bit skin. 

Denier Unit of measurement of the fine- 
ness of silk yarn; the denier is the 
weight of a certain length of yarn, 
varying from 450 to 500 meters in dif- 
ferent localities. 



Denim 'Washable, strong, stout twilled 
cotton clc-th, made of single yarn, and 
either dyed in the piece or woven 
with dark brown or dark blue warp 
and white filling; used for overalls, 
skirts, etc. 

Denmark Satin Stout English worsted 
satin, dyed black and finished with a 
high luster; used for slippers. 

Densa A heavy, fulled woolen fabric; 
used for winter toga by the old 
Romans. 

Dental Floss Slack spun strong silk yarn; 
used to clean the teeth with. 

Dentele iFrench for scalloped or festoon 
edge. 

Dentelle 'French term for lace since the 
17th century. 

Dentelle de Fil French term for laces, 
made of one-ply thread. 

Dentelle a la Vierge French bobfoin 
lace, with dou'ble ground, similar to 
the Ave Maria lace (see). 

Dents 'French for scallops or points, as in 
edges of laces. 

Deora Indian jute, having a very dark, 
strong and coarse fiber; used for 
ropes. 

Derbent Rugs 'Medium and large sized 
rugs, made in Caucasia. They are all- 
wool, the warp occasionally of goat 
hair, with long soft pile tied in 
Ghiordes knot and having a fine lus- 
ter. The weave is loose. The designs 
are geometrical, star patterns often 
occurring. The chief colors are red, 
yellow and blue. The ends are fin- 
ished with a long, knotted fringe. 

Derby 'Hosiery knitted with six ribs on 
the face and three on back alternat- 
ing. 

Deriband East Indian bleached cotton 
fabric. 

Derries Cotton dress goods, made in 
brown and blue colors, in India. 

Desi Indian jute, the fiber is long and 
very soft, but has a dark color; used 
for gunny bags and burlap. 

Design A complete plan of the character 
of a textile fabric, giving both its 
construction and the decorative pat- 
tern. 

Desooksoy -East Indian cotton doth. 

Deswal 'Indian jute of second best grade: 
it is strong, fine, has a light lustrous 
color and is soft; also called siradj- 
ganj. 

Developing See Diazotizing. 

Developing Agents Various organic 
chemicals, 'which mixed with dye- 
stuffs or other chemicals, bring forth 
insoluble colors which are not lakes. 

Devil's Cotton A strong and silky white 
bast fiber, yielded by the abroma in 
India; used for cordage. 

Devil's Nettle Fine, white and strong 
fiber, yielded by a species of nettle 
in Assam; used for cordage and 
coarse fabrics. 



DEV 



DIG 



Devon 1. obsolete, well fulled thick wool- 
en overcoating, similar to kersey; 
worn in England; 2, name for a six- 
pick huckaback weave; used for 
cheaper towels. 

Devonia Ground A filling in Duchesse 
lace, consisting of irregularly spread- 
ing plaited bars, ornamented with 
pivots. 

Devonia Lace Species of the Honiton 
lace (see), the flower petals or but- 
terfly wings being made in raised re- 
lief effect. 

Devonshire Kersey White English ker- 
sey, originated in the early part of 
the Ifrfh oemtury. Also called washers 
and wash whites. 

Devonshire Lace 'Bobbin lace of old 
origin, influenced in the 17th century 
by Flanders. Some time ago Greeik 
itorchon laces with geometric designs, 
black laces, similar to the Honiton 
(see) and, also trolly laces were made 
at D. 

Dewdrops Cs'etting, ornamented with lit- 
tle drops formed of gelatine or glass. 

Dextrine Is roasted starch; used for fin- 
ishing cotton goods and in printing. 

Dha Xative hemp from Senegal; used 
for "antiificial" wool, by treating it 
with nitric acid and solution of na- 
triumsuperoxide, which render the 
fiber transparent and crinkled. 

Dharwar East Indian raw cotton, 'having 
a moderately strong, fairly clean sta- 
ple of golden color. 

Dhollerah 'East Indian raw cotton, hav- 
ing a fairly strong, cohesive fiber of 
dull whitish color; it is usually very 
dirty. 

Dhooties Originally a reversible hand 
woven cotton faJbric, having a plain 
'body and 'bright colored borders and 
heads, woven with colored filling 
where the colored border stripes are; 
used for garments, scarfs and turbans 
in India and Afri'ca. Now often made 
with the filling for the white or gray 
body, interlacing with the colored 
borders. It is a soft, ligftt cloth, the 
body woven in plain weave. 

Dhunchee 'Lon'g, coarse and harsh bast 
fiber, yielded by the Sestoania acule- 
ata in India; used for ropes, cords, 
etc. 

Dhurrie East Indian thick cotton drap- 
ery, made with warp ribs and broad 
weft stripes in blue or red. 

Diabiki Medieval Arabic silk fabric with 
brocaded flowers. 

Diable Fuerte (Bedford cords and cordu- 
roys in South American countries. 

Diafalement Fort 'Made in France of lin- 
en warp and cotton filling. 

Diagonal 1. large twills, producing 
heavy diagonal lines; 2, name for a 
number of wool and worsted dress 
fabrics, the twill showing in wide, 
diagonal or serpentine wales. There 
are a larger number of picks than 
ends in a square inch; 3, see Cantoon. 



Diagonal Stitch In embroidery a couched 
gold or silk thread fastened down 
with diagonal stitches. 

Diagonales Gray coflton drill in Colom- 
bia. 

Diamantee ^Frerifh silk vesting made 
with two-ply warp, 20 leaves and eight 
'fillings in a repeat. 

Diamantine English twilled worsted 
dress goods witth a high finish; obso- 
lete; 2, 18th century woolen fabric in 
England. 

Diamond 1, a twill produced toy revers- 
ing the direction of the twill to form 
squares; 2, matchings from the sides 
of down fleeces of 48/50 quality; 3, 
worsted warp yarn, made by twisting 
a 4s with a 2/'36s with eight turns per 
inch and then reverse twisting this 
with a 2/36s strand with four turns 
per inch; 4, commercial variety of 
short staple, upland cotton in America. 

Diamond Braid A soutache 'braid made 
with five threads, each thread passing 
alternately under and over two 
threads. 

Diamond Draught Diaper In Ireland ar> 
eight-leaf, twilled, linen diaper cloth, 
with diamond patterns. 

Diamond Linen 'See Diaper. 

Diamond Net Made with lozenge shaped 
mesh. 

Diamond Stitch In embroidery rows of 
silk thread couched down by silk and 
gold thread running diagonally at op- 
posite directions and forming small 
diamonds. 

Diamond Yarn See Diamond, 3. 

Diaper 1, rich silk fabric of the Middle 
Ages, made with single colored pat- 
terns; used for church vestments, 
dresses, e*c. ; originated from the 
Orient; 2, a twill raising three warps 
in succession, followed by a pick af- 
ter which the weave is reversed; also 
a pattern formed by twilled checks, 
originally with a five-leaf satin 
weave; 3, white linen or cotton fabric, 
made with small diamond or bird's 
eye pattern, in the above described 
twill weave; used for towels, chil- 
dren's dresses, etc.; 4, a grade of da- 
mask linen, made in Ireland; 5, stout, 
twilled cotton drill, made with col- 
ored checks. 

Diaphane A transparent white or print- 
ed, French cotton gauze; obsolete. 

Diapistus A rich medieval fabric of un- 
known structure. 

Diazotizing A process by which fast col- 
ors are produced by semi-fast or 
fugitive dyes by treating the fabrics, 
after the dyeing, in a solution of so- 
dium nitrate and sulphuric acid and 
then with some developer (naphtyla- 
mines, ammonias, carbolic acid and 
other organic compounds). 

Dibah or Dibadj Durable medieval silk 
brocade dress goods of Persian 
origin. 

Dice Same as lozenge or diamond pat- 
tern. 



DIG 



54 



DOR 



Dickson Commercial variety of early 
maturing American cotton, the staple 
measuring 23-26 millimeters and 
forming- large clustered bolls; the 
yield is 3<l-32 per cent; also called 
Simpoon. 

Dieppe Lace French bobbin lace of vari- 
ous fineness, originally made both in 
black and white, now of white flax 
thread with a ground of three .threads. 
It is similar to the Valenciennes. 

Dima Narrow cotton cloth, made by the 
natives of Syria. 

Dimakso Arabian term for raw silk. 

Dimantino Twilled woolen cloth; used as 
dress goods and drapery; obsolete. 

Dimity 1, a narrow washable white or 
printed cotton fabric, made with fine 
iwarp cords; it is quite thin and sheer; 
2, also a stout cotton fabric made 
with warp cords and dyed in the 
piece or printed; used for drapery; 3, 
originally it was a wool and silk fab- 
ric. 

Dimity Binding <Has smooth edges and 
raised patterns. 

Dingy (Class of wool, lacking in bright- 
ness and deficient of color, but not 
otherwise faulty. 

Direct Dyes Various dyestuffs which can 
be used without previously mordant- 
ing the fabric. Such dyes are mostly 
synthetic. 

Direct Printing A method of printing all 
kinds of fabrics; the dyestuff is pro- 
duced directly on the fabric during 
the process of printing. The color is 
often set by steam. 

Dirodina A medieval silk fabric of dark 
pink color. 

Discharge Printing Consists of printing 
patterns on a solid colored, piece dyed 
ground by removing the color with 
various acids or other chemicals; used 
in cotton and silk printing. 

Diseased Wool Which was taken from 
the skin of sheep died of disease. 

Ditsosi 'Navajo ^blanket with a long 
shaggy pile on one side. This pile 
is not part of the yarn, but is twisted 
around the warp in raws and held in 
place by several ptcks. 

Dittis Obsolete, strong English fabric; 
used for bags. 

Diventum A medieval fabric of unknown 
structure. 

Diyogi Plain woven Navajo blanket, 
made of thick and loose yarn. 

Djidjim Oriental portieres, composed of 
wide strips of different colored cot- 
ton and wool fabrics sewed together 
and crudely embroidered at the seams 
and the edges. 

Djule Knitted Persian wool rugs with 
long haired back. 

Dobby 1, name for an English worsted 
fabric, originated in the 19th century, 
woven with bird's eye patterns; 2, 
small Jacquard patterns. 

Doctored Same as manipulated. 



Doeuma Very wide coarse gingham, 
often with large check design, having 
a medium soft finish; used in Turkey 
for bed and table covers, curtains, 
skirts, etc. 

Doeskin Fine, soft, warp faced and fulled 
woolen fabric, made of fine Botany 
wool in five-leaf satin weave and giv- 
en a dress finish with very soft short 
napped face; used for riding suits, 
etc. 

Doesootjes Fine East Indian bleached 
cotton fabric. 

Dogskin Heavy weft plush fabric, the 
pile being formed by mohair yarn. 

Doily Obsolete English woolen fabric. 

Dolichos Fine, silky stem fiber, yielded 
by the Dolichos trilobus in China and 
India; used for cloth. 

Dolly Varden Light cotton or silk dress 
goods, printed with highly colored 
flowers. 

Domestico Liso Gray cotton sheeting in 
'Colombia. 

Domestico Crudo Gray cotton sheeting in 
Venezuela. 

Domestics 'Cotton goods, shirtings and 
sheetings made in America. 

Domet A lightweight cloth, similar to 
flannel, made of cotton warp and cot- 
ton or cotton and wool weft. It is 
woven in warp stripes with plain 
weave and finished 'with a nap on 
both sides; used for pajamas, shirts, 
etc. 

Donau Linen Austrian damask table lin- 
en, made with borders or border 
stripes in colors, mostly 'blue or red. 

Donchery Stout French woolen serge. 

Donegal Originally a very thick and 
warm, all-wool homespun or tweed, 
woven by Irish peasants on hand- 
looms. 

Donna Maria 1, French silk fabric, used 
for dresses, neckwear, etc.; there are 
eight leaves and twelve fillings in a 
repeat; 2, very light, sheer silk fabric, 
used for veils by religious orders. 

Donskoi Trade name for wools from 
southern Russia; the staple is coarse, 
straight and loose, wihout kemps; 
used for carpets, etc. 

Donsu 'Silk damask in Japan. 
Doorea Fine Dacca muslin. 

Dopata Fine East Indian cotton muslin; 
used for veils and shawls. 

Dori Cotton rope, made by the natives 
of India; used for tents. 

Doriah 1, gray, bleached or dyed (blue or 
black), plain woven cotton goods, fin- 
ished soft or hard; used for outer 
garments by the natives in Egypt; 
2, a plain woven bleached cotton cloth 
in Arabia with prominent raised 
stripes produced by placing the warp 
ends closer. 



DOR 



55 



DOU 



Dornock or Dornek 1, coarse English lin- 
en diaper with check patterns; used 
for the table and for drapery; 2, in- 
ferior damask of the 15th century, 
made of wool, silk and gold. 

Dorset A fairly long and fine English 
wool. 

Dorsetshire Lace Obsolete English bob- 
bin lace of great beauty. 

Dorsetteen 'Has worsted warp and silk 
filling, made in England. 

Doru -Persian khilim (see), woven with 
solid cross stripes. 

Dorure French term for gold braids, 
tresses, etc. 

Dosia 'Chinese unfashioned woolen ho- 
siery. 

Dosuti 'Strong cotton cloth made in in- 
dia of two-ply warp and filling in 
plain weave. 

Dot Stitch See Point de Pois. 

Dotis East Indian calico. 

Dotted Swiss A thin and open weave, 
soft cotton muslin, made with do-t 
patterns with heavy cotton yarn, us- 
ing the swivel motion; 'used for cur- 
tains, summer dresses, etc. 

Double Hosiery, knit with single thread, 
has the toe or heel usually reinforced 
by the addition of another thread. 

To Double A process of twisting two or 
more single yarns together, as a rule 
in an opposite direction to the twist 
'given the single yarns. 

Double Cassinet 'Satin, made of cotton 
warp and alternate cotton and woolen 
'filling. 

Double Cloth >A fabric woven with two 
sets of warp and two sets of flllin'g. 
Both sides may be alike or different 
and often can be worn on the out- 
side. 

Double Cote -French serge made with 10 
leaves and 10 picks in a repeat. 

Double Cross Stitch In em'broidery two 
threads, with knots over them, are 
stretched in herringbone fashion, an- . 
other single thread, also in herring- 
bone effect, crossing the first one. 

Double ^Damask Has both the ground and 
the patterns woven in eight-leaf 
satin. 

Double Dyed Unions dyed twice. 

Double Faced 'Double cloths or backed 
cloths which can be worn either side 
on the ou-tside. 

Double Jean Obsolete name for serge. 

Double Leviathan Stitch In embroidery 
consists of a large cross stitch (see) 
with long cross stitches to fill in the 
holes on each side, and lastly an up- 
right cross stitch over the whole. 

Double Pick Two picks of filling shot 
into the same shed; used in cross 
ribbed fabrics and heavy 'goods. 

Double Pile Fabrics woven with pile on 
each side. 

Double Plain A double cloth, having both 
layers woven plain, often in different 
colors, interchanged at intervals to 
produce designs. 



Double Plush 1, knitted fabric, made 
'With two face yarns and a backing 
yarn, which is napped; 2, fabric hav- 
ing plush pile on both sides. 

Double Plush Weaving Process to weave, 
face to face, two separate cut warp 
pile fabrics without the use of wires. 
Two separate ground cloths are 
woven, the pile warps passing from 
one cloth to the other and are cut 
In the middle. 

Double Ribbon Trade name in England 
for reversible figured ribbons. 

Double Satin Double faced overcoating, 
both sides woven with a five-leaf 
satin. 

Double-spun Yarn Perfectly smooth 
yarn. 

Double 'Stitch or Star Stitch In embroid- 
ery, variety of the tent stitch (see) 
composed of a tent stitch with two 
smaller parallel tent stitches on each 
side. 

Double Warp Trade term for various 
better grades of fabrics in England, 
made with two-ply warp. 

Double and Twist Two-ply yarn, the two 
strands being of different colors. 

Double Width 'Same as broad goods, 54 
inches, or wider. 

Double Worsted Stout, medieval English 
worsted, about 45 inches wide. 

Doublerie French term for a printed 
canvas. 

Doubles In England black silk shoe 
strings of various widths. 

Doubling !, the process of twisting to- 
gether two or more plies or strands of 
yarn; 2, a process in silk throwing, 
consists of uniting several single 
threads on the same bobbin without 
any twist. 

Doublings English lining of cotton. 

Doublure^l, French term for lining; 2, 
coarse bleached woolen military suit- 
ing in France. 

Douglas A Highland tartan, the stripes 
running warp and weftwise as fol- 
lows: Wide navy blue bar, split in 
the center by a narrow white line; 
a dark green bar, half of the width of 
the navy; a black stripe, half the 
width of the green, with pale blue 
lines next to it on both sides; another 
green bar, as above. 

Douillon (French term for the lowest 
grade of wool. 

Doup Edge Split goods or ribbons which 
are woven several widths together, to 
be split later, are made with doup edge 
in gauze weave, to prevent unravel- 
ing. 

Doupions Two cocoons more or less 
closely interwoven with each other, 
preventing the reeling of the silk. 

Doupion Silk Reeled from double co- 
coons or doupions; is slightly inferior 
to ordinary raw silk. It is raised in 
Japan, adapted to strong cheap fab- 
rics; is of exceptional tensile strength 
and elasticity. 



DOW 



56 



ORE 



Dowlah Wide bleached cotton sheeting 
in Servia. 

Dowlas Stout, coarse, half-bleached lin- 
en, made in Ireland and England; used 
for shirts, towels, etc. There is also 
a cotton cloth, made in imitation of D. 

Downright Woolsorting term in the wool- 
en trade, meaning the wool taken from 
the lower parts of the sides of a 
fleece. It is next to the finest sort. 

Downs English short and medium wools, 
which are fuzzy; used for hosiery, 
woolens, etc.; included are Dorset, 
Oxford, Shropshire, Wiltshire, South- 
down, Hampshire. 

Dowrah iSee Deora. 

Doyley See Doily. 

Dozens English kersey, worn under 
Henry VIII. 

Drab Cloth Thick, strong woolen over- 
coating of gray color in England. 

Drabbet Coarse, twilled linen duck, white 
or colored, made in England. 

Draft 'Fine, all-wool, warp ribbed cloth; 
used in churches. 

Drake Clustei A commercial variety -of 
early maturing American upland cot- 
ton, the staple measuring 22-25 milli- 
meters; the yield is 31-32 per cent. 

Dram In England and the United States 
the weight in drams of 1,000 yards of 
silk yarn is the unit of measurement. 
See Denier. 

Drap French for woolen. 

Drap d'Alep French dress goods and 
men's suiting, .made of silk warp and 
woolen filling and fulled; obsolete. 

Drap d'Alma Closely woven twilled, wool 
or silk mixed ribbed fabric, finished on 
the face only. 

Drap d'Arest Rich silk cloth of the Mid- 
dle Ages; used for church vestments. 

Draps de Baye iStout French mourning 
dress goods, made with long napped 
shaggy surface. 

Drao de Beaucamp iA stout and coarse 
French twilled suiting, made of linen 
warp and woolen filling in solid colors. 

Drap Bresi I ienne 'French serge dress 
goods, made of pure silk or mixed with 
wool. 

Drap de Chasse 'A plain woven women's 
suiting, made with fine silk warp and 
heavy cotton filling, forming promi- 
nent cross ribs. 

Draps Chats French woolen dress goods, 

made of white wool warp and colored 

wool -filling, dyed black in the piece. 

Draps Croises French for twilled cloths. 

Drap de Dame Very light, eoft, all-wool 

French dress goods, similar to the 

flannel or Spanish stripes, slightly 

fulled. 

Drap Edredon Light, soft and warm 
winter coating, made of the finest 
wool, completely fulled. 

Drap d'Ete lightweight twilled worsted 
dress goods, with warp ribs; used for 
summer garments, etc. 

Drao Geraldine Heavy woolen dress 
goods, made in dark mixtures. 



Draps de Gobelin Fine French woolen 
dress goods, dyed scarlet red. 

Draps de Gros Bureau Coarse French 
'woolen suitings, dyed black, gray, or 
white; used by the peasants. 

Drap Imperial 'Fine French dress goods, 
woven plain of wool and cotton. 

Drap de Milord Various kinds of French 
serge dress goods, made with 12 
leaves and from 6 to 12 picks in a 
repeat. 

Drap Natte Fulled woolen cloth of Eng- 
lish origin, made in solid or several 
colors and having a raised nap on 
the back. 

Drap de Pauvre Coarse serge, made of 
natural reddish brown, undyed and 
unsecured wool. Formerly extensively 
used in France for clothes by the 
poorer classes. 

Drap Phenix Very light and durable 
French men's suiting and dress goods; 
obsolete. 

Drap Pique Quilted silk fabric, made 
with fancy figures; used for men's 
vests. 

Drap de Prince Silk or wool serge suit- 
ing made with eight leaves and three 
picks in a repeat. 

Drap Royal 1, lightweight twilled 
French woolen dress goods, made of 
organzine warp and very fine wors- 
ted filling in small cross ribs; 2, obso- 
lete, lightweight, fulled and printed 
French woolen cloth; used for vests, 
etc. 

Drap Sanglier Rough faced French 
mourning dress goods, made of all 
wool in loose weave. 

Drap Satin Woolen dress goods, made 
with a highly finished satin face. 

Drap de Silesie Lightweight, all-wool 
French dress goods, fulled. 

Drap de Soie 1. French term for heavy 
silk dress goods; 2, various, closely 
woven serge dress goods and men's 
suitings, originally made black. 

Drap Soleil 'French dress fabric of high 
lustre, made of wool with wide weft 
ribs. 

Drap Zephii Fine French woolen dress 
goods, similar to cachemire. 

Drapade 'See Somimiere. 

Drapery 1. In England term for dry 
goods; 2, textiles, used for upholstery, 
curtains, hangings, etc. 

Drawboy English lasting. made of 
double worsted warp and wool filling; 
used for women's shoes, made in the 
19th century in England; obsolete. 

Drawn Work 'Made by pulling out cer- 
tain threads of loosely woven linen 
and fastening the remaining threads 
together with various fancy stitches 
into patterns. 

Dreadnought Variety c-f bearskin cloth 
(see). 

Dresden 1, 18th century woolen fabric in 
England. 2, small flower design in 
pastel shades, usually in wanp 
prints. 



DRE 



57 



DUN 



Dresden Point Drawn work ornamented 
with colored silk thread embroidery 
in Germany. 

Dresden Ribbon iSilk or cotton ribbon, 
in various widths, the warp is print- 
ed in delicate colored flower pat- 
terns before weaving. 

Dress FacedWoolen fabrics having a 
fulled and slightly napped face. 

Dress Goods Large variety of woolen, 
worsted, silk or cotton fabrics; used 
for women's and children's dresses. 

Dressed Flax See Hackled. 

Dressed Line Trade term for thoroughly 
hackled flax. 

Dressing <1, size made of gum, starch, 
china clay, etc., to stiffen cotton, lin- 
en and silk cloths; 2, a finishing pro- 
cess, consisting in sizing the fabric 
with gums, rice water, oil, etc., in 
order to give luster, weight or stiff- 
ness to the fabric. 

Dril 1, plain or twilled cotton goods in 
Spain, always colored, either dyed in 
Che piece or in the yarn; used for 
men's suits; 2, in Jamaica plain wov- 
en cottonades, plaids, etc.; used for 
trousers. 

Dril Negro Firme 'Piece dyed cotton 
coating in Colombia. 

Drill 'Stout, strong twilled cotton goods 
of medium weight, dyed in the piece 
or woven with black or brown warp 
and white filling; used for trousers, 
etc. 

Drilled Embroidery (Bohrware), is made 
on hand or shuttle machine by cut- 
ting holes in the cambric and em- 
broidering the cut edges. 

Drillette In England a variety of weft 
faced, light weight drill, woven in a 
three, four or five shaft twill. 

Droguet 1, collective term for various 
cotton wool and silk cloths, made in 
France and England. It is made 
plain, woven or twilled and patterned, 
usually slightly fulled. 2, obsolete 
term for various ribbed French wors- 
ted dress goods. 

Drop Lea The strong web which hand 
made rugs are started with. 

Drosin Suiting made of silk waste and 
worsted yarn. Made in Holland. 

Drought Proof Same as Texas storm 
proof. 

Drugget 1, plain, twilled or corded Eng- 
lish fabric of the 18th century, made 
with worsted warp and woolen filling; 
2, printed and felted woolen fabric; 
used for floor covering. 

Druid 'Cotton duck in England and Aus- 
tralia. 



Drummond 1, originally a twilled English 
worsted in Oxford gray, woven with 
dou'oie and twust yarn; 2, a Highland 
tartan with red as predominating col- 
o.', tne stripes running as follows, 
each way: A wide field of red, split 
with two pairs of narrow dark blue 
lines, the center stripe between the 
two pairs being about one third the 
width of the wide side stripes. * The 
next group of stripes is as wide as 
both pairs of blue stripes, the center 
red stripes, and one side red stripe, 
and consists of the following: Nar- 
row pale blue line, narrow red line, 
dark blue stripe, narrow red line, nar- 
row green line, narrow red line, wide 
green bar (being of the same width 
as the wide red bars mentioned above 
in the red group), narrow red line 
and narrow dark 'blue line. * This is 
followed by a wide red stripe, after 
which the entire group described be- 
tween the two * is repeated in a re- 
versed order. 

Dry Goods General term in United States 
for all textiles. 

Dsedim or Jedim Oriental rug, made of 
several strips of colored knitted wool 
sewed together. 

Dsujnabe or Jujnabe 'Central Asiatic 
knotted wool rugs. 

Dubahi A calico in Persia; used for 
clothing. 

Ducape A plain woven medium fine, soft 
ribbed silk fabric; used in the 17th 
century in England. 

Duchesse 'A rich stout silk satin in solid 
color, with a broad twilled baak. 

Duchester 'Sort of English velvet. 

Duck 'Very closely woven, stiff and dura- 
ble cotton fabric, made with hard 
twist two-ply yarn in plain weave in 
ecru white or stripes, usually two 
warps are run through each dent; 
used for awnings, tents, sails, etc. 
The lightest weights are for sulnm'er 
clothing. 

Duffels or Duffields Thick woolen over- ^^ 
coating of Belgian origin having a 
heavy, chinchilla like nap; obsolete. 
In the 17th century, made in England 
and exported to America for winter 
wear. 'See also Bath Coating. 

Dul Very strong and fine fiber, yielded 
toy the stem of a climber in Ceylon. 

Dumb Singles The finest of Mie reeled 
silk yarns; it has no twist. 

Dumb-Waiter Rope Trade name for un- 
tarred cables or cordage of hemp. 

Dumican Embroidery work made by tl>e 
old Araucanians in Chile. 

Dumobin A fine grade of Scotch plaid. 

Dunbai A Highland tartan, made with 
green stripes and black lines on a 
red ground. 

Duncan Commercial variety of late 
maturing long staple cotton from 
Georgia, growing in large bolls. 

Dunchee Strong and very elastic bast 
fiber, yielded by the Sesbania Aculeata 
in India; used for ropes and as a 
substitute for hemp. 



DUN 



EDE 



Dundas A Highland tartan, the stripes 
running both ways as follows: Black 
stripe; navy blue stripe, twice as wide 
as the 'black and split in the center 
by a narrow black line; black slripe, 
as wide as the first one; a wide field 
of dark green (made a little narrower 
than the above -mentioned black, blue 
and black stripes combined) and split 
in the center by a group of red, green, 
dark blue, green and red lines. 

Dundee 1, soft, smooth, twilled woolen, 
having very little nap; 2, coarse bur- 
laps, crashes, baggins, etc., made of 
jute, flax and hemp in D., Scotland. 

Dungaree 1, coarse blue denim; used in 
the American navy; 2, a navy blue 
jean, used in England for sailors' 
clothes; made also for the export 
trade, chiefly India. The filling is 
dyed in the yarn, while the warp is 
white; 3, blue drill in South Africa. 

Dunging A process in the mordanting 
of cotton fabric resulting in fixing the 
mortdant to the fabric. Various so- 
diums, carbonate of ammonium, etc., 
are used. 

Dunkirk Lace Pillow lace of the 17th 
century; similar to Malines (see). 

Dunrobin Fine woolen with a Scotch 
plaid design. 

Dunster Coarse broadcloth-like kersey, 
made first in England in the 14t'h 
century; obsolete. 

Duraforte 16th century Italian worsted, 
made very strong and stout. 

Durance or Durant English woolen and 
worsteds, made in various colors and 
very strong texture; used in the 16th 
and 17th centuries. 

Duree Quilt iMade with large patterns 
formed by coarse thread on a plain 
woven ground; made bleached or in 
colors. 

D u retty <Same as Durance. 

Duria Striped cotton muslin from In- 
dia, made with a two-ply warp. 

Durois Stout French coating of worsted 
yarn, made with a smooth finish. 

Duroy All-worsted smooth, open--face 
fabric, made in England during the 
18th century; used for men's wear. 

Durris Cotton carpets woven by the na- 
tives in Patna, India. 

Duster Thin cotton or linen fabric, made 
dust-proof; used for coats. 

Dutch Camlet 'Holland dress goods, warp 
and filling made of combed wool and 
rabbits' hair; the warp is two-ply 
and ifiner than the filling, which forms 
crossribs. 

Dutch Carpet Made with worsted warp 
which runs over and under a single 
^filling; otherwise similar to the Vene- 
tian carpet. 

Dutch Tape Trade term in England for 
linen tapes, the width graded from 
11 to 15d, according to the number 
of threads supposed to be in it. 



Duvetyn A very soft French fabric, made 
of worsted warp and two-ply silk 
(tussah) filling in four harness twill 
weave, the filling covering the face. 
A fine downy nap is raised with an 
emery cylinder; used for coats, dress- 
es. The cheaper grades are similar 
to the pocket velvet. 

Dyed in the Grease Large number of low 
grade worsteds are dyed as they come 
from the loom, without being scoured 
'first. Dyeing in the grease is used 
only for black and blue colors. 

Dyed in the Wool Fabrics, the wool in 
which was dyed before spun. 

Dyed in the Yarn (Fabrics in which the 
yarn was dyed before woven. See piece 
dye. 

Dynamiting See Weighting. 

Dzoul A khilim (see) made in Anatolia 
of various shades of natural colored 
goat's 'hair and wool, without any de- 
sign. 



Early Carolina 'See Carolina Pride. 

Earth Flax 'Same as Asbestos. 

East Improved A commercial variety of 
late maturing cotton from Georgia, 
yielding 31-32 per cent of long 
staple. 

Eboutage French term meaning res- 
toration of torn needle-point laces. 

Ecaille 1, French silk dress goods, made 
with ply warps, six leaves and 32 
fillings in a repeat. 2, fish scale like 
work, made of flat quills over silk or 
velvet. 

Ecailles In Brussels lace, a ground re- 
sembling scales. 

Ecaille de Poisson A reseau ground in 
lace, resembling fish scales. 

Echantillon 'Clipping; sample of a tex- 
tile fabric. 

Echizen Trade term for the test grades 
of Japanese silk fabrics. 

Ecossais French and English dress 
goods, made of all worsted, also with 
cotton warp, with bright colored plaid 
designs. 

Ecru 'Natural color of cotton, wool, silk 
or fabrics thereof; unbleached. 

Ecru Lace 'The geometrical designs are 
composed of ecru colored plain and 
crinkled tape, connected with brides. 

Ecru Silk Has only the most soluble part 
of the natural gum removed together 
with the coloring pigments. 

Edging^A narrow lace; used on the bor- 
der or edge of garments. 

Edisto^The best grade of Sea Island cot- 
ton, has a very long, fine uniform 
and silky staple. 

Edelweiss Lace Another name for Aetz- 
stickerei (see). 



EDR 



59 



EMB 



Edredon Pine soft woolen woven in 
three-leaf twill, made with a filling 
thicker than the warp. 

Edredon Vegetale -French term for a 
tree cotton of Martinique. 

Effect Yarn Warp or weft yarn, intro- 
duced into the cloth for the only pur- 
pose to produce certain effects, as in 
color, knots, loops, etc. 

Effigeen Obsolete lining. 

Efflle .French for fringed. 

Effilure ^French term for unraveling of 
edges of the cloth. 

Egipto lA Peruvian cotton derived from 
the American upland seed, having a 
staple of about 1 % inches; good for 
coarse yarns. 

Egyptian Cloth 'Cotton cloth for wool 
embroidery. 

Egyptian Flax Very long and coarse 
fiber of reddish hue. 

Egyptienne '1, French silk dress goods, 
solid colored or in various colors; ob- 
solete. 2, dress goods, made of wool, 
camel's hair and waste sil'k. 3, obso- 
lete; dress goods with narrow satin 
stripes over ribbed ground. 

Eiderdown d, a soft, elastic knitted fab- 
ric, made of thick, soft spun yarn; 
it is heavily napped on one side; 2, 
a loose thiok woolen fabric, with a 
deep nap on one side. 

Eider lYarn Very soft knitting yarn, 
made of fine wool. 

Eis Wool or Ice Wool Fine, two-ply 
worsted knitting yarn. 

Ejoo Very strong, dark colored fiber, 
found at the base of the leaves of the 
sago palm in Malacca; it does not rot 
in water; used for cordage, cables, 
etc. 

Eksuti Cotton cloth made in India of 
single warp and .filling. 

Elastics Narrow fabrics iwith some of the 
warp thread made of rubber; used for 
belts, suspenders, shoes, etc. 

Elastic Canvas 'Plain woven cotton fab- 
ric, dyed in solid colors; used as stiff - 
ener in garments. 

Elastic Cord Has a rubber core with 
fine silk thread wound around; used 
for men's hats. 

Elastic Flannel 'English knitted goods 
with raised nap on the face; used for 
women's garments. 

Elastic Gore An elastic tape made with 
rubber threads; used for the sides of 
shoes; usually in black and tan. 

Elastic Webbing A stout, strong narrow 
fabric, made with rubber threads as 
part of the warp; used for suspend- 
ers, garters, belts, etc. 

Elastik In Austria a light weight sheer, 
unbleached linen fabric, given a 
strong finish; used for underlining. 

Elastique Fine men's overcoating, made 
of merino wool toward the middle of 
the 19th century. 

Elatche East Indian cotton and silk cloth 
with check patterns. 



Elberfeld Silk Trade name for Glanzstoff 

(see). 
Electoral Cloth 'Fine, reversible woolen 

dress goods, the face woven in 2-1 

weft twill and the back with fine ribs. 
Electra Dress goods, made of cotton and 

silk. 

Electric Velvet (English cotton or silk 
velvet, made with light colored dots 
powdered over a dark colored foun- 
dation. 

Elephant Toweling 'Rough faced, coarse 
and strong cotton or linen cloth; used 
for towels, embroideries, and drawn- 
work in England. 

Elken iHeavy cotton duck or sail cloth In 
Roumania and Bulgaria. 

Ellementes 17th century English worsted. 

Elliot A Highland tartan rwith a navy 
ground. Far apart from each other 
are pairs of nut brown stripes with 
a wide blue stripe between the half 
of each pair. This blue stripe is split 
in the center by a narrow red stripe. 

EllsworthCommercial variety of late 
'maturing cotton from North Carolina, 
the staple measuring 21-24 millimet- 
ers; the yield is 30-33 per cent. 

Elongated Twill >Has an angle more than 
40 degrees. 

Elysee Applique work, the floral pat- 
terns being cut out of two sateens 
of different colors and then embroid- 
ered. 

Elysian A heavily napped, thiok woolen 
overcoating of .French origin; the 
nap is finished in undulating lines. 

Emajagua See Damajagua. 

Embauba Very tough bast fiber yielded 
by the trumpet tree in Brazil; used 
for bags. 

Embira "Several kinds of bast 'fibers in 
Brazil; used for nets by the natives. 

Emboss Pattern in relief in embroid- 
ery, velvet. 

Embossd'ells 'English woolen cloth; ob- 
solete. 

Embroideries Various plain woven cot- 
ton fabrics in England, made of fine 
yarn and used for embroidery founda- 
tion. 

Embroidery Originally a needlework of 
antique origin, consisting in executing 
designs with thread, yarn or other 
flexible material on a textile or leath- 
er ground. It differs from lace that 
while embroidery always requires a 
ground to work on, which is essential 
part of the .needlework, lace has no 
such ground or if it is built up on 
any ground (like the needle lace on 
a pricked pattern) it is not part of 
the fabric. The largest part of the 
embroidery now in use is produced by 
machinery. 

Embroidery Cloth English cambric; used 
for embroidery. 

Embroidery Cotton Slack twist two- 
strand cotton thread; used for em- 
broidery. 

Embroidery Linen Linen fabric woven of 
even, round thread; used for em- 
broidery. 



EMB 



60 



ES'C 



Embroidery Quilt Has large patterns 
formed by coarse thread on a fine, 
plain woven foundation. 

Embroidery Silk Loosely twisted silk 
yarn composed of a number of un- 
twisted threads. 

Emerizing (Finishing process by which 
filling weaves of cotton, silk or wool- 
en goods are given a pile effect by 
scratching them with rapidly revolv- 
ing rollers covered with emery. 

Emerties See Amertis. 

Emery Cloth Strong cotton or linen fab- 
ric, coated with powdered emery; used 
for polishing. 

Empress ClothDouble faced woolen 
dress goods, made with 2-1 weft twill 
face and finely ribbed back. 

Empress Gauze iFine, flower figured fab- 
ric, made of all silk or silk and linen. 

En Couchure Same as Couching. 

Enameled Cloth Plain woven, coarse cot- 
ton fabric coated with varnish; used 
for upholstery. See American Cloth. 

End Another term for warp; used in ex- 
pressing the ends in a given space. 

Engineer's Cloth A blue cotton fabric in 
England, similar to dungaree; used 
for overalls. 

English Chintz IStoh century name for 
printed fabrics, made of all linen or 
linen warp and 'Cotton filling in Eng- 
land. 

English Drawing See Bradford system. 

English Embroidery or Eyelet Embroidery 

The pattern is formed of a number 
of eyelets, which are embroidered in 
buttonhole stitches all around the 
edges. Comes mostly in white but 
also in colors. 

English Foot Hosiery with a seam at 
each side of the sole. 

English Leathei In Austria and Germany 
a stout cotton or union linen fabric, 
woven in five-leaf satin weave; used 
for boys' suits. 

English Net iMade with hexagonal mesh. 

English Point ilSfh century needle-point 
lace similar to the Spanish point. 

English Yarns Worsted yarns spun in 
oil, according to the Bradford system. 

Engrelure French term for footing, or 
the part of the lace edging which is 
sewn to the cloth. 

Ensign Cloth In England a plain woven 
cotton or linen fabric; used for flags. 

Entoilage The mesh ground in laces. 

Entredeux Lace or embroidery; used as 
insertion, being edged on both sides 
with some other material. 

Entre Large 'Medium width linen in the 
French trade. 

Entretela 'Cotton lining in Venezuela. 
Enveloppe 'Packing canvas in France. 
Envers 'French for the back of the cloth. 
Enversin IDoarse all-wool, not fulled, 
French serge; obsolete. 



Eolienne Light glossy dress fabric, made 
with fine silk warp and a heavier 
worsted or cotton filling, forming 
cross ribs, and dyed in the piece. Orig- 
inally a very light dress goods, made 
with organzine warp and fine, lus- 
trous worsted filling in different col- 
ors. It was made in twill weave with 
the warp forming little brocaded pat- 
terns. 

Epingle 'French for fine lustrous corded 
effect, either warp or weftwise, in 
silk dress goods, often alternated with 
heavier ribs; also a silk dress goods 
made with such rib effect. 

Epingline A warp rifhbed dress goods, 
made with silk warp and worsted fill- 
ing with a pebbled face. 

Eponge 'Woven of loop yarn warp and 
plain filling in plain weave; used for 
dressee, etc. Is made of cotton, wool 
or silk. 

Epsom Salt Used to give soft feel and 
body to textile fabrics. 

Erca In Cuba, fine linen shirting. 

Ercildun A very fine, lustrous, soft and 
elastic wool of pure white color, yield- 
ed by the e. sheep in Tasmania; used 
for the finest grades of dress fabrics. 

Eri or Eria iStrong and white wild silk 
from East India and Assam, yielded 
by the Attacus ricini; the cocoons 
cannot be reeled. 

Erizo 'Coarse, strong bast fiber, yielded 
by a species of the apeiba tree in 
Venezuela. 

Ermine 'Brown woolen dress fabric from 
England. 

Erskine A Highland tartan, consisting of 
the following colors in a repeat: Wide 
red bar, split in the center with a 
pair of narrow and closely placed 
green lines; a dark green bar, of the 
same width as the red, split as the 
latter with a pair of red lines. 

Eruc A strong fi'ber, yielded by the 
Corypha urens in the Philippines; 
used for cordage. 

Escalier 1, ladder tape; 2, lace, made In 
ladder effect. 

Escamis Stout cotton barchent from the 
Levant. 

Escarimant A much esteemed fabric of 
the Middle Ages; weave and texture 
unknown. 

Escoba Fine, strong bast fiber, yielded 
by the sida plant in Venezuela; used 
for ropes. 

Escobadura 'Fine and w<hite bast fiber, 
yielded by the Pavonia spinifex in 
Argentina, 

Escot 1, a comparatively coarse French 
dress goods, made of hard twist wors- 
ted yarn in serge weave and dyed in 
the piece; 2, obsolete; fine French 
serges, made about 18 inches wide; 
used for lining. 

Escurial 'Spanish needle-point lace, sim- 
ilar to the Venise; 2, rich design in 
trailing and winding pattern; used for 
laces and embroideries. 



ESK 



61 



EXT 



Eskimo 1, overcoating woven with a five- 
leaf satin weave on the face and the 
back or with a twill, showing three- 
quarters of the warp on the face; 2, 
very thick single cloth of fine wool, 
made light, soft and fluffy. 

Espagnolette Fremch faibnic, originally 
made of Spanish merino wool, later 
of other carded wool in plain or 
twilled weave, finished smooth or with 
nap raised on either or both sides and 
made similar to melton. It was dyed 
in the piece and used for trousers, etc. 

Esparto 'Commercial name for a fine, 
transparent and clear leaf filber, yield- 
ed by the esparto grass in Algiers, 
Spain, etc.; used for cords, sandals, 
baskets, also for carpets, etc. 

Esperon Obsolete; fine French serge lin- 
ing, made 28 inches wide. 

Espouline Indian shawls, made in four 
colors only; obsolete. 

Essequibo Cotton Trade name for Bra- 
zilian cotton. 

Estaim Obsolete; French term for hard 
twist worsted yarns; used as warps 
in rugs or carpets, also for knit goods. 

Estamene 1, French all-wool dress 
serge, finished with a rough face; 2, 
an English fabric, made in basket 
weave of crossbred yarn. The face 
raised a little and is given a coarse 
finish. 

Estamet -Obsolete; light weig"ht French 
woolen, made about 43 inches wide. 

Estampados Ordinary cotton prints in 
Latin American countries. 

Esterett dSth century woolen fabric in 
England. 

Estopa Tow in Brazil. 

Estopilla In South America, batis{e-like 
cloth, made of fine linen yarn. 

Estrella A crepe-like, plain woven fab- 
ric, made with silk warp and very 
hard spun Botany filling, consisting 
alternately of two right hand and 
two left hand yarns. 

Estremadura 'Six-cord knitting yarn. 

Etaise Ta.ble linen made in Holland. 

Etamine 'Plain woven glossy, thin, light 
and open worsted dress goods, similar 
to bunting; also made of hard spun 
cotton yarn; it is dyed in the piece. 
Heavier cotton etamine is used for 
drapery. 

Etamine a Bluteau Obsolete; all-worsted 
French gauze; used for sifting flour. 

Etamine Glacee Made of organzine warp 
and worsted filling; also known as 
ChaHis. 

Etamine du Mans All-wool French eta- 
mine; obsolete. 

Etamine Viree Obsolete; French etamine, 
having a warp of mixed wool and 
silk in a different color from the fill- 
ing. 

Etamine a Voile Plain woven worsted 
mousseline in France, mostly black 
and white; used for church vestments. 

Etching Embroidery Made with black 
silk and water colors on a fine silk 
ground, mostly in outline, in imita- 
tion of etchings. 



Etching Silk Hard spun silk thread; 
used for embroidering outlines. 

Etendelle H]orsehair cloth; used In 
France and Belgium in the pressin* 
of oil. 

Eternelle (French term for the very dura- 
able torchon laces, made in Saxony. 

Ethridge Commercial variety of late 
maturing cotton from L/ouisiana, the 
fine and glossy staple measuring 28-30 
millimeters. 

Etoffe French for cloth. 

Etoffe du Pays Coarse homespun of 
natural gray wool. 

Etoupiers Cordat French packing can- 
vas, made of tow. 

Etramee A French hemp cloth. 
Etshigo Very thin Japanese silk. 
Etun In the Bible denotes linen. 

Eureka A commercial variety of medium 
maturing American Cotton, the strong 
ifine and gloesy staple measuring up 
to 40 millimeters, forming large bolls; 
the yield is 28-30 per cent. 

Euxinet 'English dress goods of silk and 
wool; obsolete. 

Even Running (Cotton containing fibers of 
even length. 

Everlasting An all-wool or cotton filling 
fabric with fine and very close, almost 
waterproof surface, woven in satin 
weave; used for shoe tops, gaiters, 
etc., formerly for suits. It is very 
durable. Obsolete term for warp 
ribbed wool cloth; used for women's 
shoes. 

Ewes' Wool 'Shorn from female sheep. 

Examit Said .to be the original Byzan- 
tine name for Samit (see), a fine sillc 
fabric with a six-ply warp. Accord- 
ing to another interpretation a fine 
silk velvet. 

Exarentasma A medieval fabric of un- 
known structure. 

Excelsior A commercial variety of Amer- 
ican cotton, the staple measuring 26- 
30 millimeters; the yield is 33-35 per 
cent. 

Exhaust Noil Short and hemp, recombed 
silk noil in England. 

Extra Classical Trade name for the very 
best silk yarn, made of the choicest 
cocoons of the year. 

Extra Super A standard grade of ingrain 
carpet, having 1,000 warp ends in a 
yard and 13% pairs of filling in an 
inch. 

Extract Style Method of printing textiles, 
so named after the use of natural 
color extracts used formerly in this 
process. The dyestuffs when applied 
are composed of the coloring matter 
mixed with a mordant. The color is 
usually set by steam. 

Extract Wool 'Which was regained from 
mixed rags by treating them with di- 
luted sulphuric acid which des-troys 
all vegetable fibers and leaves only 
the wool fttiers. 



EXT 



62 



FAS 



Extracting See Carbonizing. 
Eyelet Embroidery See English Embroid- 
ery. 



Fabric Manufactured textiles, irrespec- 
tive of the material made of or the 
process or weave used. 

Face That side of the fabric which is 
intended to be shown while wear- 
ing. 

Face Goods Usually all-wool fabrics; a 
full dense nap is raised on the face 
after a thorough fulling and is brushed 
down, resulting in a smooth face. Doe- 
skin is such a fabric. 

Faced Cloth 'Fabrics which have a sepa- 
rate set of warp or weft on the wrong 
side. 

Facon General, now obsolete, term for 
all grades of household and table lin- 
en made in Caen, France. 

Faconne 'French term for figured fabrics. 

Factory Cloth Now obsolete term given 
to the first factory made gray cot- 
ton muslins in America. 

Factory Yarn Term for law count, un- 
scoured woolen yarn, used in many 
localities for heavy knitted goods for 
winter wear. 

Fag End 1, untwisted end of a rope; 2, 
unfinished end of the piece of cloth. 

Fagara Wild silk, produced by the atta- 
cus atlas in India. 

Fagoting Fancy way of joining the 
seams of sheer, light fabrics, produc- 
ing an openwork, the connecting 
thread running either in zigzag line 
or in ladder effect (French F.) ; in 
embroidery consists in drawing out 
some of the threads and tying the 
cross threads. 

Failine French woolen serge. 

Faille .Soft ribbed silk fabric, made in 
plain weave with wider ribs than the 
grosgrain; used for dresses. 

Faille de Chine A very rich, soft, all- 
silk faille. 

Fair The best of the American cotton 
full grades. 

Fake 1, a ply; 2, a single coil of rope in 

nautics. 

Falaise French serge. 

Falding Coarse English woolen, similar 
to the frieze; used for clothing and 
furniture cover in the 14th century. 

Falie Grijn 'Cross ribbed, solid colored, 
wool camlet; used by the Dutch peas- 
ant women. 

Falkland Islands Somewhat coarse 
cheviot wool; used for dress goods, 
knit goods. 



Fall Weight Trade term for medium 
weight coatings, dress goods, and suit- 
ings. 

Fallen Wool Wool taken from sheep 

which died. 
Fallin Obsolete English woolen cloth; 

see Falding. 

Falseh 'Strong, harsh, wiry fiber, yielded 
by a species of Grewia in Persia; used 
for ropes, etc. 

Famis Silk cloth with gold threads in- 
terwoven, made for the Levant in 
France. 

Fancies 'Fabrics outside of the staples. 

Fancy Back Coatings made with a col- 
ored pattern, different from the face. 

Fancy checks Similar to Scotch plaid 
patterns. 

Fancy Cloth Generally any cloth where 
through the warp or filling either in 
one or more colors patterns are pro-, 
duced. 

Fancy Line-^Braided cord; used for sash 
windows on ships. 

Fangchow Very light silk foulard, made 
in China; is about 22 inches wide. 

Fanpak Closely woven soft wool flannel 
in China. 

Fantaisie 1, French for fancy (see); 2, a 
coarse and inferior grade of silk in 
France. 

Fantasia 'Dress goods in Italy. 
Farasdanga Fine cotton cloth, made on 
hand looms in India. 

Fard 'East Indian printed cotton; used 
for floor covering. 

Farmer's Satin A highly finished satin, 
made with cotton warp and worsted 
or cotton filling; used for linings. See 
Italian Cloth. 

Farquharson A Highland tartan, com- 
posed as follows, in a repeat: Wide 
dark green bar, one-eighth of which 
is taken up by a yellow stripe in the 
center; 'black stripe made as wide 
as half of the above; two narrow dark 
blue and black lines follow; *dark 
blue bar, with a red stripe in the 
middle, the latter measuring the same 
in width as the yellow; repeat group, 
described between the two * in re- 
versed order; wide dark green bar 
with yellow in the center, as de- 
scribed above is repeated; *black 
stripe, half the width of the green 
bar; dark blue, somewhat narrower 
than the black; *group of narrow 
black, red and black stripes; repeat 
stripes, described between the last two 
* in reversed order. 

Farrar .See Okra. 

Farrell Prolific A commercial variety of 
very prolific American cotton, the sta- 
ple measuring 30-35 millimeters; the 
yield is 28-30 per cent. 

Fash In England cloth clippings or 
fringe. 

Fashioned 'Hosiery and underwear, knit- 
ted flat and shaped by means of 
dropped stitches, forming flat edges. 



FAS 



63 



Fast Color which withstands light, wet, 
etc. 

Fast Back^l, name for welts where the 
wadding filling is more or less inter- 
woven with the warp; 2, trade term 
for quilts, having the stif.c'hing warp 
interwoven on the back. 

Fast Back Marseilles Bleached cotton 
quilt, having two sets of warps and 
two sets of fillings, woven plain on 
the face and back of the fabric, and 
having a heavy wadding weft be- 
tween the two cloths. It is woven 
in embossed patterns. 

Fast Coloi^-A coarse, stout, heavy and 
well fulled fabric; used for garments 
for sailors. 

Fast Pile See Lashed Pile. 

Fastness 'The property of the dye to re- 
tain its color when exposed to the 
rays of the sun or subject to wash- 
ing. The color is considered very 
fast, fast, fairly fast or fugitive, ac- 
cording to the time required (more 
than four weeks, more than two 
weeks, two weeks, and less than a 
week), for fading in southern ex- 
posure. 

The fastness to washing is deter- 
mined by twisting a white yarn of 
cotton and another of wool, together 
with the dyed skein, which is scoured 
in a soap bath; if both the liquid and 
any of the white yarn becomes col- 
ored the color is fugitive, while if none 
of them is tinged the color is fast. 

Fathom (Standard measure of length for 
ropes; one F. is six feet. 

Fautunn "In Chinese markets a brocaded 
or cross ribbed faforic, having silk 
warp and a heavier worsted filling. 

Faveur Narrow colored ribbon in France. 

Fawn Canton A twilled fabric, made with 
cotton warp and wool filling; used 
in the manufacture of waterproof 
cloth. 

Fayal Lace Fine hand made lace of aloe 
fibers in Azores. 

Fayence Prints Cotton fabrics printed 
with indigo paste, which afterward is 
ifixed in an alkaline bath. 

Fayetta A fine, thin and soft dress goods, 
made of organzine warp and fine 
woolen filling in a close warp plush 
twill weave; used for dresses, urribrel- 
la covers, etc. 

Fearnaught >A heavy English cheviot 
with a shaggy face, the filling of wihich 
usually contains shoddy. 

Feather Cloth Coating, made by weaving 
soft feathers into undyed wool cloth; 
the filling is made of wool and feath- 
ers twisted together. 

Feather Edge Same as picot. 

Featheredge Braid 'Picot braid of white 
cotton or linen; used for laces. 

Feather stitch iA stitch used in embroid- 
ery, imitating feather by branches 
from a main vein. 

Fecamp Bleached or gray French linen 
fabric. 

Federitt See Inlet. 



Fell In mill parlance that end of the piece 
of fabric which has been last woven. 

Felling Silk A two-ply silk thread with 
a left hand twist. 

Fellings 'See Jours. 

Fellmongering The removal of the wool 
from sheep pelts by any process. 

Felt Compact sheet of entangled and 
matted fibers of wool, fur, mohair, 
often mixed with cotton or other fib- 
ers which have no felting property. 
The stock is thoroughly mixed, carded, 
hardened and finally made into felt 
with the aid of moisture, heat and 
pressure. While felt is usually and 
originally not a woven or knitted fab- 
ric, it is often made by weaving or 
knitting a coarse body, raising a heavy 
nap which is felted afterward. The 
'finest felts made of fui and mohair 
are used for hats, the thinnest for 
glove linings, while the heavier or 
coarser makes are employed for floor 
and table covers, saddle linings, in- 
sulators, roofing, etc. It is believed 
that felt originated with the Sara- 
cens. See also Needle Felt. 

Felting The property of wool fibers or 
some of the furs to interlock with 
each other if they are rubbed together 
under pressure and in moist condi- 
tion while heated. Felting is caused 
by the serrations on the surface of 
the wool. 

Fencing Term in England for mill ends. 

Fents Unfinished ends of calicoes or 
printed lawns; also short lengths of 
cloth or damaged ends. 

Feraghan Small Persian rugs of cotton 
warp and weft and close and short 
wood pile tied in Senna knot. The 
design consists usually of small fish 
in a blue field and trailing vine in 
the borders. Many saddlebags are 
also made this way. 

Fergusson A Highland tartan, made as 
follows: Two heavy black stripes 
with a still wider dark blue stripe be- 
tween; a green field, almost as wide 
as the above three stripes combined. 
This green field is split in the center 
with a group of black, white and 
black lines, the two side green bars 
thus formed being again split in the 
center by a single narrow red line. 

Ferlin Obsolete English woolen cloth. 

Ferrandine 'Lightweight, plain woven 
dress fabric of silk warp and wool or 
cotton filling, similar to the chalys; 
obsolete. 

Ferret 'Narrow binding tape of cotton, 
wool or silk. 

Ferric Sulphate Used in weighting black 
dyed silk. 

Ferrous Sulphate Used in indigo and 
alizarine dyeing, also in dyeing wool 
or cotton black. 

Peru 'Strong bast fiber, yielded by the 
cochlospermum in west Africa; used 
for ropes. 

Feston Stitch Same as buttonhole stitch. 



FIB 



64 



FIN 



Fibei 1. filaments used as raw material 
for textile fabrics, are divided (1), 
animal fibers, as wool, hair, silk; (i2), 
vegetable fibers, as cotton, linen, jute, 
hemp, ramie, etc.; (3), mineral fibers, 
as asbestos; and (4), artificial fibers, 
as glass, metal threads, various arti- 
ficial silks, etc.; 2, yarn, made of 
twisted and prepared paper; used for 
rugs and mats. 

Fiber Silk 'Commercial term for good 
quality of artificial silk. 

Fibrilia Obsolete term for the fibers and 
fabrics made from flax, hemp, jute, 
ramie; used as substitute by mixing 
them with wool or cotton. 

Fibrilize The process by which the fiber 
was separated from the stalk and 
shortened in length. 

Fibronia 'Proprietary name for a fiber 
made of a grass; It is carded with 
shoddy and used for carpets or belt- 
ing yarns. 

Fifth Combing Wool taken from the 
thigh. 

Figuartoes 'Wool fabric, made in Nor- 
wich, England, in the 17th century. 

Figure The ornamental design on a tex- 
tile fabric, produced by weaving, dye- 
ing (resist), printing or pressing. 

Figured Textile fabric having a colored 
design on its face, as compared with 
plain fabrics. 

Figurero A woolen fabric in England 
during the 17th century. 

Figures de Chimay Holland laces. 

Figuretta A costly fabric in medieval 
England. 

FijiCotton of the Sea Island type, the 
staple is of very irregular length, but 
fine and cohesive. Has large percent- 
age of unripe fibers. 

Fi I 'French name of thread or fVber (silk). 

Fil au Chinois Very strong, waxed linen 
thread in Prance; used for heavy sew- 
ing. 

Fil de Cren A heavily padded cordonnet 
(see). 

Fil d'Epreuve All-flax, medium fine 
French linen with blue and white 
checks or stripes. 

Fil de Florence (Silkworm gut). The 
segregation of the silkworm pressed 
out and used for fish line. 

Fil de Japon In France reeled silk, con- 
taining from 3 to 15 filaments. 

Fil Plat Bleached French cotton yarn; 
used for mending and embroidering. 

Fil de Sayette Ply yarn, made of combed 
wool, also mixed with silk; made into 
hard twist for various fabrics and 
slack twist for knitting. 

Fil au Tonkinois 'Strong, waxed linen 
thread; used for the heaviest sewing 
in France. 

Fil de Trace 1, the outlining thread of 
the patterns in applique needlepoint 
laces; 2, a double thread outlining the 
design of the point lace before maik- 
ing it. 



Filament A single, natural strand of silk. 

Filatrice 1, floret silk in France; 2, 
French dress fabric of silk warp and 
floret silk filling. 

Filature 'Silk reeled in factories, on ma- 
chinery, instead of by hand. 

Filet Knotted square net or mesh. 

Filet de Carnasiere See Macrame. 

Filet Conte French lace, made by using 
a coarse square mesh net for foun- 
dation and filling out the design in 
darning or cloth stitches. 

Filet Guipure Lace or embroidery with 
large patterns over a net ground; the 
patterns not conforming to the square 
meshes of the ground. 

Filet Lace Has a filet foundation with 
the pattern formed 'by filling in some 

of the squares with darning stitches. 
Filigree Point Lace made of gold thread 
patterns joined with silk bars. 

Filik 1, Oriental rugs made of goat's 
frair; 2, long goat's hair of light 
brown color, in Asia Minor; used for 
the pile of rugs in natural color. 

Filled Woolen fabrics which have been 
weighted with flocks. 

Filleting Very heavy, unbleached linen 
tape in England. 

Filling il, in the United States and Can- 
ada same as weft; 2, in England 
equivalent to weighting; 3, see Modes. 

Filling Reversible Thick, soft, napped 
fabric, made of cotton or wool; used 
for bath robes, kimonos, etc. Woven 
in twill weave with a different colored 
warp and weft, the latter being of a 
very slack twist, the face and back 
being reverse of each other. 

Filo Silk Two-ply, soft spun silk thread; 
used for embroidery. 

Filoche 1, fabric woven like nets; 2, 

plain French serge dress goods of 

eight leaves and eight picks in a re- 
peat. 

Filoselle Soft embroidery thread, made of 
silk waste or floret silk. 

Filouche In France a thin, sheer cotton 
cloth of plain weave. 

Filum Yarn or thread in old Rome. 
Fin Trait 'French sail canvas. 

Finastre Very inferior raw silk from Per- 
sia and Asia Minor. 

Fine '1, woolsorting term in the worsted 
trade, meaning the best sort of the 
fleece; 2, the finest sort of short wool 
taken from the skirts (see) of Eng- 
lish and coarse wools; 3, English and 
crossbred wool, taken from the best 
part of an extra fine luster fleece; 
spins 40s to 44s. 

Fine Tew The lint separated from the 
long fiber when the flax is dressed; 
used for small ropes, cords and tow 
cloth. 

Finette French cotton lining, made in 
serge weave. 

Finger Rug English heavy, coarse rugs, 
made on hand looms, with cut pile. 



FIN 



65 



FLA 



Fingering Four-ply woolen or worsted 

knitting yarn in England; also slack 

twist wool yarn for Berlin embroid- 
ery. 

Fingram 'Eighteenth century coarse Eng- 
lish and Scotch serge. 

Finishing The final processes through 
which most of the fabrics are put in 
order to give them certain charac- 
teristics and to increase their sala- 
bleness. The finishing process will 
often radically change the character 
of a woolen (like chinchilla) after it 
is taken from the loom, while wors- 
teds and silks are not changed as 
fundamentally. The more important 
finishing processes are (several of 
them being usually omitted with the 
various fabrics); perching, burling, 
mending, bleaching, starching, water- 
ing, calendering, beetling, scouring, 
singeing, sizing, weighting, printing, 
dyeing, waterproofing, felting, crab- 
bing, tentering, napping, lustering, 
pressing, mercerizing (see each under 
own head). 

Below will be described the finishing 
of some of the standard fabrics: 

1. Velour finish, the fabric is mois- 
tened and an erect and loose nap is 
raised on the face, then dried and 
lightly shorn. 

2. Saxony finish, the fabric is first 
fulled properly, then rolled and 
stretched, gigged, shorn short, then 
brushed and pressed. 

3. Cheviot, the fabric is fulled but 
slightly, dried, shorn and pressed, 
showing the pattern of the weave 
clearly. 

4. Chinchilla, the twilled filling face 
is gigged until a full and heavy nap 
is raised which is shorn to the re- 
quired length: the fabric is then 
whipped, face down, ard run throug'h 
the Ch. machine, which forms the nap 
into nu'bs. 

5. Serge finish, the goods are care- 
fully burled and singed, cralsbed and 
scoured and shorn, producing a clear 
face. 

6. Melton finish, the goods are fulled, 
steamed, dyed and shorn and finally 
lightly brushed. 

7. Kersey, after thorough burling 
the goods are fulled, gigged and the 
nap laid. The fine grade goods are 
then steamed and pressed, while the 
lower grades are given a water finish. 

8. Face goods, a very thorough 
burling and fulling is followed by 
raising a dense nap, the goods are 
then steamed, the nap laid down as 
close as possible and finally pressed. 

9. Blanket, if made of wool, the 
goods are felted, gigged to dense nap, 
cut to the required length and bound. 
Cotton blankets are napped. 

10. Poplin, the goods are singed, 
crabbed, dyed, and shorn. 

11. Covert cloth, same finish as face 
cassimeres. 

12. Beaver, the goods are fulled, the 
lower grades also weighted with 
flocks, gigged and the nap well laid, 
then steamed and finally shorn short. 



13. Calico, the cloth is singed, 
bleached, boiled off, and printed. 

14. Gingham, is sprinkled, sized, 
and pressed. 

15. Velvet, the loops are cut. the 
pile brushed, steamed and cut. 

Fique Very strong, straight, smooth 
fiber, yielded by the leaves of the 
Furcraea gigantea of South America; 
used for bagging, etc. 

Fir Wool iSee Pine Wool. 

Fireproof Fabrics Made of asbestos, also 
of other fibers, in the latter case the 
cloth being rendered fireproof by 
chemical treatment. Permanent fire- 
proofing is obtained by treating the 
fabric in a solution of sodium stan- 
nale of 45 degrees Tw. After a thor- 
ough drying the fabric is treated with 
a solution of ammonium sulphate of 
15 degrees Tw. This process was in- 
vented by Prof. Wm. Henry Perkin. 

Fir*t Combing Long wool taken from 
the sides of the fleece. 

Fisherman's Lace See Point Pecheur. 

Flume Variety of Egyptian flax, yields 
coarse fibers. 

Five O'clocks /Fine damask linen table- 
cloths; used in England. 

Fivette -A lightweight French cotton or 
'woolen lining, woven in diagonal 
twill. 

Fixing Agents Chemicals which attach 
the dyestuffs or the mordants to the 
fabric. 

Flaine Ticking made in France. 

Flake Yarn T*wo-ply cotton, wool, or silk 
yarns, having flakes or nu'bs in a dif- 
ferent color at certain intervals. 

Flamme 1, French for yarns printed with 
one or more colors after spun; 2, a 
variety of woolen dress fabrics made 
in France of printed yarns; 3, in 
'France a plain woven colored cloth, 
made of linen warp and cotton fill- 
ing. 

Flanders Flax Very fine ifiax of long 
white soft fillers, grown in Belgium. 

Flanders Serge Seventeenth century 
English worsted fabric. 

Flanelle de Chine A plain woven French 
fabric, made of all-wool and given a 
very smooth face. It is dyed with 
indigo in the piece, the selvage being 
left white. 

Flanelle de Rouen Obsolete French fab- 
ric, made of hemp warp and wool fill- 
ing, forming various colored cross 
stripes; used for skirts, house dresses. 

Flannel 1, in England grade of shoddy, 
obtained from flannel; 2, loosely wo- 
ven woolen lightweight cloth, napped 
on one side and used ordinarily for 
shirting, underwear, etc. It is mostly 
made with a two harness loom, but it 
can be made in plain or twill 
weave; 3, name for sleazy, uncouth 
looking fabrics, which are "made" in 
the finishing process, by teazling the 
face and treating the nap; as, for in- 
stance, the chinchilla. 



FLA 



66 



FLI 



Flannelette Twilled, lightweight wash- 
able cotton fabric, made of slack 
twist single yarns; it is woven in 
stripe effects or printed on the face 
and has a short nap raised on the 
back; used for kimonos, house dresses. 

Flat Cambric Cheap, plain, woven, piece- 
dyed cotton fa'bric, finished with a 
luster and folded in laps. 

Flat Fold The way of putting up certain 
fabrics by rolling them without doub- 
ling. 

Flat Goods Knit goods, made in flat 
stitc'h without any ribs or fashioning. 

Flat Point Lace Made perfectly flat with- 
out any padded or raised parts. 

Flavet A thinly woven, inferior English 
serge; (see also Lingette). 

Flax A slender annual plant, the bast 
fiber of which is called linen. The 
plants are pulled before ripe, retted 
(submerged in water until the woody 
parts of the stalk are decomposed), 
after which the straw is crushed, 
broken between rollers, scutched 
(causing the removal of the woody 
parts with revolving blades) and 
hackled (or drawn through iron 
combs). The fiber ranges from 
creamy to greenish or bluish color be- 
fore bleached. 

The most important grades of the 
flax are: In Russia the motchenetz 
and slanetz (see each), the first con- 
taining the following varieties: Po- 
chocon, Uglitz, Rieff, Jaropol, Ste- 
purin. The varieties of the slanetz 
are called Bejetsky (usually best), 
Krasmoholm, Troer, Kashin, Gospo- 
sky, Nerechta, Wologda, Jaroslaw, 
Gresowetz, Kostroma. The flax mar- 
keted through Riga, Dunabourg, and 
Kowno, is graded K, HK, PK, HPK, 
SPK, HSPK, ZK, GZK, HZK, RG. The 
Archangelsk (Russia) grades for dew 
retted toales are first, second, third, 
and fourth crown, and first and sec- 
ond zabrack. The marks for Dorpat 
and Pernau (Russia) flax are: IX>E>, 
OD, D, HD, R, G. The marks for 
water retted flax from Hoffs (Russia) 
are: HD, PHD, FPHD, SFPHD, 
XHDX, XRX. The marks for Pskoff 
are: OD, PWW, OW, O, OO, OOO, 
PI, PII, PHI. The marks for the flax 
from Reval and Dorpat, exported in 
bobbins, are: GR, HD, D, OD, OOD. 
The Petrograd marks are classed, 
comprising: Fabrichng, Otbornoi, first 
crown, second crown; superior siretz, 
comprising Polochno, Fabrichng, Ot- 
bornoi, first crown, second crown; 
medium siretz; common siretz, com- 
prising Otbornoi, first crown, second 
crown. 

The Koenigsberg (Germany) marks 
are: FWPCM, FGPOM, WPC1M, 
LPCM, FPCM, PCM, PI, P2. 

In Belgium, the Courtrai flax is 
graded I/III, II/III, I/IV, II/IV, I/V, 
II/V, VI; the Flemish or blue flax 
grades are II/IV, I/V, II/V, VI, VII, 
VIII, IX. The flax from Fumes and 
Bergues is marked A, B, C, D; from 
Zealand, IX, VIII, VII, VI; from Fries- 
land, D, B, Ex, F, Fx, Fxx, G, Gx, 



Gxx, Gxxx; the Walloon flax is mark- 
ed II, III, and IV. The flax from Ire- 
land and France is known by the 
names of the counties and district it 
comes from. Dutch flax is graded 
II/IV, I/V, II/V, VI, VII, VIII, IX. 
In chemical properties the pure 
bleached linen is similar to cotton, the 
following tests serving to distinguish 
unbleached linen from cotton: treated 
with olive oil, linen becomes translu- 
cent and cotton opaque and white; 
when burned the ends of the cotton 
filbers are tufted, those of the linen 
round; treated with concentrated so- 
lution of caustic soda both cotton and 
linen shrink and curl, the former be- 
coming grayish, the latter yellow in 
color; treated with concentrated sul- 
phuric acid and then with diluted 
ammonia water, linen remains un- 
changed, while cotton becomes soluble 
in water. In fabrics the tests are: 
if it is a white fabric a piece is boiled 
in 50 per cent solution of caustic soda, 
which renders the cotton pale clear 
yellow and the linen dark yellow. A 
sample of the fabric is washed in a 
solution of cyanin in alcohol, then 
rinsed and after treated with thin so- 
lution of sulphuric acid, after which 
the linen will become blue, while the 
cotton stays white. Under the micro- 
scope the linen fiber discloses regular 
cylindrical or polygonal cells, with 
many transverse joints and a lumen 
in the center. 

Flecked Yarn or cloth with a flaw, 
caused by a spot of some strange col- 
or. 

Fleece '1, the entire coat of wool shorn 
from the sheep at one time; 2, cotton, 
socalled, during the process of carding. 
.Before that it is called lap (see), and 
after it leaves the card, it is made 
up into sliver (see). Called also wefo; 
3, in knitted underwear the nap on 
the inside. 

Fleece Wool All the wool clips after the 
first shearing. 

Fleeced, Fleece Lined Knitted fabrics, 
made with a finer face and a heavier 
and soft spun back yarn, the latter 
being napped in the finishing. 

Fleecy HosieryIn England, knitted 
goods with looped face and smooth 
iback. 

Flemish Holland Stout, plain woven, un- 
bleached linen fabric, made in Bel- 
gium. 

Fleur de Soie .High grade French satin, 
made in twelve-harness weave. 

Fleur Volante iLoops or other ornaments 
on the outer edge of the cordonnet 
(see). 

Fleuret Obsolete name for fine Rouen 
linen. 

Fleuron Lightweight French woolen fab- 
ric, often mixed with silk or linen; 
obsolete. 

Flick In England the nap raised on 
flannelette and other fabrics. 

Flipe <Same as slipe. 

Flix Courts A French linen fabric. 



FLO 



67 



FOU 



Float 1, flaw in the cloth, caused by loose 
threads floating instead of being 
bound in the weave; 2, a certain 
length of the warp or filling in the 
fabric, left free between two points 
of binding for the purpose of forming 
certain designs. 

Floches 'Fine sewing silk in France. 

Flocks Very short, unspinna'ble wool 
fibers, produced either as a waste in 
the mill or by cutting up rags, clip- 
pings, etc.; used for weighting fab- 
rics. 

Flocked Goods Such woolens or union 
cloths, which are weighted by the 
means of impregnating flocks (see) 
into the back of the fabric in order 
to increase the weight. This can be 
done in dry or wet state. 

Floconne 'French for yarn or fabrics 
having small flakes; also woolen dress 
goods, having the nap raised in the 
finishing in various figures, as squares, 
dots, etc., or twisted into nubs. 

Floorcloth In England a coarse and stout, 
plain woven hemp or flax fabric, heav- 
ily coated with varnish; used as in- 
expensive floor covering. 

Flor or Floret Linen An open face cot- 
ton or linen canvas, both warp and 
weft yarns being equally spaced from 
each other. 

Florameda A fabric mentioned in 17th 
century English manuscripts, believed 
to have been woven with flower pat- 
terns. 

FlorenceVery light, plain woven silk 
lining, the warps and wefts being 
placed the saime distance apart, made 
with single warp. Sometimes mixed 
with wool. 

Florentine 1, same as denim; 2, twilled 
silk dress goods, made plain or in 
stripes and patterns; 3, fine, twilled. 
English woolen; 4, a twill composed 
of eight ends and eight picks; used 
for glossy fabrics. 

Florentine Lace In the 16th century a 
raised needle-point '.ace made in Flor- 
ence. 

Floret 1, figured wool satin, made with a 
high finish; used in England for 
dresses; 2, French term for brocaded 
silks; 3, yarn made of the best kind 
of silk waste. 

Floretta 1, see Floss Silk; 2, very fine 
plain woven bleached Belgian linen. 

Florette il, 18th century woolen fabric in 
England; 2, same as Floret. 

Florida 1, a very fine grade of Sea Island 
cotton, having a uniform, long, fine 
and silky staple; 2, trade name in 
Roumania for a printed madras; 3, 
in Austria a coarse, bleached, plain 
woven cotton fabric, with a heavy 
size finish; used for stiffener in col- 
lars, cuffs and shirt bosoms. 

Floss Silk -Fine but tangled waste silk, 
forming the outside of the cocoon and 
which cannot be reeled; also the yarn 
made thereof. 

Plots In laces several rows of picots, 
partly covering each other. 



Flouncing Laces and embroideries made 

as yard goods intended for flounces on 

dresses. 
Flourishing Thread Lustered linen 

thread; used for embroidering. 
Flush (Same as Float. 
Fly A very short cotton waste; used for 

heavy backing yarns. 

Fold 1, same as ply (see) in yarn; 2, 
layer of cloth; 3, same as to double 
(see). 

Folded Yarn In England yarns composed 
of single thread plies. 

Fond In hand-made laces the ground, 
over which the patterns are spread 
out. It is either a mesh or is made 
up of brides (see). 

Fond Mirroir Rich French silver or gold 
brocade dress goods, made with a taf- 
feta foundation, over which the metal 
was laid flat, producing a mirror-like 
effect; obsolete. 

Fond de Neige A fancy ground in old 
laces, consisting of brides with groups 
of knots on them. 

Fond d'or French term for brocades with 
gold ground. 

Footing 1, the edge of the lace flouncing 
which is seiwn to the fabric; 2, the 
repairing of holes in the foot of stock- 
ings. 

Forbes A Highland tartan, made as fol- 
lows: A wide dark green bar, split 
in the center by a group of black, 
white and black lines; black stripe, 
measuring half the width of the green; 
a navy blue bar (as wide as the green), 
split in the center with a pair of black 
stripes, placed close together. 

Forest Whites English woolens, see 
Penistone. 

Forest Wool Fibers extracted from pine 
needles; used for coarse blankets, 
mixed with cotton or wool. 

Forestieri Various colored, mostly scar- 
let red, fulled woolens in Egypt. 

Forestry Cloth Adopted by the United 
States Government for the forestry 
service; it is a strong, clear faced, 
twilled olive drab worsted; comes in 
various weights. 

Forfars Unbleached coarse and heavy 
linen, made in England; used for tow- 
els. 

Fossys East Indian cotton cloths. 

Fota Thick, strong and durable cotton 
cloth, made in India; used for gar- 
ments for native women. 

Fotaloongee -Striped East Indian faJbric, 
made of bast fibers, mixed with silk. 

Fottes East Indian checked and striped 
cotton cloths. 

Fougeres Various linen and canvas 
cloths in France, made as coarse pack- 
ing canvas or bleached household 
linen. 

Foulard Very light and thin silk fab- 
ric, woven plain or twilled, printed in 
conventional style; used for summer 
dresses. 



FOU 



FUL 



Foulardin In Austria a light, plain woven 
cotton fabric, starched and highly fin- 
ished; used for sleeve lining. 

Foulardine Obsolete cotton dress goods, 
made similar to foulard. 

Foule French for fulled fabrics. 

Fourre Another French term for mate- 
lasse (see). 

Fourth Combing 'Wool taken from the 
rump of the fleece. 

Frailejon White or rust colored wooly 
fiber taken from the surface of the 
leaves of the Frailejon in Venezuela, 
Colombia, and Ecuador. 

Frame Tape A stout, half bleached linen 
or cotton mixed tape in England. 

Framework Knitted Fabrics Made from 
horizontally knitted or weft threads in 
plain, rib or pearl stitches. 

Franella A napped cotton cloth in 
Paraguay; canton flannel and colored 
and printed flannelets in Chile. 

Fraser A Highland tartan with a red 
ground, composed as follows: A group 
of two dark green (on the outside) 
and two dark blue stripes (on the 
inside), separated from each other by 
narrow red lines; a red field made as 
wide as the above group and split in 
the middle by a narrow white line. 

Fray Unravel. 

Frazadas 'Cotton blankets in Latin- 
American countries. 

French Backed Worsted dress goods, 
made with a welt backing in satin 
weave. 

French Cambric The finest grade of 
cambric. 

French Carpet! ng^Same as moccadoes 
(see). 

French Drawing See French System. 

French Flannel^Soft and very slightly 
napped twilled wool fabric, made with 
stripes, checks or solid colors; used 
for men's and women's wear. 

French Foot Hosiery made with a seam 
in the middle of the sole. 

French Knot An embroidery stitch, made 
usually with heavy thread, producing 
a small knot. 

French System Used in spinning worste* 
yarns. The wool is combed dry, the 
sliver is drawn between rolls, but 
the fibers are parallel and not twisted 
until the actual spinning. The yarn 
is not as smooth as that made accord- 
ing to the Bradford system (see). 

French Yarns Worsted yarns, spun dry, 
according to the French system (see). 

Fribs Short second cuts of wool from 
merino fleece. 

Frieze A heavy and coarse woolen over- 
coating, having a nap on the face; 
often made in brown, gray or green 
mixture effect, in plain or twill weave; 
it is well fulled and has a harsh feel. 
The wool is usually coarse and well 
mixed with shoddy. The filling is 
usually heavier than the warp. 



Frieze Flannel Heavy, twilled flannel, 
made of cotton and wool in mixture 
effect. 

Frigidines A French haircloth. 

Fringe -Made by a heavy thread or wire 
being placed in the loom a certain dis- 
tance from the selvage of the cloth, 
acting as if it was one of the warp 
threads catching certain picks. After 
the cloth is woven, the wire is re- 
moved and the fringe cut. 

Frlquette A machine-made lace, having 
fine and clear meshes and made of 
fine thread. It is made as a veil and 
also embroidered in a light flower de- 
sign along the edge. 

Frisadoes (Sixteenth century English 
worsted, similar to the -bays. 

Frise French for curl pile, or terry. 

Frise or Frieze 'Formerly the finest grade 
of linen made in Holland. It was very 
strong, stout, grained and well bleach- 
ed; obsolete. 

Frisette Fine fabric, the face covered 
with small loops; made of cotton and 
wool in Holland. 

Prison 1, French for the tangled outside 
waste of the silk cocoons; used for 
spun silk; 2, an inferior frieze In 
France. 

Frisonette A low grade of frison (see). 

Frisure 1. core thread, with a gold or 
silver thread wound around; used in 
passementeries; 2, thin gold or silver 
wire braid for military uniforms. 

Frivol ite (French for tatting. 

Prize Holland In the 18th century the 
finest grade of holland imported to 
England, made one-fourth, one-half, 
or one yard wide; it was not calen- 
dered or finished in any way, except 
bleached. 

Frizzing Name for the chinchilla finish- 
ing process in England. 

Frocs Coarse and heavy twilled French 
woolen; obsolete. 

Frog Ornamental facings, made of braid 
for uniforms, pajamas, etc. 

Frotte French for toweling. 

Fud Waste of the wool carding machine; 
used mixed with shoddy. 

Fukusa A square piece of silk, often 
richly embroidered or decorated; used 
In Japan to cover boxes containing 
presents. 

Full Chintz The ground is printed in two 
shades of red. 

Full Covei Trade term for book muslins, 
which have the extra weft threads 
inserted continuously in the ground 
weave. 

Full Fashioned Knit goods made on the 
machine flat with dropped stitches at 
the selvage, thus conforming to the 
shape of the body after the seams 
are joined together. 

Full Gauze Weave having the warps 
cross other warps in both directions. 

Full Regular 'Hosiery and underwear 
having hand knitted seams. 



FUL 



69 



GAU 



Fulled Woolen fabric which is napped 
and then felted (see under Felt). 

Fulpat Commercial term in India for 
weak and gummy, immature jute fiber, 
cut before flowering; it has a good 
color. 

Fundatum -Believed to have been a gold 
tissue of the Middle Ages. 

Fui 'Name for chenille pile in carpets, 
etc. 

Furies Obsolete printed or hand painted 
silk satin, said to have come from 
India. 

Furniture Cord Ply cord, used for trim- 
ming upholstery, the plies usually be- 
ing core yarns, covered with silk or 
mercerized cotton. 

Furniture Twill A twilled cotton fabric 
in England, usually &4 square; it is 
printed with large, bright colored de- 
sign and is used for drapery. 

Fustian >1, medieval stout and heavy 
worsted fabric in England; 2, in the 
ISth century a printed fabric in Eng- 
land, made with linen warp and cot- 
ton tilling; 3, a variety of closely 
woven and heavy cotton fabrics being 
either cut pile goods or have a stout 
weft face. They are woven with one 
set of warp and two sets of filling. 
They are known as velveteen, swans- 
down, moleskin, beaverteen, canton, or 
diagonal corduroy and imperial. They 
are mostly used for clothes. 

Fustian of Naples Fine medieval English 
worsted fabric; used for garments. 

Fustic A yellow dyestuff obtained from 
. the wood of the chiorophora tinotoria 
tree in Cuba; formerly used with mor- 
danting, now largely replaced by other 
dyes. 



Gabardine Twilled and waterproofed 
worsted coating, made with fine 
diagonal ribs; piece dyed. Also made 
of silk or wool, a softer fabric, used 
for dresses. 

Gaberum 'An East Indian cotton fabric, 

made with check patterns. 
Gajj East Indian satin of high finish; 

used for dresses by the native women. 

GalaCoarse cotton cloth; used for serv- 
ants' clothes in Scotland. 

Galashiels Scotch tweeds, made in G. 

Galatea a, narrow, solid colored or print- 
ed washable cotton fabric, woven with 
a five harness warp face twill, the 
warp covering the face; used for 
skirts, children's dresses, etc.; 2, Eng- 
lish shirting calico of good quality, 
made with equal blue and white 
stripes. 

Galettame Waste silk, obtained from the 
inner skin of the cocoon, which is left 
over after the reeling. 



Galette Pierced, fuzzy or very thin co- 
coons; used for waste silk; also the 
silk made of such cocoons. 

Galettes Lustrous silk taffeta in France, 
made of hard twist silk waste. 

Galgal See Kumbi. 

Galiclia Pile cotton carpet, made in In- 
dia 

Gallini Egyptian cotton derived from the 
Sea Island, having a very strong, long 
staple of light golden color. 

Gallipoli Sort of raw cotton grown in 
southern Italy. 

Galloon iNarrow tape or binding of cot- 
ton, wool or silk, showing usually fan- 
cy weave; used for trimming dresses, 
uniforms, also for lacing. The Eng- 
lish widths are: Twopenny, four- 
penny, sixpenny, eightpenny, and ten- 
penny, the old penny pieces having 
been taken as gauge. 

Galway 1, coarse, thick, scarlet coating, 
made in Ireland of Irish wools; 2, also 
a thick, coarse red flannel. 

Gambiei A fast brown dye, obtained 
from the leaves, flowers, and wood of 
various acacia trees in India, mar- 
keted as a dark colored paste. 

Gambo Hemp See Ambari Hemp. 

Gambroon '1, strong, light, twilled union 
linen or union worsted; used for sum- 
mer garments; a men's overcoating, 
called G., originated in England in the 
19th century; made with ply yarn, 
composed of cotton and worsted 
strands; 2, a twilled linen lining. 

Gamelotte Fiber yielded by the Fim- 
bristylis complanata in Ceylon; used 
for ropes and cordage. 

Gammadion Byzantine silk or gold cloth, 
iflgured with Greek crosses. 

Ganse 'French for round or ridged sou- 
tache, or braid of silk, gold or silver. 

Garber Commercial variety of upland 
American cotton from Alabama, the 
staple measuring 18-22 millimeters; 
the yield is atout 34 per cent. 

Gare Glossy, hair-like fibers grown on 
the legs of the sheep; they look and 
behave like kemp. 

Garnetting Process to recover fibers (for 
the purpose of re-manufacturing 
them) from rags, clippings, etc., where 
they are mixed with other fibers. The 
recovery is done by means of chemi- 
cals which leave the desired fibers 
intact, but destroy all the other com- 
ponent fibers. 

Garniture 'French for trimming. 

Gassed 'Yarn or fabric, which underwent 

the gassing process. 
Gassing <A process by which the loose 

threads are removed from the yarn 

or the cloth by passing it over gas 

flames. 

Gattar 'East Indian satin, made with silk 
warp and cotton filling. 

Gatti East Indian cotton fabric with dia- 
mond patterns. 

Gaudivi Coarse Bast Indian calico. 



GAU 



70 



GER 



Gaufrer French for pressing various em- 
bossed patterns on fabrics with hot 
calenders. 

Gauge In knit goods it determines the 
closeness of the wales and the fine- 
ness of the fabric. It is expressed 
variously, by the number of the nee- 
dles in one and one-half inches or in 
one inch. 

Gaunt Medieval woolen fabric, made in 
Ghent, Belgium. 

Gauze I, a sheer and usually light woven 
fabric, mostly of cotton or silk, in 
which some of the warp ends are 
interlaced with each other. See plain 
gauze, full gauze, and leno; 2, very 
sheer knitted fabrics. 

Gauze Flannel Very light, striped shirt- 
ing flannel, having silk warp. 

Gaws In Scotland term denoting thin 
places in the cloth. 

Gaze Barege Very light dress goods, 
made of silk warp and wool filling or 
of all wool. It is often printed. 

Gaze a Bluter Very fine and light silk 
gauze; used for sifting flour. 

Gaze Brillantine Very light, French silk 
dress goods, with a high luster. 

Gaze Cristal Obsolete very light French 
dress goods, made with silk warp and 
having small bright and dull spots, 
alternating on the face. 

Gaze do Fil Obsolete French gauze, made 
of linen and given a light starch fin- 
ish. It was usually striped. 

Gaze Filoche Very light, French silk leno 
dress goods; obsolete. 

Gaze Fond Filoche 'An all-silk French 
gauze, made with organzine warp and 
grege filling, forming transversal bars 
by grouping several threads; obsolete. 

Gaze d'ltalie Obsolete French gauze, 
made of natural silk yarn. 

Gaze Lisse French gauze, very light and 
sheer, made of natural silk yarn. 

Gaze 'Marabout 1, very light, sheer 
French gauze, made of natural silk; 
2, a pile faibric, made with very short 
stripes of plush, alternating in three 
colors, over a thin gauze foundation; 
msed as dress fabric; obsolete. 

Gaze Milanaise Light, sheer fabric, hav- 
ing equal number of warp and filling 
ends in a square inch. It is made of 
socalled "milanaise" yarn (see). 

Gaze Ondee Very light dress goods or 
trimming fabric, made of organzine 
warp and filling of "ondee" silk. 

Gaze de Paris Very light French silk 
dress goods, made of fine organzine 
warp and trame filling. 

Gaze Perron Obsolete French silk leno, 
forming borders on dress goods. 

Gaze Platree iStriped French gauze, made 
of yellow silk and given a light starch 
finish, obsolete. 

Gaze Tour Anglais French for leno. 

Gazi Coarse and heavy cotton cloth, made 
in East India; used for winter clothing 
by the poorer classes; said to have 
originated in prehistoric times. 



Gazzatum 'Fine and sheer silk or linen 
gauze of the Middle Ages, said to 
have originated in Gaza, Asia. 

Gebanga Leaf fiber yielded by the 
Corypha gebanga, a palm in Java; 
used for cloth, nets, ropes and bags. 

Genappe Ply and hard twist gassed 
yarn, made of worsted, mohair or al- 
paca, often mixed with silk; used for 
fringes, etc. 

Genapping Process of gassing worsted 
yarns. 

Generos 'Bleached cotton sheetings in 
Latin- America. 

Generos Crudos General trade term for 
gray cotton goods in Latin-America. 

Geneva Embroidery 'Made by sewing vel- 
vet bands to form checks on coarse 
canvas foundation and filling out the 
square with colored silk or wool. 

Genghis Rugs Made by the nomad Turk- 
mans west of Persia. They are 
small, heavy, all-wool rugs, the warp 
made sometimes of goat's hair, the 
long loose pile is tied in Ghiordes 
knot. The design shows crude geo- 
metrical patterns in which white col- 
or is used extensively. The sides are 
finished with selvage and the ends 
with selvage and fringe. 

Genoa In England the one-and-two twill 
used in various heavy materials. 

Genoa Embroidery The patterns are 
worked with a corded outline over 
fine muslin, this being cut away from 
between the patterns. 

Genoa Lace 1, imitation Cyprus lace of 
gold, now obsolete; 2, fine bobbin 
made collars, handkerchiefs and fichus 
made in the 17th century; 3, see also 
Macrame. 

Genoa Velvet 1, very fine thick, all-silk 
velvet, having large patterns; made 
in Genoa, Italy, centuries ago; 2, a 
weft pile cotton velvet, having a 
one-and-'tiwo twill ground. 

Georgia Prolific Commercial varieties of 
short staple upland cotton from Geor- 
gia. 

Georgienne ^French silk dress goods, 
made with ply warp. There are 10 
or 16 leaves and 10 or 16 fillings in a 
repeat. 

German Prints IMedium or coarse cotton 
print goods in South Africa, especially 
in blue with white patterns and a 
good finish. 

German Stitch in embroidery used where 
the foundation can be exposed; it is 
composed .of tapestry and tent stitches 
alternating parallel with part of the 
ground between them. 

German Serge Known in England in the 
18th century, made with worsted warp 
and woolen filling. 

German Wool See Berlin Wool. 

Germantown Yarn 'Thick, slack twist 
woolen yarn, made four-ply and used 
for hand knitting and other fancy 
work, made originally in Germantown, 
Pa., U. S. A. 



GER 



GNA 



Germuset Damask made in Asia Minor 
with cotton and silk warp and colored 
patterns. 

Gerras or Garras Strong East Indian cot- 
ton cloth; used for the household; 
obsolete. 

Getee See Jetee. 

Ghabrum East Indian checked cotton 
cloth. 

Ghagi Highly finished East Indian silk 
satin; used for dresses by the native 
women. 

Gharbasti East Indian fabric, made of 
cotton warp and wild silk filling. 

Ghent Lace Narrow bobbin lace, similar 
to Valenciennes, the threads of the 
square mesh ground being twisted two 
and one-half times. 

Gherad 'Washable, white East Indian silk 
fabric. 

Ghetee .East Indian bleached cotton 
cloth, gassed and given a high finish. 

Ghilam Silk cloth, made in Nanking. 
('See GiMiam.) 

Ghiordes Knot In Oriental rugs the ends 
of the hand knotted pile alternate with 
every two threads of the warp. This 
knotting- produces less knots to the 
square inch than the Senna knotting 
(see). 

Ghiordes Rugs 'Made in Asia Minor. The 
antique G. rugs were made of wool 
or silk in very fine weave and de- 
sign. The close short pile is tied in 
Ghiordes knot. The design is usually 
that of a prayer rug. The modern G. 
rugs are large and much inferior, con- 
tain much cotton. The pile is very long 
and loose. The patterns and colors 
are varied and often harsh. 

Gigging Process of napping the fabric. 

Gilan A grade of Persian raw silk. 

Gilham A 'Chinese silk dress goods. 

Ciller Line spun of horsehair. 

Gimian 'Fine velvet rugs, made in Asia 
Minor. 

Gimp Yarn made of silk cover over a 
cotton or wire core; used for trim- 
mings, embroidery, laces, etc. 

Gimp Yarn 1, twisted of a hard spun and 
a soft spun strand; 2, English term 
for fancy core yarns. 

Ginestra General term in Italy for sev- 
eral fibrous grass-like plants; used 
for oakum, tow or coarse fa/brics. 

Ginestra Cloth 'Coarse, homespun fabric, 
made of the fibers of the Spanish 
broom by Italian peasants. 

Gingas Obsolete French linen, made 
about 27 inches wide, with blue and 
white checks; used for trousers for 
sailors. 

Gingham Lightweight, washable, stout, 
all cotton fabric, woven in yarn dyed 
stripes, checks or plaid. The common 
gingham is woven in plain weave, fin- 
ished with starch sizing; used for 
dresses. The madras gingham is made 
of finer count of yarn and a larger 
number of colors is used in the same 
pattern than in the staple gingham 
and is woven in various weaves; used 



for shirts, shirtwaists, etc. The 
zephyr gingham, a softer and lighter 
dress fabric than the madras ging- 
ham, is executed in a great variety 
of fancy colored effects in stripes, 
cords, checks, and plaids in plain or 
twill weave. 

Ginghamet Cotton muslin with striped 
or figured patterns. 

Gingeras 'An East Indian silk cloth. 

Giselle^A sheer fabric in France, woven of 
worsted yarn. 

Glace 1, French for glossy, lustrous and 
shot effect; 2, dress goods, made of 
fine and well stretched cotton warp 
and mohair filling in plain colors or 
figured. 

Glangorra All-wool English homespun, 
impregnated with antiseptics, claimed 
to resist disease germs. 

Glanzstoff German copyrighted name for 
an artificial silk. 

Glass Cloth Fine, loosely woven English 
linen with blue or red warp stripes; 
used for the household, embroidery, 
etc. 

Glass Yarn Very fine glass filaments, 
made up into braids, etc. 

Glauber Salt Used in dyeing wool, as it 
increases the affinity of the fiber for 
the dyes. 

Glaze The smooth polish given to the 
face of the cloth by the friction with 
a heated calender. 

Glen Checks or Glen Urquhardt Original- 
ly Scotch cheviots and homespuns, 
made in combination of two checks of 
different eizes, having an equal number 
of threads in each size. The checks 
are usually only in two colors, often 
having additional colored ornamental 
threads. The fabric is made now in 
woolens and worsteds for men's wear. 

Glengarry All-wool, mottled English 
tweed. 

Gloria A thin and very closely woven 
fabric, made with silk warp and wors- 
ted or cotton filling in a three harness 
warp face twill weave; it ie dyed In 
the piece, and used for umbrella cover- 
ing, also dress goods. 

Glorietta A lighter grade of gloria (see), 

made of cotton. 
Gloss The natural or imparted luster of 

fabrics. 

Glossaret English dress goods of fine 
wool and silk; obsolete. 

Glossop Plain woven bleached cotton 
fabric, made in England in pieces 50 
yards long and one yard wide, with 
76 ends and 88 picks in a square inch; 
used for calicoes. 

Glovers' Wool 'Which was removed with 

lime from the skin of slaughtered 

sheep. 
Gnafi Very fine mat, made of the leaves 

of the pandanus; used for garments 

in Tonga Islands. 



GOA 



72 



GRA 



Goats' Hair Some of them, like the cash- 
mere, are among the finest fibers and 
used for the costliest fabrics; the 
mohair is yielded by the Angora goat; 
the alpaca is taken from a Peruvian 
goat; common goats' hair is coarse, 
thick, does not felt well and is used 
for coarser rugs and fabrics. 

Gobelin 1, a tapestry faibric, made of wool 
or silk, the filling entirely covering the 
closely set warp threads (which form 
tine ribs) and show various designs 
with human animal floral, etc., figures. 
The genuine G. is made by hand with 
the use of needles or small, flat shut- 
tles, the different colored yarns reach- 
ing only as far as there is call for 
them in the design, instead of ex- 
tending from selvage to selvage. The 
fabric is free of all nap or nubs and 
the pattern is shown in its complete- 
ness, but reversed, on the back. The 
G. was invented by a man of that 
name in Paris in the 15th century, 
and the factory purchased from his 
descendants by the government of 
Louis XIV. This factory still turns 
out the finest hand-made G.; 2, a 
loom woven fabric, made with heavy 
warp and fine filling, printed after- 
wards to imitate genuine G.; used for 
curtains, hangings, and drapery; 3, 
an obsolete silk and wool dress fab- 
ric with pastel colored brocaded fig- 
ures. 

Gobelin Stitch or Tapestry Stitch Used 
In gobelins and embroideries. The 
straight stitches are passing across 
and over a padding of 'braid, thus be- 
ing raised. 

Goghari Variety of raw cotton grown in 
Baroda, India. The staple is white, 
.wooly. 

Gold Dust or Tennessee Gold Dust An 
early maturing commercial variety of 
very prolific upland cotton, the staple, 
measuring 25-i2'8 millimeters, forms 
small bolls; yield of lint is 32-34 per 
cent. Also called King. 

Golden Moss 'Trade name for a yellow- 
ish, curly and soft fiber, yielded by 
the leaf stalks of the tree fern in 
China; used for stuffing. 

Golf Cloth Double faced woolen over- 
coating, the two sides being different 
in color and pattern. 

Golf Hose Heavyweight wool stockings, 
made with fancy patterns at the top. 

Golgas Two faced printed flannel. 

Gombo Name in France for the okra 
(see). 

Gomuti -Dark colored, strong fibers, 
yielded by the ibase of the leaves of 
the sago palm in Malacca; used for 
cordage. 

Good Middling 'Full cotton grade. See 
Cotton. 

Good Ordinary (Full cotton grade. See 
Cotton. 

Goodzi iCoarse East Indian cotton cloth. 

Goolbuti Coarse Bast Indian printed cot- 
ton cloth; used for dresses by the 
natives. 



Gordon A Highland tartan, made as fol- 
lows in a repeat: Dark green bar, 
split in the middle with a group of 
black, yellow and black lines; * black 
stripe, half the width of the green 
bar; blue line, black line, blue line, 
black line; * blue stripe, half the 
width of the green; repeat group des- 
cribed between the two *, in a re- 
versed order. 

Gordon Cord In England, a twilled cord 
weave. 

Gorevan Rugs Fine Persian rugs of me- 
dium size, made with cotton warp, 
the close wool pile is tied in Ghiordes 
knot. The design is usually a center 
medallion with curved outlines on a 
cream colored field. 

Gorgoran iHeavy East Indian silk cloth, 
having stripes woven in two kinds of 
weaves; now obsolete. 

Gorilla Yarn iFancy thick nu'b yarn. 

Gospodsky Trade term in Russia for a 
grade of carefully cultivated, retted 
and scutched flax. 

Gossamer 1, fine silk gauze; used for 
veils; 2, light silk fabric waterproofed 
and used for wraps. 

Gossypium Generic scientific name for 
cottons. 

Gothrough <A machine-made lace. 

Gouzlieh In Turkey a striped, heavy cot- 
ton shirting, with small dobby design, 
or twilled; used for long outer robes; 
see also cheviot. 

Governo Sort of raw cotton from Brazil. 

Goza Variety of raw cotton from Af- 
ghanistan. The staple is grayish and 
harsh. 

Grades Classes into which cotton, wool 
and other fibers are classified accord- 
ing to length, evenness, strength, col- 
or, etc., of the fiber. For the grades, 
see under the various 'fibers (Cotton, 
Wool, Flax, Silk, etc.). 

Grading 'The classification of cotton, 
wool and other fibers according to the 
strength, length, evenness, *etc., of 
the staple. 

Graham A Highland tartan, one repeat 
made as follows: Dark green bar with 
a narrow, pale blue stripe near the 
edge; black stripe, measuring one- 
third of the green bar; navy blue bar, 
as wide as green bar and split in the 
center with a black stripe as wide as 
the pale (blue; black stripe, measuring 
one-third of the green bar. 

Graham of Menteith A Highland tartan, 
composed of green bars, split by 
white lines, running over a black and 
blue ground. 

Grain A system in some parts of Amer- 
ica for the measuring of woolen yarns, 
the unit of the measure being a yarn 
20 yards long weighing one grain. 



GRA 



73 



GRI 



Grain d'Orge 1, fine, bleached and fig- 
ured French linen; obsolete. 2, solid 
colored French serge dress fabric, 
made with eight leaves and six* picks 
in a repeat; 3, a very strong durable, 
twilled woolen cloth in France, orig- 
inally made with designs imitating 
seeds, hence the name. It is dyed in 
the piece. 

Grain de Poudre Fulled French woolen 
cloth with very light nap; obsolete. 

Grain de Poule^French serge dress goods, 
having eight leaves and six picks in a 
repeat. 

Grains Grossiers (Coarse French ticking. 

Grammont Originally a white French 
bobbin lace, later black silk lace re- 
sembling the Chantilly but of inferior 
quality; now obsolete. 

Grand Lez All-wool, white army coating 
in France. 

Grand Lion 'Figured table linen, made in 
France. 

Grand-caen Obsolete French linen, made 
of hard spun flax or hemp thread in 
plain weave or small dobby design. 

Grande Rose 'Fine, bleached and figured 
French damask linen; obsolete. 

Grande Venise Very fine damask table 
linen having large flowers for design, 
made in France and Holland. 

Grandine 18th century woolen fabric in 
England. 

Grandrelle 1, a ply yarn spun of strands 
of different colors. -2, cotton shirting, 
made in warp satin weave. The two- 
ply warp contains different colored 
strand. 

Grandrill or Grandurel See Grandrelle. 

Granite An irregular, mottled and peb- 
bled effect in the weave, produced by 
an irregular wide twill. 

Granite Cloth Obsolete; fulled English 
woolen dress goods, producing a 
granit-like grain by the warp or the 
filling. 

Grant A Highland tartan with a red 
ground, the repeat made as follows: 
Wide red field, split by two pairs of 
narrow dark blue lines; 'narro'w pale 
blue and narrow red lines of same 
width as blues; dark blue stripe, three 
times as wide as narrow 'blue lines; 
* dark green field of same width as 
red field, with red, green, red lines 
(of same width as narrow blue lines) 
at each side, and red, blue, red, blue, 
red lines (of same width as narrow 
blue stripes) in the middle; repeat 
group described between the two *, 
in reversed order. 

Grass Cloth Is made of fine ramie in 
China; used in natural brown, 
bleached white or dyed colors; used 
for summer clothing or drawn work. 
It is a loom-finished fabric, woven 
plain on hand looms in narrow widths. 

Gratel Twilled, colored linen cloth, made 
in Germany. 

Gray I'nbleached and undyed cotton or 
linen fabric. 



Gray Wash A process in the bleaching 
of cotton piece goods, consisting of 
soaking the fabric in water and keep- 
ing it wet for a couple of hours. 

Grayson A commercial variety of pro- 
lific and early ripening upland cotton, 
the staple measuring 23-25 millimet- 
ers; the yield is 34-i36 per cent. 

Grease Dyeing (Process used in dyeing 
serges and cotton warp woolen cloths 
without scouring the first. 

Grebe Cloth iLong napped cotton cloth; 
used for underwear. 

Grecian d, name, for a huckaback weave; 
used for coarse towels; 2, woven quilt, 
made of bleached ply yarn of low 
count for warp and filling. The pat- 
tern being geometrical diapers. 

Greek Lace (Cut or drawn work embel- 
lished with various stitches or addi- 
tions of needle-point lace; called also 
Reticella. 

Green Linen Trade term for linen cloth 
woven of unbleached or "green" yarn. 

Green Yarn Trade term for undressed 
jute or unbleached linen yarn. 

Grege Trade term for raw silk which Is 
reeled from the cocoons. 

Grege Yarn 'Strong yarn, made of wool 
and silk. 

Grenada 1, a variety of West Indian raw 
cotton. 2, light fabric, made with 
black cotton warp and mohair or al- 
paca filling in a five-leaf weft satin 
weave. 

Grenade 'French table linen, made in 
plain weave or with small dobby de- 
sign; obsolete. 2, a fine fabric, made 
in France of wool and silk; used for 
table cover. 

Grenadine 1, French serge dress goods, 
made with eight leaves and four picks 
in a repeat; 2, fine, open light dress 
fabric, made of silk or wool, mixed 
with cotton and having more or less 
elaborate warp stripes; 3, the finest 
grade of stout, hard-twist silk cord, 
made of several strands twisted to- 
gether; used for laces; 4, a table 
damask linen in France similar to the 
Grenade. 5, a black silk lace worn in 
France during the 18th century. 

Grenadine Crepon (All-wool black dress 
goods, having open check patterns and 
rilbs. 

Griffin 'Commercial variety of cotton 
from America, yielding the finest and 
longest staple known; the bolls are 
large, yielding 28-<2>9 per cent lint. 

Grin A flaw in the cloth which results 
from the warp rib showing through 
the covering threads. 

Gris Gray cotton goods in the Philip- 
pines. 

Gris fer Bleute French army cloth; used 

ifor coats. 
Gris- brun (French military cloth, made 

about 48 inches wide after fulling; 

made of long staple wool, one-third 

white and two-thirds black wool, in 

natural color, being mixed. 



GRI 



GUA 



Grisaille 1, French for gray mixture 
(pepper and salt) effects; 2, plain 
woven French dress goods, made with 
a black and white printed warp and 
worsted filling. 

Grisette Originally light, gray colored 
dress goods, made in France of mix- 
ture of silk, cotton and wool, or of all 
wool, and used for garments by the 
lower classes. Later made in all 
colors and in very good qualities, sim- 
ilar to etamines. G. is the original 
but obsolete name for a strong, wool 
etamine. 

Grist In Scotland, the standard size for 
ropes, meaning one inch diameter and 
three strands, each of them twisted 
together of 20 yarns. 

GrittyWool with a dry and hard feel, 
owing to the presence of sand. 

Grog^English technical term for any fab- 
rics woven ends together, irrespective 
of the construction of the fabric. 

Grogram Coarse, loosely woven and stif- 
ened diagonal silk or mohair fabric 
with a thick weft; used for cloaks; 
originally from Scotland; now obso- 
lete. 

Groningen 'Pale colored waiter retted flax, 
from Northern Holland. 

Gros, Grosse French for stout, thick fab- 
rics. Also name for large variety of 
cross ribbed fabrics. 

Gros d'Afrique Plain woven, all-silk 
dress goods. The warp consists of 
single threads of ecru silk and double 
or triple strands of boiled silk. It is 
double faced with a velvety, cross 
ribbed effect. 

Gros d'Afrique Corde Double faced plain 
woven dress goods, made of two silk 
warps, one being a single thread of 
ecru silk. The other double or triple 
strand of boiled silk. The filling is 
of heavy, loosely twisted cotton yarn. 
The effect is heavy, velvety crossribs. 

Gros d'Alger (French silk fabric, made 
with two sets of warps; it has cross 
ribs. 

Gros de Berlin Cross ribbed French silk 
fabric, made with two sets of warps; 
also made of alpaca. 

Gros de Chine Cross ribbed French silk 
fabric, made with two sets of warp 
and heavy filling. 

Gros d'Ete iSilk fabric, with with two sets 
of warps. It has cross ribs. 

Gros Forts 'Strong, stout French linen; 
used in upholstery. 

Gros Grain Ribbon or dress goods, wov- 
en plain with very fine silk warp and 
a heavier cotton filling, producing 
cross ribs, which are heavier than 
those of the poplin tout lighter than 
faille. 

Gros Grain Satin Bich, crose rit>bed 
French dress goods, made of heavy, 
pink filling and two sets of fine silk 
warp, one set being white, the other 
pink, forming roses in white fields; 
obsolete. 



Gros des Indes Plain woven, all-silk 
dress goods, made with two warps, 
one single, the other double or triple, 
and two fillings, one very fine, the 
other reeled from eight to 10 natural 
strands, resulting in a cross-ribbed 
effect. 

Gros de Londres Glossy silk fabric with 
fine flat cross ribs, lighter than faille; 
the filling is not beaten -up tight; used 
for dresses. 

Gros de Lyon Cross ribbed French silk 
fabric, made with a heavy filling and 
two sets of warps, one containing one- 
third, the other two-thirds of the warp 
ends. 

Gros de Messine Silk dress goods with 
fine ribs and organzine warp, which 
forms the face. 

Gros de Naples Plain woven silk fabric 
of Italian origin, made with ply warp 
of organzine and a heavier two-ply 
(filling, forming cross ribs; used for 
coats, hats, etc. 

Gros d'Oran iFrench silk brocade; used 
for dresses. 

Gros d'Orleans Twilled ribbed fabric, 
made with two sets of filling, one be- 
ing of the same color as the warp and 
the other a glazed yarn. 

Gros de Suez Finely ribbed silk lining for 
hats. 

Gros de Suisse IFrench silk fabric, hav- 
ing cross ribs on the face. It is made 
with two sets of warps, and heavier 
cotton filling in plain weave. 

Gros de Tours 1. Jacquard figured cotton 
ibedspreads in Argentine; '2, .plain 
woven cross ribbed French fabric, 
made of silk and other materials, the 
ribs being formed by two picks, the 
warp having two or three plies. 

Grosse Chainette Solid colored plain 
French serge, made with eight leaves 
and six picks in a repeat. 

Grosse Cote Solid colored plain French 
serge, having eight leaves and eight 
picks in a repeat. 

Grosse Draperie French term for all 
woolen fabrics which are felted or 
shrunk, irrespective of the fineness, 
weave or other characteristics. 

Grosse Grenadine French serge, made 
with 12 leaves and four picks. 

Ground 'See Fond. 

Gru Gru Very fine and soft fiber, yield- 
ed by the leaves of the palm of same 
name in the West Indies. 

Guana 1, silky, yellowish seed hair of the 
Bombax tree in Cuba; 2, fabric, made 
of the bark of the lace tree In 
Jamaica. 

Guaxima Very strong fiber, yielded by 
the Urena lobata in Brazil; oised for 
ibags, ropes. 

Guaxinduba tCloth-likc? bast of a Bra- 
zilian tree; used for garments by the 
native tribes. 

Guayabera Catalana Name for Spanish 
stripes in Cuba. 

Guayanilla Variety of white, lustrous and 
strong raw cotton from the West 
Indies. 



CUE 



75 



HAI 



Guembipi Fiber yielded by the stem of a 
species of Philodendron in Brazil; 
used for ropes; 2. a dark colored, very 
strong and durable bark fiber, yielded 
by a creeper of the Aroideae family 
in Paraguay; it will not rot; used for 
ropes. 

Guendje 'See Genghis rugs. 

Guerley An East Indian calico. 

Gueuse 1, cheap and coarse French bob- 
bin lace, similar to the torchon (see); 
called also beggar's lace (see); 2, a 
lightweight, all-wool inferior cam- 
let; made in France and Holland; ob- 
solete. 

Guibert Stout bleached French linen 
shirting. 

Guibray In France, a thick cotton yarn; 
used for wicks. 

Guimhas Cotton or woolen ribbons in 
L<atin America. 

Guimp 1, in laces a heavy thread, placed 
on the edge of the sprigs; 2, the de- 
sign or pattern of the lace. 

Guinea 1. various calicoes, made in Eng- 
land for the African trade; 2, stout 
cotton cloths from the East, dyed 
blue; originally from India. 

Guinea Cloth A soft, napped cotton 
fabric of England, woven with two 
sets of warp, about a yard wide and 
dyed indigo blue. It is sold in the 
West African markets. 

Guingan Indian fabric, made of silk 
mixed with bast fibers. Original name 
for gingham. 

Guinget 1, light French camelot; 2, 
coarse French hemp canvas. 

Guipure 1, originally gold and silver 
lace made with the bobbins or the 
needle, the patterns being formed by 
heavy cords padded with parchment 
(called cartisane) or by a thick thread 
it was called also parchment lace; 
2. tape laces in the 16th and 17th 
century with the outline of the pat- 
terns formed of needle-point or bob- 
bin made tape over a coarse round 
meshed ground, occasionally orna- 
mented with brides (see); 3, at the 
present laces with large patterns 
without any brides or mesh ground are 
called guipures. 

Guipure D'Art Same as Filet Erode. 

Guipure de Flandres Old Flanders bob- 
bin lace with raised .patterns. 

Guipure Renaissance Embroidery and 
applique work, composed of cheese 
cloth, cord and sewing silk; used for 
mats, etc. 

Gulbani A very light and transparent 
East Indian cloth, made of silk, in- 
terwoven with gold thread. 

Gulf General trade name for a variety of 
raw cotton grown in the Gulf states, 
and the Mississippi river basin, the 
staple being generally about 1 1-16 
inch long and of a fairly white col- 
or. 

Gulnagai Fine, plain cotton muslin of 

India. 
Gum G. Tragacanth is used in finishing 

silk. G. Arabic in calico and silk 

printing. 



Gun Club Checks Woolen or worsted 
fabric for men's or women's wear, 
the pattern consisting of three colors, 
which form small checks within larger 
checks. The checks are much smaller 
in men's wear than in women's wear 
goods. 

Gunn 1, a commercial variety of short 
staple upland cotton from the Miss- 
issippi; 2, a Highland tartan, the re- 
peat made as follows: wide, dark green 
bar, split in the middle by a single 
narrow red stripe; black stripe, half 
the width of the green; very fine 
green line; navy blue bar, same width 
as green bar, split in the middle by 
a very fine green line; another very 
fine green line; black stripe, measur- 
ing half the width of the green bar. 

Gunny Very coarse and open, plain 
woven bagging, made of jute, also 
of hemp. 

Gur or Gurra An East Indian coarse 
white muslin. 

Guttar. 'East Indian satin, made with 
silk face and cotton back. 

Guzieh An inferior, plain woven East 
Indian cotton cloth. 

Gypsum Used for weighting and dress- 
ing cotton goods. 

Gypsy Cloth Same as flannelette. 



H 



Haberjet Coarse, medieval woolen broad- 
cloth, made in England; said to have 
been worn by the monks. 

Habit Cloth Very fine English napped 
woolen cloth for men's and women's 
wear, made usually in dark blue, black 
and other dark colors. 

Habutae A very soft, lightweight but 
close woven, very brilliant Japanese 
silk fabric, originally woven in hand 
looms, usually made in plain weave 
with fine ribs. The warp is a loose 
twist yarn, having a six-grege core 
wound around spirally "with two 
threads, the filling is reeled in native 
fashion. Both the warp and filling 
are gummed before weaving, the gum 
being boiled off afterwards. 

Hackling Process of drawing the flax 
'fibers (previously completely freed 
from the woody matter) several times 
through iron combe, each time a finer 
comb being used. This process di- 
vides the flax into several grades ac- 
cording to fineness. 

Haddat Square printed cotton cloth; 
used as head covering in Asia Minor. 

Hadjai A hand-spun gold thread in 
India, used for embroidery. 

Haining WoolA Chinese fine grade car- 
pet wool. 

Hairas Yarn Made of coarse Oriental 
wool, has little lustre. 



HAI 



HAR 



Hairbine An 18th century English 
woolen fabric. 

Haircloth 'Made of cotton, worsted or 
linen warp and a weft consisting of a 
single hair of the horse's mane or tail 
which does not form a continuous 
yarn and is not twisted. The fabric 
is made as wide as the length of the 
horse hair. It is woven in plain or 
satin weave and is used for interlin- 
ing, stiffener and cover for uphol- 
stered seats. 2, an imitation of the 
real horsehair cloth is made by using 
hard-spun cotton yarn entirely, which 
is heavily sized to give stiffness. This 
fabric is used as dress interlining. 

Haircord (English drese muslin made with 
thick warp cords; also a bleached 
English cotton fabric with colored 
warp cords. 

Hair Line Woolen or worsted dress goods 
or men's wear, made with very fine 
continuous stripes, produced by single 
warp yarns crossed by a filling of the 
same color. The fabric is given a 
clear finish; 2, fishing line made of 
horsehair. 

Hair Net Made of silk or human hair 
with large mesh; used to prevent the 
hair getting disarranged. 

Haitien Plain woven silk dress fabric, 
made with fine warp and heavier 
filiing, alternately in white and colored 
p.icks. 

Hakir 'Strong warp striped cloth in East 
India, made with silk warp and cot- 
ton filling. 

Hakistery >Black and white ground prints, 
used in Pereia for clothing. 

Hala Native name for the Pandanus in 
-the Pacific Islands. 

Half Blood American designation of wool 
compared in fineness to the full blood- 
ed merino as standard. 

Half Damask iMade in England of silk 
and cotton or silk and wool. 

Half Silks Silk fabrics made partly (warp 
or filling) of cotton. 

Haifa Native Algerian name for esparto. 

Halfbacks Woolens partly made like 
backed goods. 

Mali Turkish name for large size Orien- 
tal floor carpets. 

Hal ina Coarse, checked woolen cloth with 
long hair on the right side, made in 
Austria. 

Hallencourt Twilled French table linen. 

Halles Crues Strong unbleached linen 
made in France. 

Hailing Antiquated English name for 
hanging drapery. 

Halluin Coarse serge used by the French 
army. 

Hamadan Persian rugs made of cotton 
web and close wool pile, more or less 
mixed with camels' hair and tied in 
Ghiordes knot. The design consists 
of a center medallion and corner 
spaces on a field of yellow or brown 
ground, together wiih floral patterns 
in blue and red. 

Hamamlik Turkish name for Oriental 
bath rugs, usually square. 



Hamas Stout, bleached East Indian cot- 
ton cloth; obsolete. 

Hambourgeoise French silk dress goods 
of the 18th century. It had a taf- 
feta foundation with napped patterns; 
2, a French double-faced silk fabric 
of the 19th century, made with stripes. 
Hamburg Point Drawn work ornamented 
with colored silk thread. 

Hamburg Wool Glossy embroidery wool 
yarn in England. 

Hamburgo Americano Name for un- 
bleached cotton sheeting in the Canary 
Islands. 

Hamidieh Fabric made of silk and cot- 
ton in Syria. 

Hamilton Lace Coarse Scotch bobbin 
lace showing lozenge patterns; now 
obsolete. 

Hammock Cloth Strong, soft cloth, usual- 
ly woven of all cotton with bright 
colored warp in plain or fancy weave. 
Used for hammocks, drapery, etc. 

Hamouli 'Raw cotton formerly grown in 
Egypt; now little cultivated. 

Hanabishi A Japanese silk fabric with 
gold brocaded diaper pattern. 

Hancaatjes White East Indian muslin, 
obsolete. 

Handewarpes Colored English woolen 
fabric of the 16th century. 

Handle The various characteristics, as 
elasticity, fineness, softness, etc., of the 
fibers and fabrics felt to the touch. 

Hank Unit of measuring yarn; silk hank 
being 1,000 yards; worsted hank 560 
yards long; coition hank 840 yards; 
woolen skein 1,520 yards; linen and 
jute 3,600 yards. 

Hanolchade 'Navajo blanket made with 
black and white stripes with small 
diamonds of blue and red in the black 
stripes. Worn usually by the tribal 
chiefs. 

Hanos Ten-leaf, figured satin from East 
India; obsolete. 

Hanovilles French woolen serge; obso- 
lete. 

Haps The coarsest and heaviest grades 
of the Shetland shawls crocheted by 
the natives. 

Hapui Hi 'Same as Pulu (see). 

Harakake Moori Name for the New Zea- 
land flax. 

Harami Large size East Indian rugs 
made for the mosques. 

Harbins IMade of cotton and silk warp 
and wool filling; obsolete. 

Hard Crepe Plain woven, light silk crepe, 
dyed black and gummed; used for 
mourning. 

Hard Finish The face of cotton and es- 
pecially woolen and worsted fabrics, 
finished without any nap. 

Hard Silk 'Not degummed. 

Hard Spun or Twist Yarn spun with 
more revolutions per inch than usual. 

Harden Obsolete and very coarse English 
cloth made of tow. 

Hards The coarse fibers separated from 
flax in scutching. 



HAR 



77 



HEM 



Hardwickia A tough, pliable bast fiber of 
India used for cordage. 

Hare or Harl The fibers in flax and hemp 

stalks 

Harlekin Kn^lish woolen dress goods 
with chine patterns; obsolete. 

Harlem Checks Linen from Holland with 
blue or red window plaid. 

Harlequin 1, large plaid checks in more 
than two colors; 2, 18th century 
checked woolen fabric in England. 

Harn In England a coarse, low grade flax 
yarn. 

H arras Two-ply combed wool yarn in 
Southern Germany and Austria. 

Harrateen All-worsted English fabric of 
the 18th century. 

Harris Tweed tA homespun, all-wool 
tweed, of soft feel and peaty odor, 
made originally on the island of Lewis 
and other islands off Scotland, using 
the best native blackface or cheviot 
wool in natural colors or dyed with 
vegetable dyes. Used for overcoats. 

Harvard A somewhat hard washable 
cotton shirting, woven mostly in 2 
and 2 twill with colored warp and 
-white weft, forming stripes or zig 
zag lines which cover a large part 
of the fabric. 

Haslock Scotch term for the finest part 
of the fleece, taken from the throat. 

Hasp 'Linen or jute yarn measure, equal 
to 3,600 yards, (see hank). 

Hatters' Plush Made with fine silk pile; 

used for men's and women's hats. 
Haute Lisse 'French for high warp 

tapestry, viz. made with the warp 

.placed in vertical position. 

Haute Nouveautee ^French for novelty 
fabrics. 

HawkingA process in dyeing. Several 
pieces of the fabric are sewed to- 
gether, end to end and passed between 
two rubber rolls, constantly kept under 
the surface of the dye in the vat. 

HawkinsEarly maturing, short stapled 
commercial variety of American cot- 
ton, the fiber measuring 18-22 milli- 
meters; the yield of lint is 32-34 per 
cent. 

Hawser In nautics, a kind of small cable 
twisted from three small ropes, each 
of 20 strands. 

Hay A Highland tartan, composed of 
green stripes over a red ground, nar- 
row white and yellow lines splitting 
the field. 

Hays China A late maturing commercial 
variety of cotton from Mississippi, the 
fine and lustrous staple measuring 
over 30 millimeters; the yield is about 
28-30 per cent. 

Hayti Variety of West Indian raw cot- 
ton. 

Head '1, merino clothing wool, taken from 
the head of the fleece; 2, measure 
for yarn in Scotland, according to the 
Sterling system; equal to 1,920 yards. 



Heading 1, that edge of the lace floun- 
cing which is sewn to the garment; 2, 
trade name for that end of the pie>ce 
of bolt of cloth which is on the out- 
side; 3, in short length fabrics both 
ends of the material, usually decorated 
with stripes. 

Health Crepe See crepe de sante. 

Heart The core strand of a rope around 

which other strands are twisted. 
Heart Yarn The center of a core yarn. 

Heather Mixture Tweeds and homespuns 
having flakes in heather and sand 
colors on the face. 

Hechima Japanese cotton drapery cloth, 

printed with flowers, etc. 
Heer Linen and jute yarn measure, equal 

to 600 yards. 

Hehbehlik Turkish name for Oriental 
saddle bags of various but usually 
bright colored design; in America 
'Used as pillow covers. 

Heii iS'ame as Pulu (see). 

Helenienne iStout, solid colored silk 
dress goods with small twilled pat- 
terns; obsolete. 

Hemp Strong, lustrous and very durable 
but harsh, bast fiber of the cannabis 
sativa and many other similar plants, 
growing all over the world. The best 
grades are fine and white; used chief- 
ly for cordage, twine and sailcloth. 

iThe following commercial varieties 
are cultivated: The common hemp, the 
Bologne hemp (known also the Pie- 
montese or great hemp), the Chinese 
hemp (called Japanese hemp in Cali- 
fornia), the Smyrna hemp, the small 
hemp and the Kentucky hemp. 

The Italian hemp is the best, with 
the following principal grades: Gorg- 
iola (G), Gorgiola Bolognese (GB), 
primo cordaggio extra (PICE), primo 
cordaggio (PC), primo basso (PB), 
secondo basso (SB), Napoli extrissimo 
(N), secondo cordaggio (SC), terzio 
basso (TB), quarto basso (QB), and 
strappature. 

In Russia the mark for the longest 
and best hemp is RH, for shorter 
SF1SPOH, for the shortest (.pass 
hemp) SFSPPH. A good grade of 
(Polish hemp is marked G.FSPRH. The 
current qualities in Petrograd are: 
Clean, outshot and half clean. 

The hemp marketed through Koe- 
nigsberg (Germany) is classed as 
clean, cut and schicking. 

The numbering for the fine hemp 
yarns is the same as for linen yarn 
(see); for rope yarn the number gives 
the number of threads required for 
one of the three strands found in a 
rope of three-inch circumference. No. 
20 rope yarn weighs 18 oz. per 100 
yards, No. 30 weighs 1>2 ozs., No. 40 
weighs 9 ozs. 

Hemstitch lA number of threads, parallel 
with the edge are pulled out and the 
threads running the other direction 
are caught into groups. 



HEN 



HOM 



Henequen A species of the sisal, a very 
elastic, strong, white leaf fiber, yield- 
ed by the agave plant in Yucatan, 
Mexico; used for cordage. 

Henrietta Fine twilled soft and lustrous 
fabric made with silk war,p and fine 
worsted filling which is thrown on 
the face with a 2-1 twill weave. It is 
similar to caehmere; used for dresses. 

Hepepetwan Rich, double-faced Chinese 
silk satin. 

Herat Very durable all-wool rugs made 
in Persia and Afghanistan, the me- 
dium long pile is tied in Ghiordes 
knot. The design is of floral and flsh 
patterns or of a center medallion. The 
colors are blue, red and yellow. 

Hercules Braid 'I. a flat braid, made with 
seven threads, each thread passing 
alternately under and over three 
threads; 2, very wide flat braid, made 
cxf mohair, wool or silk; used for 
trimming on dresses and uniforms. 

Hereke Coarse wool from Anatolia. 

Herez Rugs 'Fine Persian rugs made 
with cotton web and close wool pile 
tied in Ghiordes knot. The design is 
usually a center medallion with 
straight outlines and floral patterns 
in blue and various reds. The border 
is in light color. 

Heris (Persian camel's hair rug, made 
with old patterns in dark brown. 

Herlong A late maturing commercial 
variety of prolific cotton from Ala- 
bama, Georgia, etc., the staple, meas- 
uring 22-i25 millimeters, forms medium 
size, round bolls; the lint yield is 
30-32 per cent. 

Hernarvi French dress goods, similar to 
Grenadine (only lighter), made of silk 
and wool. 

Herringbone Stitch See Plaited Stitch. 

Herringbone Twill Formed by reversing 
the direction of the twill, to form a 
sawtoothed line; same as broken 
twill. 

Hessian Name in England and Eu- 
rope for burlap (see). Also a coarse 
hemp fabric in England. 

Hiapu Light Chinese cloth, made of 
ramie. 

Hickory A very durable stout but pli- 
able cotton trousering and shirting, 
made with colored stripes in the warp 
and white filling, woven in warp twill 
weave. 

Hightower A commercial variety of cot- 
ton from Alabama having a medium 
long staple. 

Hilliard 'A commercial variety of upland 
cotton, the staple measuring about 23- 
24 millimeters; the yield is 34-36 per 
cent. 

Himalaja In Austria a very fine twilled 
woolen dress goods, similar in finish 
to the Zibeline; made very spongy. 

Hindi Variety short staple, reddish brown 
cotton, grown in Mesopotamia. 

Hingunghat .Best variety of East Indian 
cottons, having a strong staple of light 
golden color. 



Hinrop East Indian silk fabric, made 
with flower patterns; used for gar- 
ments by the rich natives. 

Hodden Grey Coarse cloth made in 
Scotland of natural, usually black, 
wool. 

Hocirunck A plain woven cotton fabric 
in East Africa, dyed in cinnamon 
'brawn; used for outer garments by 
the native men. Similar to Khudur- 
angi. 

Hog Wool yielded by one-year old sheep, 
which has not been shorn previously. 

Holanda Wide linen goods, made in 
Spain. 

Holbein Embroidery Outline embroidery 
for table cloths, towels, etc.; both 
sides made alike. 

Holi In countries inhabited by Arabians, 
a woolen fabric, similar to Baracan; 
used for men's clothing. 

Holland 1, general term for a great vari- 
ety of light weight colored cotton 
goods in Greece; 2, plain woven un- 
bleached linen, originally from Hol- 
land, made glazed or unglazed; used 
as furniture cover, window curtains, 
etc. 

Holland Flax Has long fine lustrous 
fibers. 

Hollands In Cuba a finely striped linen; 
used for children's dresses and for 
summer trousers. 

Hollandas Coarse, starched cotton fab- 
rics in the Philippines, made with 
blac'k, 'blue or red warp stripes on 
white ground and white filling. 

Hollie Point Old needle-point church 
lace with Scriptural patterns. See 
Holy Lace. 

Hollingshead An old and now somewhat 
obsolete commercial variety of up- 
land cotton. 

Hollow Cut 'Cotton corduroy woven first 
with even pile, the runs between the 
ribs are hollowed out with a shearing 
machine. It is also made by holding 
the knife at various angles when cut- 
ting the corduroy. Also known as 
velvet cord. 

Holosericum Medieval, all-silk fabric. 

Holy Lace Obsolete lace made as darned 
netting cut work or drawn work with 
biblical subjects for designs. See 
Hollie point. 

Home A Highland tartan, composed o.f 
dark blue and black stripes, split by 
red and green lines. 

Homespun il, loose but very strong and 
durable woolen, woven on handlooms 
of natural colored, homespun yarn 
in many parts of England; used for 
overcoats, etc.; 2, machine made imi- 
tations thereof, made with light col- 
ored warp and dark filling usually In 
two-and-two twill. 

Homiak Good grade of home reeled silk 
in Central Asia; exported to other 
countries. 

Homienchow iFancy silk fabric in plain 
weave, made of spun silk in China, 
is about 23 inches wide. 



HON 



79 



HWA 



Honal Kladi Navajo blankets (see) with 
the stripes woven crosswise; worn by 
the chiefs of the tribes. 

Honeycomb 1, hexagonal mesh found in 
laces; 2, patterns similar to cells on 
cotton or other fabrics, made with 
fine warp and much coarser filling, 
producing reversible effect; used on 
towels, also on some dress goods. 

Honeycomb Canvas 'Bleached cotton 
canvas, made in square honeycomb 
effect; used for embroidery. 

Honeycomb Quilt Bleached, single fab- 
rics, woven of heavy cotton yarn in 
any of the honeycomb weaves. 

Honeycomb Reseau 'In laces, a ground 
composed of diamond shaped squares. 

Honeycomb Stitch Used in smocking. 

Hongchow Piece dyed silk foulard, made 
in China; is about 29 inches wide and 
used for wrapping. 

Hongklpoun (Chinese handkerchiefs. 

Hong Kong A plain woven fabric made 
with silk warp and a little heavier 
ramie filling, forming light rib ef- 
fect; used for men's and women's 
clothes and it comes in solid colors 
and printed. 

Hongroise Plain French serge dress 
goods of eight leaves and four picks 
in a repeat. 

Honiton Lace English lace consists of 
machine made ground with bobbin 
made flower and leaf sprigs. In the 
Honiton guipure the bobbin-made 
sprigs are joined by purlings or sim- 
ple stitches. 

Hop Pocketing Jute bagging; used for 
hop bags; is similar to tarpaulin. 

Hopsacking 1, coarse jute or flax bag- 
ging; 2, coarse or fine, open face 
woolen dress goods and suiting. 

Hopsack Weave 'Same as mat or basket 
weave, each unit formed by two or 
more warp ends and as many fill- 
ing threads. 

Horrocks English calico, named after 
its maker. 

Horse Cloth Double-faced twilled jute, 
the. back often made of wool. Usu- 
ally single colored or striped; used 
as horse blanket. 

HorsehairLong lustrous hair; used in 
furniture seats, underlinings, etc. It 
is spun into yarn by gluing the hair to 
a cotton binding thread and then 
twisted. The glue is insoluble. Ac- 
cording to another system two fine 
cotton threads are twisted around the 
hair. 

Horsetail Silk thread used for couching 
down metal threads. 

Hose 1, knitted stockings for women and 
children; 2, tube, plaited or woven 
without any seam, usually of extra 
strong cotton or linen yarn, often wa- 
terproofed. 

Hosiery 1, formerly meant breeches; 2, 
same as stockings; 3, in England gen- 
eral term for knit goods. 

Hounscot Say A 17th century English 
worsted. 



House Flannel Lightweight flannel, made 
with cotton warp and woolen filling; 
used for household purposes. 

Housewife's Cloth Obsolete English term 
for a medium fine household linen fab- 
ric of plain weave. 

Howell 1, an early ripening commercial 
variety of upland cotton from Louisi- 
ana, the staple measuring up to 25 
millimeters; the yield of lint is 34-36 
per cent; 2, general trade term for 
T cloths in Greece. 

Hsiu 'Chinese embroidery; the designs 
are filled out with colored silk or gold 
and silver threads. 

Huamaga iSee Damajagua. 

Huampo Bark fiber, yielded by the 
Cheirostemon platanoides, in Peru; 
used for garments by the natives. 

Huasi ma Coarse, reddish brown bast 
ifiber, yielded by a species of the 
Guazuma tree in Mexico and Trini- 
dad; used for cordage. 

Huccatoon Cotton fabrics, made in Man- 
chester for the African markets. 

Huckaback A thick loose and soft cot- 
ton or linen toweling woven in birds- 
eye or honeycomb patterns, with very 
slack twist and low count weft form- 
ing long floats and a strong selvage. 
It comes in white or with colored 
ends. 

Hugicion Fiber yielded by a species of 
the fig tree in Peru. 

Huguenot Lace Obsolete French appliqua 
lace, made by mounting on net ground 
flowers cut out of light material and 
fastening by buttonhole stitches. 

Huitoc (Fibrous bast of a species of 
Genipa in Peru; used for rough 
clothing by the natives. 

Humphrey A commercial variety of long 
staple cotton from America, same as 
Eureka. 

Humum Plain East Indian cotton cloth 
of coarse quality. 

Hungry .1. wool the fineness of which is 
caused by lack of feed; 2, flaw in 
cloth caused by the openness of the 
texture resulting from the varying 
thickness of the filling. 

Hunnicutt Early maturing commercial 
variety of prolific cotton from Ameri- 
ca, the staple measuring 22-25 milli- 
meters; the yield is 30-32 per cent. 

Hunting Cloth A plain or striped cotton 
tweed made in India. 

Hurden (Coarse and stout, plain woven 
hemp fabric, of medieval England. 

Husking Cloth (Stout and heavy cotton 
ticking; used for working gloves. 

Hwachow Dressed silk gros de Naples, 
made in China; it is about 24 inches 
wide. The warp is organzine and the 
filling a six-ply grege tram. 

Hwa Mien Chow Cotton poplin, made In 
China, about 20 inches wide. 



HWA 



80 



IMP 



Hwasienchow Very soft silk gros de 
Naples, made in China; it is about 25 
inches wide and does not crease. Oc- 
casionally made similar to crepe. 

Hwayong A Chinese silk velvet, made In 
green or poppy colors. 

Hwayutwan Wool poplin, made in China, 
is about &2 inches wide. 

Hydrochloric Acid Used for carbonizing 
in aniline black dyeing of cotton and 
cotton mixtures, in bleaching, etc. 

Hydrogen Peroxide Used as bleaching 
agent for all kinds of silk and for 
wool, although the latter will lose 
some of its elasticity. 

Hydrosulphite Used as reducing agent 
against indigo. 



(byria Leaf fiber yielded by the Brome- 
liaceae in South America. It is strong, 
silky and does not rot. Used for cord 
and twine. 

Ice Colors Same as azo colors. 

Ice Silk <Slack twist silk yarn for knit- 
ting in England. 

Ice Wool Very highly finished, thick, two- 
ply soft- spun wool yarn; used for 
knitting or crocheting. 

Iceland Wool Coaree, hairy wool with a 
fine downy wool underneath. 

Ida Canvas Soft, open face canvas; made 
of unbleached linen. 

Idria Lace Coarse pillow lace, made by 
the peasant women in Idria and Dal- 
matia. The designs are geometrical, 
usually made like a tape lace. The 
yarn is coarse. 

le Sina Very fine, hand woven, loose 
clothing mats, made by the natives 
of Samoa. One side of the mat is 
made fleecy by looping long bunches 
of the fiber into the mat. 

le Taua A very fine and flexible mat, 
made of the leaves of the Pandanus 
by the natives of Samoa; used for 
clothing, etc. 

leie 'Native Hawaiian name of the Frey- 
cinetia plant, the air roots of which 
are used for mats and baskets. 

Ife Very long and strong leaf fiber yield- 
ed by the Sansevieria cylindrica in 
Southern Africa; it does not deterior- 
ate in water; used for cordage, twine. 

Ihram 'Coarse, felted woolen fabric; used 
for garments by Turkish pilgrims. 

limas iNavajo blanket woven with four 
healds, the design showing diagonals 
and diamonds, usually different on 
both sides. 

Ilicha East Indian cloth of silk and cot- 
ton; used for shawls by native women. 

Illuminated Mixture The color effect in 
some of the wool fabrics, consisting of 
a email quantity of bright color on a 
dark ground. 



Illusion 'F'ine French silk tulle; used for 
trimming; also a net with star mesh; 
used for veils and dresses. 

Imagdong A plant in the Philippines. The 
fibers of which are used for cords and 
ropes. 

Imbabura Cotton grown in Peru; the 
staple is fine, white and clean. 

Imbe (Fiber yielded by the stem of a 
species of Philodendron in Brazil; used 
for ropes. 

Imirat An Bast Indian cotton fabric of 
plain weave. 

Imitation Fur A pile fabric, either woven 
or knitted and having curled or 
straight pile, made to imitate various 
furs. 

Imitation Horsehair Narrow plain woven 
fabric; made of heavily sized vege- 
table fibers to imitate horse hair 
cloth; used for interlining. 

Imitation Lace iMachine-inade imitation 
of real or hand-made laces. 

Imitation Wool iMade by treating Sene- 
gal hemip in cold solution of caustic 
soda, peroxide of sodium and soluble 
oil or in bath of peroxide of sodium 
and ammonia in equal parts. The 
hemp is then treated with an acid so- 
lution. 

Imitation Yarn 'Name in Germany and 
Austria for yarn spun of short staple 
or waste cotton; used for flannelettes. 

Imizillus, Myzinum 'Light weight silk 
fabric of the Middle Ages. 

Imperial 1, a medieval Italian gold bro- 
cade; 2, rich silk fabric, partly inter- 
woven with gold, known in England in 
the 12th century, imported from By- 
zanz; 3, Fine French lining serge, sim- 
ilar to flannel, made about 20 inches 
wide, obsolete; 4, Fine Belgian ging- 
ham with colored i warp an*^\weft. 
stripes; 5, A lightv/ejght East Vlndiar^, 
ifigured cotton fabric; 6, A heavj, -weft 
faced cotton fabric; used for work- 
men's clothes in % England; also called 
swansdown. '^ 

Imperial Satin Is a closely woven cotton 
fabric, made with an eight-leaf weft 
face satin weave, two contiguous warp 
ends raised together. There are at 
least about twice as many picks (of 
soft spun ifi'lling) than warp ends. They 
are naipped on the 'back or on the face, 
when they are called lambskins. The 
reversible imperial is very closely 
picked, showing the filling at each side. 

Imperial Serge 'Another name for perpe- 
tuana. 

Imperial Shirting IBleached cotton shirt- 
ing from England. 

Imperial Tape iStout cotton tape in Eng- 
land. 

Imperiale (Fine worsted serge of close 
weave in France. 

Impermeable Waterproofed. 

Impid A Philippine fiber used for cord- 
age. 

Impregnating Process by which the flock, 
the shortest of wool fibers, is fulled 
into the back of the cloth to imp*.r*. 
body to It. 



IMP 



81 



IRI 



Imprime French term (or printed. 

Improved Long Staple 'Commercial va- 
riety of cotton from America; see 
Jones Long Staple. 

Improved Prolific A commercial variety 
of upland cotton from North Carolina, 
the staple measuring up to 25 milli- 
meters; the yield is about 30 per cent 
lint. 

Inaja Strong leaf fiber yielded by the 
Inaja palm in Brazil; used for cord- 
age, etc. 

Inauguration Cloth Various dress faced 
twilled woolens, usually of a mixture 
character, featured at the occasion of 
presidential inaugurations in the 
United States. 

Incombustible <See fireproof fabrics. 
Incompable Obsolete 'French silk serge. 

India Chintz iA thick, stout chintz with 
large patterns; used for upholstery. 

India Goods Made in East India. 

India Muslin Very fine Bast Indian cotton 
muslin. 

India Tape Very strong, soft or stiffened 
English narrow cotton tape, the width 
graded from 00 to 10. 

Indian Ciciclia 'Silk brocade with gold and 
silver flowers over a ribbed ground. 

Indian Dimity Fine, plain woven, light 
cotton dress goods, having cross ribs 
formed by the filling. It is .printed in 
floral warp stripes, and also between 
the ribs. 

Indian Hemp (Fine, long and strong fiber 
of light cinnamon color, yielded by the 
Apocynum cannaibinum; used by the 
North American Indians for baskets, 
belts, twine, etc. 

Indian Lace Tapes and edgings made in 
East India from silk and silver or gold 
wire (or core yarn) ; used for trim- 
ming garments and turfoans. 

Indian Linon Fine, closely woven cotton 
lawn, very slightly sized and usually 
bleached. 

Indian Mull A 'fine, undressed, plain wov- 
en mull, dyed in the piece, made orig- 
inally in India; used for dresses. 

Indian Okra Very white, smooth, silky 
bast fiber of fair strength, yielded by 
the Hibiscus eeculentus of India; used 
for cordage and bagging. 

Indian Shawl iMade in France, with fancy 
combed wool warp and hard twist 
wool filling in Oriental patterns. 

Indian Shirting 'Plain woven, pure cotton 
fabric, heavily sized, made in Eng- 
land for the Indian markets. 

Indian Work Drawn work made on mus- 
lin. 

Indienne 1, obsolete, general term for 
printed cottons from East India; 2, 
fine stout calico with small patterns, 
made in France; 3, light cotton dress 
fabric with alternate colored woven 
warp stripes and printed patterns be- 
tween. 



Indigo 1, a fast blue dye, extracted from 
the stems and leaves of various gen- 
era of the indigofera and the woad 
plants. The dyestuff in its natural 
state is a yellow liquid, the oxidizing 
action of the air developing the blue 
indigo which is insoluble and is mar- 
keted in the shape of cakes. Before 
using it for dyeing this blue indigo is 
dissolved in some alkaline bath and 
is again converted into soluble indigo 
white which will easily oxidize into 
fast blue under the influence of the 
air. Artificial indigo is a synthetic 
dyestuff, obtained from coal tar prod- 
ucts, and is of the same chemical 
composition as natural indigo; 2, a 
standard, plain woven cotton fabric, 
having dots or other figures printed 
on a solid, indigo 'blue ground. 

I nea Cotton warp alpaca dress goods in 
France ; obsolete. 

Infantado Variety of Spanish merino 
wool. 

Ingipipa Native name in French Guiana 
for the fibrous bast of the Couratari 
tree; used for blankets. 

Ingrain 1, fabrics dyed in the fiber or the 
yarn; 2, in the United States name 
for Kidderminster carpets. 

Ingrain Colors Same as azo colors. 

In the Grease Signifies wool in its nat- 
ural state, as it comes from the 
sheep's back with all the grease and 
other impurities attached to it. 

In the Gum The natural silk fiber before 
the gum covering is removed by boil- 
ing out. 

Injira^Variety of raw cotton from Col- 
ombia. / 

Inking The process of dyeing spots, 
which otherwise -would show up gray 
in the finished fabric. 

InkleA linen braid or tape, often yellow, 
but also striped blue and red; used 
in England as dress trimming until 
the end of the 17th century. 

Inlet In Germany and Austria a coarse 
and very stout cotton fabric, bleached 
or dyed: used as bedding instead of 
linen; see also Bedstout. 

Insertion See Entredeux. 

Ir Very fine, flexible and ornamental 
clothing mats in the Marshall Islands; 
made of pandanus leaves By the na- 
tives. 

I rabirussu 'Native (Brazilian name for the 
fibrous bark of the Couratari tree; 
used for clothing, blankets, etc. 

Iraki Variety of short staple cotton 
raised along the Tigris and Euphrates. 

Irish Cloth Medieval English woolen fab- 
ric, made in white and red; used for 
lining. 

Irish Crochet Very fine crochet, made 
into various laces. 

Irish Duck Very closely woven, strong 
linen duck; used for workingmen's 
clothes. 



IRI 



JAM 



Irish Eye Diaper Trade term in Ireland 
for a three-leaf linen diaper, two- 
thirds of the warp and one- third of 
the weft threads forming one side of 
the cloth and two-thirds of the weft 
and one-third of the wanp the other 
side. 

Irish Flax The finest grade of flax, grown 
in Ireland. 

Irish Frieze Impervious frieze made in 
Ireland of fine, long, native wool, dyed 
before spun. 

Irish Lawn Very fine, plain woven, 
bleached lawn, made of pure, hard- 
spun ply linen yarn. 

Irish Linen 'Bleached, fine, plain woven 
linen fabrics, made in Ireland; used 
for dresses, shirts, handkerchiefs, etc. 

Irish Point 1, lace with needle-point or 
boibbin made sprigs sewn to machine 
made net, this sometimes being cut 
away under the patterns; 2, curtain 
lace, with patterns mounted on a ma- 
chine made net. 

Irish Stitch In embroidery used for 
grounding; it is a long stitch, car- 
ried over five or more threads and it 
requires fine foundation canvas. 

Irish Work 'White embroidery on white 
ground, mostly on handkerchiefs. 

Irlanda A cotton or linen shirting In 
'Cuba with colored stripes on white 
foundation or vice versa. 

Iron 'Buff lA fast, rust colored dye, pro- 
duced by soluble salts of iron which 
was fixed by some alkali; little in use 
now, mostly for cotton and linen fab- 
rics. 

Iron Yarn (White or tolack cotton yarn 
made very smooth by starching and 
glazing^ used for linings and hat 
shapes. 

Isabel (Fine twilled English worsted dress 
goods; obsolete. 

Isabelle French dress goods made with 
single warp in eight leaf and six fill- 
ing repeats. 

Isbahani .Medieval sil'k fabric of Arabic 

origin. 
Isitebe 'Mats made of the Kyllinga .plant 

in Natal. 

Isle of Man Lace Coarse and narrow bob- 
bin-made lace used for edgings, simi- 
lar to the Valenciennes; now obsolete. 

Isle of Wight Lace Obsolete English bob- 
bin lace, resembling the Wiltshire. The 
design is outlined with thick thread 
and then filled in with the needle. 
The ground is machine-made. 

Ismaili Pale and dark striped cotton fab- 
ric with a border of red, white and 
yellow stripes and a selvage of red, 
in East Africa. 

Ispahan 'Persian woolen rug made with 
hand tied knots. 

Ispahan Yarn 'Two or more ply, hard 
twist, gassed yarn made of mohair. 

Istaberk An East Indian silk satin, wov- 
en of opalescent wild silk. 



Italian Cloth >A stout but light and glossy 
fabric woven in a five-leaf weft satin 
weave of cotton or wool yarns and 
dyed in the piece; it is usually dyed 
black and used for lining, petticoats, 
etc. 

Italian Ferret Silk tape or binding for 
flannels and dressing gowns. 

Italian Stitch .Same as Holbein stitch. 

Iwaiwa Fiber yielded by the stalks of a 
fern in 'Hawaii; used for 'baskets, 
mats, etc., by the natives. 

Ixtle (Mexican name for various vegetable 
'fibers, especially .for the lechuguilla 
(see) and the agave; used for cord- 
age. Also called henequen. 

lyo 'Native name for the African bass. 

Izarin 'East Indian cotton cloth; obso- 
lete. 



J 



Jacitara .Very strong, elastic bast fiber, 
yielded by the Jacitara climbing plant 
in Brazil. 

Jacobite Tartan 'Was worn by the Ja- 
cobites in Scotland at the beginning of 
the 18th century. The design is com- 
posed as follows: Bright yellow stripe; 
'group consisting of white, blue, red, 
white, red, 'blue, white stripes, the en- 
tire group being of the same width 
as the yellow stripe and the three 
white lines being very narrow*; yel- 
low stripe as above; group, as above*; 
solid green stripe, of the same width 
as yellow; group, as above*; solid 
green stripe, of the same width as 
yellow; group, as above*. 

Jaconet 'Fine, sheer cotton dress fabric, 
thinner than cambric, comes in white. 
or stripes or prints. Originally from 
East India. 

Jacquard 1, designs which are too large 
for the harness loom and are woven 
on the Jaoquard loom; 2, hosiery 
knitted in two or more colors with a 
separate thread for each color. 

Jacquard Drill iStout drill made with lin- 
en face and cotton back. 

Jaeger Fabrics Knitted or woven fabrics, 
made of 'fine, pure, natural wool and 
camel hair. They are very porous 
and are considered hygienic. 

Jago A linen cloth. 

Jaldai Indian cotton muslin, figured with 
net-like designs. 

Jamaica Variety of West Indian raw cot- 
ton. 

Jamavas 'Light East Indian brocaded silk 
taffeta; obsolete. 

Jamawar East Indian shawl, made of 
coarse wool with wide stripes. 

Jamadane Very fine brocaded or em- 
broidered-like muslin made in India 
by laying short lengths of gold or 
colored threads parallel with the warp 
in the hand looms. 



JAM 



83 



JON 



Jamkhana East Indian cotton carpet with 
stripe .patterns. 

Janapan (See Sunn hemp. 

Janes See Jean. 

Jangipurl Inferior quality of Indian jute, 
having a reddish brown, weak fiber. 

Jannequin Coarse cotton cloth, made In 
Asia Minor. 

Janus Cloth Double faced worsted fab- 
ric, each side made in a different color. 

Janus Cord Black dyed, dress goods with 
warp ribs, made alike on both sides; 
made of cotton warp and worsted fill- 
ing. 

Japanese Rugs Pile or tapestry rugs, 
made of cotton or jute, in Oriental 
scroll designs. 

Japergonsi 'Fine East Indian muslin with 
gold selvage. 

Japonette Printed cotton crepe in Can- 
ada. 

Japrak Green, red, orange and blue 
Smyrna rugs. 

Jaquenolle East Indian plain or striped 
muslin. 

Jardiniere Designs composed of flowers, 
fruits and leaves. 

Jaspee 1, French term for yarn twisted 
of several colored nub or plain yarns; 
.2, cloth made of same yarn. 

Jasper Pepper and salt effect by having 
the warp black and the filling white 
or vice versa. 

Java A cotton fabric with red ground and 
red. yellow and white stripes in East 
Africa; used for dresses by the native 
women. 

Java Canvas (Made of cotton, linen or 
worsted ply yarns with open face; 
used for embroidery; the yarns are 
grouped two or three together each 
way. 

Javelle Water Used for bleaching vege- 
table fibers. 

Jean 1, very stout, durable, twilled trous- 
ering, made of hard spun cotton warp 
and a low grade wool or shoddy fill- 
ing. It is dyed very dark gray in the 
yarn; used for working trousers; 2, 
name in America for the one-and-two 
twill; 3, in England a three shaft 
twilled woolen fabric with a weft face. 

Jean-'back Weft pile cotton velvet made 
with twilled ground. 

Jean Stripes A gingham made in Eng- 
land. 

Jeannet iStout, coarse warp twilled faibric, 
made of cotton warp and wool filling; 
used for working clothes. 

Jeannette 1, in England a three shaft 
twilled wool faibric, with a warp face; 
2, coarse jean, lighter in texture; 3, 
name for the one-and-two twill. See 
also Jean. 

Jenappe See Genappe. 

Jenfez A cross ribbed Turkish silk fab- 
ric. 

Jenkins A commercial variety of early 
maturing American cotton, the staple 
measuring '22-25 millimeters; the yield 
of lint is 34-36 per cent. 



Jennets- Stout, twilled English cottons, 
come in white, figured or printed. 

Jequitiba Native Brazilian term for the 
'fibrous bast of the Couratari tree; 
used for blankets, clothing, ropes, etc. 

Jerga Coarse woolen fabric with plaid 
pattern; used by the natives of Mex- 
ico. 

Jersey 1, a fine, choice wool, combed from 
the rest of the wool; 2, a very fine 
woolen yarn. 

Jersey Cloth A thick, knitted fabric, 
made of wool; also of silk. 

Jersey Flannel (Crocheted and napped 
woolen faibric. 

Jerusalem Cotton iSee Bazac. 

Jesuit Cloth 'Coarse, stout, black, plain 
woven woolen cloth made of hard 
twist yarn; used as suiting by re- 
ligious orders. 

Jesuit Lace Irish crochet guipure. 

Jetee Lustrous, very strong elastic and 
durable bast fiber, yielded by the 
Rajinahal hemp in India; used for 
bowstrings, fishing nets, etc. 

Jethro A now obsolete commercial va- 
riety of American cotton. 

Jeypore Indian cotton rugs having Per- 
sian designs with tree and animal 
forms in red, ivory and blue. 

Jhapan (Indian cotton muslin with silk 
flower patterns. 

Jhibandlik A coarse, East Indian cotton 
net, woven in leno. 

Jhilmeel Very light East Indian silk fab- 
ric, made with an open weave. 

Jhuganat A stou-t. bleached and glazed 
cotton fabric of inferior grade in East 
India. 

Jimped In England same as pinked. 

Jipins Rug 'Commercial term for dra- 
peries and hangings, made of wool 
and used on doors and windows. 

Jircaza Originally fine East Indian cot- 
ton lawn with woven colored flowers. 

Joannovitch Very fine and strong cot- 
ton, grown in Egypt, the staple meas- 
uring from 1% to 1% inches in length. 

Johnston Highland tartan, made as fol- 
lows: Wide dark green bar, split in 
the center 'by three narrow stripes 
(black at the outside, yellow between) 
these stripes divided by green stripes 
of the same width; navy blue bar of 
the same width as green, split in the 
center by three narrow black stripes, 
spaced their own width from each 
other. 

Jolocin Coarse bast fiber, obtained from 
a species of the Heliocarpus tree in 
Central America; used for cordage. 

J one Obsolete French dress goods, made 
of linen with alternate light and dark 
cross ribs. 

Jones Improved A late maturing com- 
mercial variety of upland cotton, the 
staple measuring 20-24 millimeters; 
the yield of lint is 30-S2 per cent. 



JON 



KAK 



Jones Long Staple A late maturing com- 
mercial variety of upland cotton, the 
staple measuring 30-34 millimeters; 
form large bolls; the yield is 29-30 
per cent. 

Jones Number 1 A commercial variety of 
cotton from Alabama, the staple 
measuring 18-22 millimeters; the yield 
of lint is 33 per cent. 

Jonote Coarse bast fiber yielded by a 
species of the Heliocarpus tree in Cen- 
tral America; used for cordage. 

Joree Silk worm in Assam, lives on fig 
trees, yielding a strong and lustrous 
fiber. 

Joria IBest type of East Indian wool, 
has a springy staple. 

Josephine Tricot A very open crochet 
work, consisting of closely crocheted 
rows connected by double yarns at in- 
tervals. 

Josette ^A strong, stout twilled cotton 
fabric; used for sporting wear. 

Jour Zephyr Obsolete French term for 
the simplest gauze. 

Jours 1, open work in embroideries, laces 
or in fabrics. Designs in open work 
on fabrics are made by pressing the 
fabric against a plate having points 
arranged to form the design and then 
dress the fabric to hold the holes; 2, 
See Modes. 

Jour Deux Place, Jour Trois Place 
French term for leno weaves, having 
two and three rows of holes respec- 
tively. 

Jouy Canvas Printed cotton or silk fa/b- 
ibric, showing small floral designs. 

Jowarihathi iSee Tellapatti. 

Jowers Commercial variety of late ma- 
turing American cotton, the staple 
measuring 22-25 millimeters; the yield 
is 34 per cent or more. 

Jubbulpore Hemp Of India, one of the 
very best grades of hemp, having a 
long, lustrous and very strong fiber. 

Jumbo Commercial variety of a prolific 
and early maturing American cotton, 
the staple measuring 18-22 milli- 
meters; the yield is 32-<34 per cent. 

Jumel 'Variety of Egyptian raw cotton. 
Same as Mako. 

Jupon Plain woven French dress goods 
made with cotton warp and woolen 
filling. 

Jusi A fine, sheer and plain woven fabric, 
made of hemp warp and pineapple 
Iflber filling, or pineapple warp and 
silk or cotton filling. It comes in 
colored stripes and checks and is made 
by the natives of the Philippines; used 
for women's dresses. 

Jute Very long, luetrous and strong bast 
yielded by the Corchorus in India. It 
is silver gray or yellowish brown; used 
for bagging, coarse ropes, cheaper 
carpets, etc. The j. fiber is not dur- 
alble and rots quickly in water. 

The chief grades of jute in the na- 
tive markets are: Uttariya, deswal, 
deora, desi, naraingunja, Chatial, kar- 
imganji, bakrabadi, mirganji. jangi- 
puri. In European markets the stan- 
dard quality is the bale marked M, 



which is the basis for all quotations; 
this contains seragjung jute. Another 
important quality in bale is marked 
D, containing Dacca jute. The bales 
marked CD'M contain common jute 
for sacking. Jute is sorted into three 
qualities, of which the first one con- 
tains from 15 to 20 per cent of the to- 
tal, the second quality from 25 to 30 
per cent and the third from 50 to 60 
per cent. 

Jute Butts Jute waste, consisting of the 
end of the fibers; used for paper stock. 



K 



Kaba Karaman Rugs Coarse and heavy, 
small rugs made by the nomad Kar- 
amanian in Asia Minor. The warp 
and weft are of heavy and coarse woo!. 
the long and very loose pile is tied 
in G-hiordes knot. The design is usual- 
ly that of a prayer rug. 

Kabistan Rugs 'Very fine rugs made in 
Caucasia with cotton web, occasion- 
ally wool warp, and short, wool pile, 
tied cloeely in G-hiordes knot. The 
designs are geometrical, stars and 
diamonds and pears in rows often 
occurring. The field is often divided 
into horizontal rows of pears or finely 
blended stripes. The border often 
contains conventionalized animal fig- 
ures. The ends are finished with a 
narrow selvage and a loose or knotted 
fringe. The sides are overcast, occa- 
sionally having only one warp thread 
left. 

Kabylo French shawl, made with carded 
warp and filling. 

Kadu "Sleeping mat in Java, made of 
palm leaves. 

Kaffir Hemp Very strong, white ba.n 
fiber, yielded by the South African, 
the Grewia occidentalis; used for rope 
and cloth toy the Kaffirs. 

Kaffir Sheet Very coarse, twilled cotton 
fajbric, with fancy colored heading; 
used for garments by the natives of 
iSouth Africa. 

Kaga Trade term for the medium grade 

Japanese silk fabrics. 
Kahnami The bast variety of raw cotton, 

grown in Broach and Navsari, India. 

The staple is very soft and silky. 

Kaiki See Khaiki. 

Kairens Turkish wool rug of good qual- 
ity; used as floor and furniture cover. 

Kaimakani Fine sheer cotton cloth; used 
in Turkey to bind the turbans with. 

Kairuan Rug from Tunis, made by the 
natives of wool with hand tied knots. 

KakahuFine, glossy cloth, formerly wov- 
en of the New Zealand hemp by the 

Maoris. 



KAK 



85 



KAR 



Kakarally Very fine and thin layers of 
fibrous bast, obtained from the Mon- 
key-pot tree in South America; used 
for wrapping, cordage, baskets, etc. 

Kakeda Fine Japanese raw silk. 

Kalameit Jute fiber prepared according 
to a secret process, which increases 
the affinity of the fiber for dyestuffs. 

Kalamal iStriped cotton faibric with a 
white ground; used in Turkestan for 
dresses. 

Kalemkai Coarse Persian calico. 

Kalga East Indian applique work; used 
for curtains and covers. 

Kalgan Wool Variety of Chinese carpet 
wool. 

Kali Persian felted rug, the napped face 
is embroidered with flower designs in 
silver and silk. 

Kaliava 'Coarse home reeled silk in Cen- 
tral Asia; used by the natives. 

Kalin An East Indian pile carpet, with 
a strong cotton thread warp and fill- 
ing and wool pile; the carpet is made 
by alternating one row of knots with 
one filling. 

Kalmuc Carpet Made with woolen warp 
which runs regularly over and under 
two fillings. 

Kalmuck 1, inferior Persian calico; 2, 
coarse woolen fabric, woven in a loose 
twill with a shaggy face; 3, in Austria 
and Germany a stout cotton fabric 
woven with two sets of filling, of dif- 
ferent colors and napped on both 
sides; 4. a variety of woolen Londres 
made in Prance. 

Kalotaszegi Varrottas (Hungarian needle- 
work, combining drawn work and em- 
broidery on stout cotton or linen 
ground; the embroidery is done mostly 
in red and blue, forming tulips and 
other flowers. 

Kalpatadai East Indian cotton and silk 
fabric, made with fine warp stripes 
of white, yellow and crimson. 

Kamdani (Fine East Indian cotton mus- 
lin. 

Kamerijk Dutch cambric. 

Kamptulicon Floor covering consisting 
of a strong and coarse cotton or jute 
foundation, coated with a compound 
of ground cork, oil, rubber, etc. 

Kamschatka Obsolete term for the first 
English chenille shawls, made with 
chenille weft, followed by three picks 
of common weft. 

Kanaffe Strong bast fiber of the Hibiscus 
cannabinus in East India; used for 
thread and cordage. See Decan hemp. 

Kandahar Good carpet wool from Bast 
India. 

Kanga Native East African name for 
cotton shawls, printed in colors, most- 
ly brown, red, black, yellow and pink. 

Kangam -Chinese nankeen of blue color. 

Kangars l^arge printed cotton handker- 
chiefs in red, black, green and yel- 
low; used for scarfs, etc., in Arabia. 



Karriki A plain or twilled dark blue or 
black cotton shirting imported to East 
Africa; used for garments by the na- 
tive women. 

Kaniki Buibui^A very light, sheer kaniki; 
used as veil. 

Kaniki Marduf A twilled kaniki. 

Kaniki Mkelle 'Native East African name 
for piece dyed nainsook. 

Kaniki Ufito 'Native East African name 
for piece dyed cotton fabrics; made 
with warp cords. 

Kanvi Variety of raw cotton from Kathi- 
awar and Gujarat, India. The staple 
is of low grade but prolific. 

Kanoko Very light, crepe-like Japanese 
silk, dyed usually red or violet and 
used by women as hair ornament, etc. 

Kapa A very fine, easily bleached sheet, 
obtained from the bast of a species 
of the mulberry tree, also a species 
of the nettle in the Sandwich Islands, 
through beating; used for clothing by 
natives. 

Kapar General term for a variety of East 
Indian shawls. 

Kapok (Lustrous* elastic, 'but brittle and 
rather S'hort seed hair, yielded by the 
Eriodendron anfractuosum in Java, 
India, and other places; used princi- 
pally for stuffing but it is also spun 
after mixed with other longer fibers. 

Karabagh Rugs All-wool rugs made of 
natural colored wool and dyed warp. 
The loose and coarse pile is of me- 
dium length and is tied in Ghiordes 
knot. The ends are usually turned 
back or have a fringe. The design 
is varied and heterogeneous and the 
colors crude. 

KarachiEast Indian cotton, having a 
medium long and fairly strong staple 
of dull color; contains much leaf. 

Karadagh Rugs Small and medium sized 
Persian all wool rugs; the close and 
medium long pile is tied in Ghiordes 
knot. The ground is usually covered 
with floral designs. Sometimes the 
rug is knitted. 

Karadi A long and quite coarse carpet 

wool from Mesopotamia. 
Karamushi A Japanese variety of the 

ramie. 

Karankas Soft and heavy East Indian 
silk brocade with gold, silver or silk 
pattern over satin foundation. 

Karatas IPine white leaf fiber, yielded by 
the wild pineapple in Central America, 
Brazil, etc.; used for fine hammocks, 
strings, fishing lines, etc., by the In- 
dians. 

Karawan Turkish skin wool from the 
native fat tailed sheep. 

Kareya Very strong, thick cotton cloth 
made in India; used for garments. 

Karimganji Indian jute, having a very 
strong and long staple of light color. 

Karmanian Khilims IMade in Turkestan; 
often have prayer rug d.esign. See 
Khilim. 

Karreldoek Linen sail cloth made in Hol- 
land. 



KAS 



86 



KEY 



Kas Variety of raw cotton in Nubia. 

Kasan In Germany and Austria a woolen 
dress goods, similar to a stout flan- 
nel. 

Kasawari 'Printed bleached shirting; used 
in Persia, imported from India. 

Kasheda 'East Indian falbric, made of 
wild silk, often mixed with cotton, 
and embroidered. 

Kashgar Coarse cotton rugs with long 
loose wool pile tied in Senna knot. 
They are made in Central Asia. The 
design consists of Chinese fret, drag- 
ons, fish, etc., in bright pinks, orange, 
yellows, etc. 

Kashgar Cloth Thick but light dress 
goods made of Kashgar wool; It has 
a long, napped face. 

Kashkai Collective name for Kerman- 
shah, Shiraz and Mecca rugs. 

Kashmir Rug Another name for Soumak 
rugs (see). 

Kashmir Shawl See Cashmere shawl. 

Kasida 'Sort of Dacca muslin (see), em- 
broidered in floss silk; used for scarfs, 
turbans, etc. 

Kassapbatchi Coarse Turkish skin wool; 
used for carpets. 

Kattun German for calico. 

Kawamatta Trade term for inferior 
grades of Japanese silk fabrics. 

Kawo Kawo iSilky, yellowish seed hair of 
the Bombax tree in the Malay States. 

Kaya A mosquito netting made in Japan. 

Kazak Rugs Small and medium size, all- 
wool rugs made in Caucasia, having 
a very long, soft pile tied in Ghiordes 
knot; often there are four wefts al- 
ternating with each row of knots. The 
design consists of geometrical pat- 
terns often having a toothed edge or 
primitively conventionalized trees and 
animals. Reds, greens and blues are 
the favorite colors. At least one end 
ie finished with a knotted fringe. 

Keckling In nautics, old rope around ca- 
bles to keep them from chafing. 

Kedis Stout cotton shirting and lining in 
Asiatic Turkey. 

Kefieh 'Printed cotton cloth, measuring 
about 42 inches square; used as head 
covering in Asia Minor. 

Keith 'Commercial variety of early ma- 
turing, prolific cotton from Alabama, 
the staple measuring 24-26 milli- 
meters; the yield ie 32-34 per cent. 

Kekchi Raw cotton from Guatemala, the 
staple being of good length and qual- 
ity. 

Kelat 'Variety of good, short carpet wool 
from Beloochistan. 

Kelly 'Commercial variety of prolific and 
late maturing American cotton, the 
staple measuring 26-30 millimeters; 
the yield of lint is 30-31 per cent. 
Also called Marston. 

Kelt 'Scotch frieze made of natural black 
faced wool. 

Kemea Indian all-silk taffeta made with 
flower patterns. 

Kemp 'Diseased wool fibers, with un- 
evenly developed medulla, which 
causes streaks in dyeing. It is a 
coarse, white, undeveloped fiber. 



Kemuku Japanese silk waste, yielded by 
the outer skin of the cocoon in reel- 
ing. 

Kendal A coarse English tweed of green 
color in the 14th century; used for 
clothing. 

Kendir Stem (fiber of the Apocynum 
around the Adriatic Sea; used for 
ropes, nets, bags. 

Kennedy A Highland tartan, composed of 
a green ground, dark blue and black 
checks and red and yellow lines. 

Kennet 'Coarse woolen cloth made in 
Wales. 

Kensington Quilt iHas large patterns 
formed of coarse thread on a fine 
plain woven ground. 

Kenting Thin, sheer Silesia linen fabric. 

Kentucky Jean Very strong, stout, weft 
face fabric, made with cotton warp 
and wool filling in satin weave; used 
for trousers, etc. 

Keratto Inferior fiber yielded by certain 
species of the Agave in the West In- 
dies. 

Kerf In England the flock resulting from 
shearing the cloth. 

Kermanshah Rugs Usually all-wool Per- 
sian rugs. The medium long, close 
pile is tied in Ghiordes knot. The 
design usually consists of floral pat- 
terns, often small palm leaves in rows. 

Kermer A shawl made of pure silk, or 
mixed with cotton, worn by the women 
in Egypt. 

Kermes Red coloring matter, yielded by 
the dried bodies of the coccus ilicis, 
a small insect. It is ground up in 
hot water, producing the carmine. Ex- 
tensively used in past centuries to 
dye silk and wool fabrics. 

Kermis 'Cotton handkerchiefs from East 
India. 

Kermiss 'Inferior English cotton fabric; 
used for dresses. 

Kerr A Highland tartan, made as fol- 
lows: Wide red bar, split in the cen- 
ter by three narrow black stripes 
which are spaced their own width 
from each other; black stripe, about 
one-sixth in width of the red bar; 
dark green bar, same in width as red 
bar, split with a pair of black stripes 
(as wide as those in the red bar) near 
each edge, these black stripes being 
spaced from the edge of the green bar 
and from each other their own width. 

Kersey Stout, heavy and pliable twilled 
all-wool or cotton warp fa>bric, fin- 
ished with a close nap; used for coats. 

Kerseymere Pine woolen suiting, having 

two-thirds of the filling and one-third 

of the warp on the face. 
Kerseynet Light English fabric, made 

with cotton warp and woolen filling; 

used for men's clothes. 

Kevergik Turkish skin wool of merino 
sheep. 

Keymo An English finishing process, ren- 
dering woolens and worsteds un- 
shrinkable by a bath of sulphuric 
acid. 



KHA 



87 



KIN 



Khabbikutah 'Collective name for vari- 
ous nondescript short pile, knotted 
Persian rugs. 

Khaiki iA plain woven, washable, light 
Japanese silk fabric. 

Khaki 1, a brownish earth color; 2, a 
very strong, durable fabric, made with 
diagonal ribs; has the khaki color and 
is used for army uniforms, etc., in 
various countries. The k. made for 
the United States Government is 28 
inches wide, weighing between 6% 
and 7 oz. per linear yard. It is made 
of all cotton, 2,500 ends in the piece 
and 54 picks in an inch, woven with 
a four-harness three to one twill. It 
is dyed with fast khaki. The English 
army khaki overcoating has the weight 
of 33 to 33H oz., the cloth contains 38 
ends and 46 picks per finished inch 
and is woven in prunella twill. 

Khaki Cotton Various East Indian and 
Chinese cottons yielding tan or red- 
dish colored staple. 

Khali Natural brown felted Persian fab- 
ric, embroidered in colored silk and 
silver flowers. 

Khandeish 'East Indian cotton, having a 
harsh, strong and very dirty staple of 
golden color. 

Kharajobi 'Name for a great variety of 
gold and silver embroidery made in 
East India. 

Kharjikhan Bast Indian embroidery work 

in gold and silver. 
Kharwa iRed East Indian cotton fabric; 

used for ticks. 

Khasa Cotton muslin from India. 
Kheetee East Indian chintz. 
Khemir Silk shawl from Egypt. 

Khersek iHeavy Persian woolen rugs with 

a shaggy pile. 
Khes iStout East Indian cotton fabric 

made with check patterns or colored, 

often gold border. 

Khilim iRugs of all sizes made in Ana- 
tolia, Persia, Turkestan and several 
of the Balkan States. They are wov- 
en by hand and have no pile, the weft 
being of hard twisted wool. The de- 
sifrn. which is alike on both sides, con- 
sists of angular geometrical figures 
in a great variety of colors. They are 
used for divan covers and portieres. 

Khiva 'Fine, all-wool rugs of small size, 
made in Turkestan, the short, close 
pile being tied in Senna knot. The 
design consists of octagonal figures or 
the prayer rug pattern in rich reds, 
blue, ivory and a little green. 

Khodar Coarse East Indian cotton fab- 
ric; used for garments 'by the na- 
tives. 

Khokti Yellowish or brown cotton cloth 
made in India. It is very durable, 
smooth and glossv, the finest grade 
bein? similar to the best brown hoi- 
land. 

Khoktibanga Variety of East Indian raw 
cotton, having a yellowish but good, 
strong staple. 

Khombal iCoarse, plain East Indian wool 
blanket. 



Khonia 'East Indian cotton shawl with 
richly embroidered design. 

Khorassan 1, variety of Persian wool, of 
long, fine staple; 2, medium and large 
size Persian rugs with close and me- 
dium long fine wool pile tied in Sen- 
na knot and clipped unevenly. The 
pattern consists usually of fish or 
palm design the latter having smaller 
ones placed in each large one. The 
border usually has trailing palm 
leaves. Magenta and blue are char- 
acteristic colors. 

Khoseb 'Originally a fine muslin from 
Elgypt; used for turbans. 

Khudurangi 'Native East African name 
for a coarse cotton fabric, dyed with 
henna. 

Khum (Dyed T cloth in Turkey; used for 
long coats by the natives. 

Khuskus, Cuscus The roots of this grass 
(Andropogon Muriaticus) are used in 
India for mats and baskets. 

Khustka iShawI from Southern Russia, 
embroidered with colored floral de- 
signs. 

Kian Pakkian Cloth made of fine shreds 

of bamboo in Celebes. 
Kichorkay 'An East Indian cotton cloth. 
Kid Mohair taken from young Angora 

goats. 

Kidderminster Carpet 1, originally a 
coarse double-faced fabric of worsted 
warp and woolen filling; 2, a triple 
carpet cloth with two faces, the fig- 
gures alternating on both sides, made 
without pile; called also Scotch car- 
pet and Kilmarnock and ingrain in 
the United States. 

Kidney Cotton Trade name for Brazilian 
cotton. 

Kienchow Silk Foulard with pressed in 
patterns, made in China; is about 16 
inches wide. 

Kikci or Kikoy A heavy gray cotton 
sheeting in the Eastern parts of 
Africa, having yellow, black and red 
border stripes; used for garments by 
the natives. 

Kilim See Khilim. 

Kilmarnock 1, a coarse 18th century 
Scotch serge; 2, see Kidderminster. 

Kimcha See Camocato. 

Kinari Trade term for Persian pile run- 
ners of various characters and ori- 
gin. 

Kincob Fast Indian silk muslin, occa- 
sionally richly interwoven with gold 
or silver; used for men's and women's 
dresses. 

Kindergarten Cloth Stout, heavy, plain 
woven cotton fabric, usually made 
with yarn dyed warp stripes. The 
warp is single yarn, two ends drawn 
in. The number of ends i.3 almost 
three times higher than the number 
of warps; used for children's clothes. 

King Improved An early maturing com- 
mercial variety of prolific upland cot- 
ton, the staple measuring 25-28 milli- 
meters; the yield of lint is 32-34 per 
cent. 

Kinik Variety of Turkish raw wool. 



KIN 



KOT 



Kinji Shusu Japanese silk satin with a 
partly or completely gilded face; used 
for kimonos. 

Kink 1, a snarl in a hard twiet yarn; 2, 
in nautics to twist a rope. 

Kinkale 'Light Bast Indian silk, brocaded 
with silk or gold threads. 

Kiotonan Chinese satin with damask fig- 
ures. 

Kirbas Green hangings mentioned in 
Esther I, 6. Believed to be of cot- 
ton. 

Kirkagatsch Variety of raw cotton from 
Asia Minor. 

Kirmanshaw See Kermanshah. 

Kirriemuir (Modern twilled linen, simi- 
lar to the material used in old em- 
broidered curtains. 

Kir-Shehr Rugs IMade in Angora, Asia 
Minor, the warp and weft are of dyed 
wool, the long pile is tied in GTiiordes 
knot. The Arabic designs are in bril- 
liant greens, reds and blues. The 
sides and ends are selvaged. 

Kissmess (East Indian calico. 

Kitay (Fancy colored Chinese silk and 
cotton cloth. 

Kittool or Kitul iBlack, very coarse, 
straight, smooth, glossy and strong 
fabric, obtained from the leaves of 
the kittool palm in India and Ceylon; 
used for strong ropes, 'brushes, mats, 
etc. 

Kleanka -A Russian buckram. 

Knap tCoarse, blue woolen, used for sail- 
ors' clothes in England. 

Kneipp Linen Porous, rough faced, 
twilled linen fabric, made in Germany 
and Austria; used for towels and un- 
derwear. Originally it was knitted. 

Knib J Technical term for knots, or un- 
even places on the silk fiber. 

Knickerbockei Rough faced wool and 
cotton mixture dress goods, made with 
nub yarns. It comes in mixture colors. 

Knickerbocker Yarns 'Yarns with colored 
nubs made ,by printing the card sliver. 

Knit Goods 'Loose fabrics, elastic both 
ways, made of one or more continu- 
ous threads interlaced with itself and 
forming rows of loops holding each 
other but not tied. They are made 
either with the weft thread, when 
they are called framework knitted or 
with the warp, called warp knitted 
fabrics. 

In warp knitting the fabric is formed 
iby interlocking the parallel warp 
threads, forming one row of loops 
simultaneously, as in shawls, scarfs, 
laces. The framework knitted fabrics 
are formed of horizontally knitted 
threads, each row of loops being 
formed of a single thread, as 
in plain and ribbed knitting. 
They are also classified into flat and 
tubular. (See crocheting.) They are 
used mainly for underwear, hosiery, 
sweaters, also for scarfs and of late 
also for coating and suiting. 

Knittinq Cotton, Wool or Silk .Smooth, 
soft spun yarn of various sizes; used 
for hand knitting. 



Knittles In nautics, the strands of two 
ropes twisted together. 

Knop Yarn Same as nub yarn in Eng- 
land. 

Knopp Work iFramework knitting, with 
two sets of needles and Jacquard at- 
tachment, which regulates the accum- 
ulation of loops on certain needles and 
thus forms the design. 

Knot There are two kinds of knots form- 
ing the pile in Oriental rugs, one is 
the Turkish or Ghiordes, the other 
the Persian or Senna (see each). The 
fineness of the rug is judged by the 
number of knots to a square inch. 

Knotted Laces 'Made in Italy, Dalmatia, 
etc., by tying lengths of thread into 
knots by the hands, the knots form- 
ing patterns like the macrame. 

Knotted Work (Laces made by knots; 
either tatting or macrame. 

Knub In England the very closely wov- 
en, hard and fine inner layer of the 
cocoon; used for waste silk. 

Ko Hemp Very durable, soft, fine and 
silky bast fiber, yielded by the Puer- 
aria thunbergiana in China, India and 
Japan; used for summer clothing fab- 
rics. 

Kodrung (Same as Khudurangi. 

Kogalla Yarn 'The best grade of coir 
yarn made in Ceylon. 

Koja Gray drill or four-leaf twill cotton 
cloth imported in Abyssinia and used 
for native dresses. The weave is 
coarse with low grades of cotton or 
waste in the filling. There are red, 
black or green stripes across both ends 
of the piece and along both selvages. 

Koko Native Hawaiian name for a knit- 
ted or netted bag, made of coir or 
hemp. 

Kokti See Khokti. 

Kompon A plain woven, stout linen in 
China; used for garments by the na- 
tives. 

Konieh Rugs Heavy all-wool rugs, made 
in Asia Minor, the medium long pile 
is tied in Ghiordes knot. Many of 
the old samples have a hexagonal 
field and rich colors. (Modern K. 
rugs have a great variety of colors. 
The sides and ends are finished with 
a selvage. 

Konje Native African name of the bow- 
string hemp fiber (see). 

Koomach Cotton cloth in Russia, usu- 
ally dyed bright solid red, also indigo 
or green; used for blouses, women's 
dresses, etc. 

Korako Native name for the New Zeal- 
and flax, yielding fibers suitable for 
fine fabrics. 

Korotes An East Indian coarse calico. 

Kota -Plain woven cotton cloth imported 
in Abyssinia and used for native 
dresses. It is about 30 inches wide 
and 14 yards long. 

Kotzen 'Rugs and laprobes, made in Aus- 
tria of coarse goat's hair with a very 
long hair on both sides. 



KOU 



89 



LAG 



Koujong Very soft, fine, twilled woolen, 
made in China. 

Kron The best sort of Russian flax. 

Kuba Oriental all-wool rug, having a 
long and fine pile in light colors. 

Kulah Rugs Made in Asia Minor; an- 
tique rugs of all-wool in prayer rug 
design with a fine short and close 
pile tied in Ghiordes knot; red and 
gold brown were often used. 

Modern K. rugs are of large size, the 
long and loose pile contains mohair. 
The colors and design are inferior. 

Kulkan Richly brocaded silk shawls, 
made in Persia, similar to the cash- 
mere shawls. 

Kumbi <Soft and silky seed fiber of the 
Cochlospermum gossypium, a tree in 
India; used for stuffing. 

Kumerbands Coarse woolen shawl in In- 
dia, worn wrapped around the body 
by the natives. 

Kurbelstickerei German term for ma- 
chine embroidery, the design being 
of tape over a net ground; used for 
curtains. 

Kurdistan Rugs 1, coarse and rough 
rugs, made in 'Mesopotamia of all- 
wool with a heavy, long and loose pile 
tied in Ghiordes knot. Dark colored 
natural wool is often used. The ends 
are finished with braided fringe; 2, 
fine all-wool rugs made in Persia, 
the close short pile is tied in Ghiordes 
knot. The pattern consists of small 
figures covering the field, of a con- 
ventionalized blossoming tree or a 
diamond shaped center medallion in 
blues and reds. The end selvages 
contain one strand of colored wool. 

Kurk >Fine soft wool, yielded by a spe- 
cies of white goat in Persia; used 
for shawls, which are finished with a 
hairy back. 

Kurkee A heavy and coarse English 
blanket. 

Kurrijong Dark, tenacious bast fiber, 
yielded by a species of the Commer- 
sonia in New South Wales; used for 
nets. 

Kydia Strong inner toast fiber, yielded 
by the Kydia calycina in India; used 
for ropes. 

Kyrle Yarn Fancy woolen yarn; used for 
various overcoatings and dress 
goods. 



La A very strong and light mat, made 
of the leaves of the pandanus in the 
Tonga Islands: used for sails. 

Label Cloth In England a heavily sized, 

plain woven cotton fabric; used for 

tags. 
Laburnum Fine thin dress goods made 

with silk warp and worsted weft in 

a 2 and 1, warp face twill 



LacA fairly fast orange or crimson dye, 
yielded by the dried bodies of the coc- 
cus laccae, an insect living on flg 
trees. It was used formerly as mor- 
danted dye, but is very little in use 
now. 

Lace 1, an ornamental textile, formed 
without the aid of a ground fabric, 
in this differing from the embroidery. 
The real or hand-made lace is made 
either by the needle (point lace) or 
on a pillow by means of bobbins (pil- 
low lace). Machine lace is made by 
machinery and is measured accord- 
ing to the number of warp threads 
within an inch, as six-point, ten- 
poimt, etc. See also artificial lace; 2, 
a plaited cord or narrow tape of cot- 
ton or silk; used for shoes, corsets, 
etc. 

Lace Bark Yielded by the Lagetta lin- 
tearia tree in Jamaica. It is a fine 
thin lace-like bast; used for dress 
trimmings, hats, also for cordage. 

Lace Cloth A sheer and light fabric, 
woven of fine yarn in leno or mock 
leno weave; used for dresses, etc. 

Lace Work^-Open work hosiery. 

Lacet 1, silk or cotton braid used to 
form patterns for laces, and, 2, lace 
made of such braid. 

Lacets Bleu 'French coutil (see); used 
for trousers. 

Lachorias An East Indian cotton cloth. 

Lacis Name for darned netting in the 
fifteenth century. 

Lacovries An East Indian cotton cloth. 

Lacs d'amour iFrench table linen, made 
in plain weave or with small dobby 
design; obsolete. 

Lactic Acid Used in mordanting wool. 

Ladder Braid Open work braid, made 
similar to a ladder; used for laces 
and for trimmings. 

Ladder ! Stitch Used in embroidery and 
made by running parallel or zigzag 
bars over an evenly wide space or by 
working the bars on the material to 
imitate the rungs of a ladder. 

Ladder Tape Stout cotton tape; used for 
Venetian blinds. 

Ladies' Cloth 1, variety of English light- 
weight broadcloth, made in plain 
weave for women's wear, originally 
made in light colors, as pink, scarlet, 
gentian blue and apple green; 2, flne 
napped face flannel, used for women's 
wear. 

Ladik Rugs 'Small, all-wool rugs, made 
in Asia Minor; the weft is colored; 
the short and close pile is tied in 
Ghiordes knot. 'Scarlet red and white 
are often used. The ends are fin- 
ished with a red selvage. 

Ladines Eighteenth century woolen fab- 
ric in England. 

Lado Short, coarse but strong raw cot- 
ton of white color, grown in the Sene- 
gal Valley. 

Lagetta See Lace Bark. 

Lagos Variety of African cotton having 
a moderately strong and coarse sta- 
ple of brown color and very irregu- 
lar in length. 



LAG 



La Guyra Variety of West Indian cloth, 
having a eilky staple, very irregular 
in length. 

Lahar Light weight soft crepe made of 
coHon warp and silk filling: obso- 
lete. 

Lahore 1, knotted cotton and wool rugs 
made in India. The design consists 
usually of alternate rowe of palm 
leaves; 2, English dress goods, made 
of cashmere wool. 

Laid Wool Tarred on the back of the 
eheep. 

Laid Work Embroidery, consisting of 
couching. 

La ine French for wool. 

Laine Brodee A two-fold yarn, made of 

an open and firm Australia wool, and 

used as weft in genuine Beauvais and 

Gobelin tapestries. 

Laine de Carmenie Persian goats' hair. 
Laine Elastique All-wool, dull black, 

light French dress goods made in 

crepe and corded effect. 

Laine de Terneaux Variety of French 
merino wool. 

Laisot 'Strong French linen canvas o' 
good quality, made 48 inches wide. 

iLaizes iFrench laces, consisting of a 
clear net ground and powdered pat- 
terns, in dots or small flowers. 

Lake Fine medieval woolen fabric; used 
flexible bast fiber, yielded by an In- 
dian shrub, and used for ropes. 

Lai Murga Said to be a very strong, 
in England. 

Lalio Several varieties of raw cottons 
grown in Kathiawar and Ahmedabad, 
India. The staple is fair, but usually 
dirty with leaves. 

Lama Plain or twilled flannel-like French 
woolen lining with a slight nap; 
comes in plain colors or stripes. 

Lama-barchent In Germany and Aus- 
tria a very softly finished cotton fab- 
ric woven Tvith two sets of filling 
threads of different colors, one form- 
ing the face and the other the back 
and napped on both sides. 

Lama Croise A light, twilled French 
woolen dress goods. 

Lamba A very stout cloth in Borneo, 
woven from the leaf fibers of the cur- 
culigo latifolia. 

Lambsdown A plated knit cloth, the face 
made with very heavy and spongy 
fleece raised from slack twist woolen 
yarn, while the back is of hard spun 
cotton; used for children's coats, car- 
riage robes, etc. 

Lamb's Wool Shorn from lambs when 
less than a year old. 

Lambskin A very closely woven cotton 
fabric, made in an eight-leaf, weft 
face satin weave, containing a very 
large number of picks. The fabric 
has a woolly nap raised on the face; 
used for working clothes. 

Lame Brocade woven with flat metal 
thread (tinsel), which forms either 
the pattern or the ground of the fab- 
ric. 



90 



LAP 



Lametta Thin metal thread used in bro- 
cades. 

Lament A Highland tartan, composed of 
the following colors; *Dark green 
stripe; white stripe, measuring less 
than half the width of the green- 
dark green stripe, repeated ; black 
stripe, as wide as green; stripes of 
dark blue, black, dark blue, black, 
each as wide as white one; dark blue 
stripe as wide as green; stripes 
of black, dark blue, black, dark blue 
each as wide as the white; black 
stripe, as wide as the green; repeat 
group described above between two *; 
black stripe, as wide as green one; 
dark blue stripe, as wide as green one- 
group of three stripes, black, blue 
black, each as wide as white; blue 
stripe, as wide as green; black stripe, 
as wide as green. 

Lamot Native Philippine name for Man- 
ila hemp. 

Lamparillas All-wool or linen or silk 
warp, lightweight fabric in solid col- 
or, stripes, or figures, made in Fland- 
ers in the eighteenth century. 

Lampas 1, originally East Indian print- 
ed silks; 2, silk fabric, having satin 
woven figures on a different colored 
taffeta ground; used for drapery and 
upholstery. 

Lampas du Japon Rich French silk bro- 
cade, made with warp ribs; used for 
dress goods, drapery, etc. 

Lamsa Better grade of calico used for 
inner coats in Persia. 

Lana del tambor A Venezuelan silky 
seed hair, grown on a species of the 
Bombax tree; used for stuffing. 

Lana Vejetale Variety of Venezuelan 
tree cotton. 

Lances General French term for fabrics 
in which certain of the filling threads 
are crossing only a number of warp 
threads, floating for the rest. 

Lanella Fleece Proprietary name for a 
fiber prepared from a grass; it is 
carded with shoddy and used for 
cheap clothing. 

Langet A heavy and inferior pillow lace 
made in Holland, used on dresses by 
the native peasant women. 

Lanilla Hard worsted serge of medium 
quality on the western coast of South 
America. 

Lanillas Eighteenth century worsted 
from Flanders. 

Lannoy Sort of French velvet, now ob- 
solete. 

Lansdown Soft dress goods made with 
silk warp and worsted filling in a 
three harness twill weave. 

Laos Silk crepe, made with raw silk 
warp and tussah filling, the latter be- 
ing alternately two picks of right 
hand twist and two picks of left 
hand. 

Lap 'A wide layer of carded or combed 
fibers, wound on a roller, ready to be 
spun. 

Lappa An East Indian silk brocade. 



LAP 



91 



LIB 



Lappet Weaving A process of decorat- 
ing plain woven or gauze fabrics with 
embroidery-like effect simultaneous- 
ly with the weaving of the ground. 
The pattern is formed by an extra 
warp thread, heavier than the ground, 
trailing in the direction of the fill- 
ing. 

Laguary Variety of raw cotton from 
Colombia. 

Larees Gray, bleached or printed cot- 
ton cloth in East India, imported 
from England. 

Lashed Pile Weft pile fabrics, the pile 
picks interwoven with three warp 
ends after each float. This secures 
a fast pile. 

Lasting A narrow and very stout Eng- 
lish worsted, woven with double or 
three-ply warp, and single filling in 
a five-leaf satin weave; used for shoe 
tops. 

Latile A grass; used for fine braids, etc., 
by the natives of the Solomon Is- 
lands. 

Lattice Braid Same as ladder braid. 

Lattice Stitch In embroidery slanting 
bars are run across a long, narrow, 
open space, forming lattice work. 

Lauhala Fine mats, made of pandanus 
leaves by the natives of Hawaii; used 
for covers. 

La uie Large plant, similar to the pan- 
danus. The leaves are used by tha 
natives of Samoa for clothing mats. 

Laval Various French linen fabrics. 

Lavander Fine, bleached and figured 
French linen; obsolete. 

Lavena Fine, lightweight woolen dress 
goods of natural color. 

Laventine Thin silk lining. 

Lawn A plain woven, very light, soft, 
smooth and sheer cotton or linen wash 
dress goods, woven in gray or with 
bleached yarns, often printed after 
the weaving; is similar to cambric 
but lighter. 

Lay See lea. 

Laying The doubling process in man- 
ufacturing ropes. 

Lea Measure for wet spun linen yarn; 
it means the number of 300 yard 
cuts that weigh one pound. Twelve 
leas make a hank, 200 leas or 16% 
hanks make a bundle. 

Lea Yarn Linen yarn spun according 
to the wet process. 

Lead Sulphate 'A paste, used in print- 
ing with blue colors. 

Lead Works In laces: see fillings, jours 
and modes. 

Leamington Axminster Small size ma- 
chine-made Axminster rugs in light 
colors for bath rooms. 

Lean Wool with a harsh handle; spins 
unsatisfactorily. 

Leather Cloth 1, a heavy woolen fabric 
made in England; 2, stout, coarse coU 
ton fabric, covered with a varnish 
layer, grained and finished to resem- 
ble leather. 



Lechuguilla Fiber yielded by the plant 
of same name growing wild in Mex- 
ico. The fiber is very strong, coarse 
and is used for bags, ropes, etc. Also 
called ixtle. 

Left Hand Twist Any single or ply yarn, 
the final twist of which is from right 
to left. 

Left Twill >Any diagonal twill, runnine 
to the left. 

Legs See Bars. 

Lehner Silk Artificial silk made accord- 
ing to the collodion process. 

Leicester Good English wool, spinning 
about 40s to 44s yarns. The staple is 
very lustrous, light and long. 

Leipzis Obsolete French wool serge, 
made in white or in mixed colors and 
about 20 inches wide. 

Leisure In England the selvage of vel- 
vets and silks. 

Leno 1, a weave consisting in crossing 
certain warp threads with each other, 
forming open work designs; 2, light 
weight cotton or silk fabrics, having 
two sets of warp, crossing' each other 
in the weave; used for dresses, 
waists, etc. See Marquisette. 

Leontine French silk dress goods, made 
with two-ply warp in white, blue and 
black colors. 

Leslie Highland tartan, consisting of the 
following: Wide dark green stripe; 
narrow black stripe; wide dark green 
stripe; very fine white line; black 
stripe, made a little narrower than 
green one; dark blue of same width 
as the black; red stripe, as wide as 
black between the green ones; dark 
blue stripe repeated; wide black 
stripe repeated; fine white line. 

Leucorhodina A medieval silk fabric of 
very pale pink color. 

Levant Anatolian cotton, having a fair- 
ly long, harsh and strong staple of 
white color. 

''.evantine P o u r-1 e a f, d o u b 1 e-faced, 
closely woven silk serge, having sin- 
gle or ply warp. Comes mostly in 
solid colors, but also in stripes. 

Leviathan Canvas Coarse, open canvas 
used for embroidery. 

Leviathan Stitch Called also Railway 
stitch; used in embroidery. It is 
composed of three long stitches next 
to each other crossed by a fourth in 
the middle. 

Leviathan Wool Thick, soft wool yarn 
for embroidery. 

Lewis Commercial variety of American 
upland cotton; now obsolete. 

Liage 'French term for an extra warp 
which binds the extra brocade weft 
thread. 

Libau Coarse Russian flax having un- 
clean fibers. 

Liberty 1, originally an East Indian tus- 
sah silk cloth, printed in Europe; 2, 
light, pliable and highly finished silk 
fabric; used for dresses, trimmings, 
etc. 



LIB 



LIN 



Libret Coarse, partly bleached or dyed 
light blue linen cloth from Egypt, 
exported through Asia Minor. 

Licella Yarn, made in Germany, by 
twisting and gluing a strip of paper; 
not manufactured any more. 

Liege Lace Obsolete Belgian bobbin lace 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, similar to the Binche lace. 

Lienoillo Gray cotton goods in South 
American countries. 

Lienzo Unbleached cotton sheetings and 
shirtings in Argentine, Paraguay and 
Uruguay. 

Lif Name for the fiber yielded by the 
leaf stalks of the date palm in Ara- 
bia and Africa; used for ropes, coarse 
cloth, etc. 

Ligature 'Lightweight, inferior French 
brocatelle, made of all cotton or cot- 
ton and wool. The pattern consisted 
usually of small checks, lattice work 
or large, colored flowers. Used for 
bed covers; obsolete. 

Ligne Same as Line 2. 

Lille Lace A bobbin lace, the earlier 
specimens have straight edges, the 
patterns being outlined with a heavy 
cordonnet, the hexagonal ground is 
a very light and fine mesh, each mesh 
having two sides made of a single 
thread and four sides of two threads 
twisted together. 

Lima Raw cotton from Peru; the staple 
is rather coarse and harsh. 

Lime Used in dyeing cotton with in- 
digo or black. 

Limerick Lace Irish needlework, execu- 
ted either by stitching patterns with 
heavier thread over machine made net 
ground or by buttonholing the edges 
of the pattern traced over lawn or 
muslin, cutting away the ground and 
applying the whole on machine made 
net. 

Limoges 1, coarse French bagging made 
of strong hemp yarn; 2, a cotton and 
linen cloth, made in colored stripe 
for beds in Switzerland; 3, an ob- 
solete French guipure lace. 

Lin du pays Trade term for dew retted 
flax from Premesques and Beau- 
camps, France. 

Lincere The finest linen fabrics in an- 
cient Greece, made with double warp 
and single filling. 

Lincoln Lustrous and thick English 
wool, used for yarns from 38s to 40s. 

Lincoln Green A heavy English woolen 
fabric, dyed green; obsolete. 

Linden Strong bast fiber, yielded by the 
linden (lime) tree; used for cordage, 
mats, shoes, etc., in Europe. 

Lindsay A Highland tartan, made as 
follows: Wide rose colored bar, split 
in the center with a pair of very nar- 
now, dark blue lines; dark blue stripe 
about one- fifth the width of the rose 
bar; dark green bar, slightly narrow- 
er than rose one, split with a pair of 



dark blue, narrow stripes near each 
edge, these stripes being spaced from 
the edge and from each other their 
own width; dark blue stripe, about 
one-fifth the width of the rose bar. 

Line 1, name for hackled flax, which is 
numbered either as warp numbers (for 
fine dressed line), the numbers, rang- 
ing from 25 to 100 indicating the lea 
of a fair warp yarn which can be 
spun of that line. With the other num- 
bering, used in Scotland, the number 
indicates the pounds per spindle of 
14,400 yards of yarn; dressed line is 
a thoroughly hackled flax; 2, stand- 
ard of measurement for the width of 
ribbons, being 1-11 inch; 3, the rib 
on the braid. 

Line Yarn Linen yarn spun from the 
longer flax fibers; syun up to 300 leas. 

Lined WorkA twill, made by the sym- 
metrical combinations of the broken 
diamond twills, like the bird's eye. 

Linen Fabrics made of the fibers of the 
flax. 

Linen Checks Blue and white striped or 
checked all linen cloth; used for 
dresses and aprons. 

Linen Weave Same as plain weave. 

Linen Yarn 'Spun of flax fiber. Dry spin- 
ning, employed in Scotland, gives a 
very strong yarn; for wet spin- 
ning the flax fiber is first ma- 
cerated in hot water, which separates 
the fiber into its short, ultimate com- 
ponents; this is used for the fine 
counts. 

The systems for numbering linen 
yarn are: 

In Scotch, dry spun yarn one spin- 
dle (or spangle) contains 2 hesps, or 
4 hanks, or 24 heers, or 48 cuts, or 
5,760 threads, or 14,400 yards. 

In Ireland and England 1 bundle 
contains 16 2-3 hanks, or 200 cuts, or 
leas, or 24,000 threads, or 60,000 yards. 
In Austria one schock contains 12 
bundles, or 60 pieces, or 240 hanks, 
or 4,800 cuts, or 288,000 threads. 

The Dorset and Somerset system 
takes the weight of 21,600 yards 
(called "dozen" or 12 half hanks). 

In France the pacquet contains 
360,000 yards. 

In Belgium the pacquet contains 
180,000 yards. 

According to the numbering based 
on the metric system, the number 
gives the kilometres (1,000 metres) of 
yarn contained in one kilogram (2.2 
pounds). 

Linet French canvas, made of unbleach- 
ed linen; used for lining. 
Linge French for linen. 
Lingerie Same as Cambric (see). 

Lingette 1, obsolete lightweight wool 
serge made in France and England; 
2, name for several kinds of obsolete 
French flaVinels, also for a better 
grade English flannel. 



LIN 



93 



LOG 



Lining A fabric usually made with cot- 
ton warp and wool o.r alpaca or silk 
filling: used for lining garments. 

Lining Felt Made of hair and asbestos, 
often mixed with plaster Paris; used 
to insulate pipes and boilers. 

Linneas Printed cotton goods in the 
African markets. 

Lino I'sed in England for leno (see). 

Linoleum A floor covering made on bur- 
lap base. Oxidized linseed oil is mixed 
with ground cork and othec pig- 
ments. This composition is rolled 
over the burlap base. It comes in 
plain, printed or inlaid. The plain 
has a uniform surface in one color; 
printed linoleum has patterns printed 
in colors; inlaid has patterns of dif- 
ferent colored compositions which go 
through to the burlap base. 

Linon Plain and closely woven fine, very 
light, glossy, washable cotton or lin- 
en fabric; used for dresses, waists, 
etc. It comes in white or solid colors. 
It is the French for lawn. 

Linon a joui French linen gauze. Same 
as gaze de fll (see). 

Linsay Obsolete, twilled English cloth 
of linen warp and woolen filling. See 
Xiinsey. 

Linsel 'French dress goods, made of 
wool and linen; obsolete. 

Linsey 1, strong, durable, coarse English 
cloth made of linen warp and worsted 
filing in white, blue or stripes. Used 
for dresses by the country folk; 2, 
rag sorting term, signifying any kind 
of wool fabric containing cotton, ex- 
cept carpets, dress goods and flan- 
nels. 

Linsey Woolsey Obsolete, stout fabric, 
woven with linen warp and wool fill- 
ing. 

Lint 'Waste of cotton, produced in gin- 
ning, is about one-third of the whole 
weight. 

Linthee A Chinese silk taffeta. 

Lintrees In France a silk fabric form- 
erly imported from China. 

Lintrius, Lintheamina [Linen sheeting, 
used by the Anglo-Saxons. 

Lion Obsolete French linen, made of 
hard spun flax thread in plain weave 
or with small dobby designs. 

Lisardes 1, an East Indian and Persian 
cotton cloth; 2, a coarse Egyptian 
linen cloth. 

Lisere Stout, French silk cloth made 
with weft brocaded flowers and Jac- 
quard figures with the warp. 

Lisiere 'French for selvage. 

Lisieux 'Various French linen cloths, 
made in the country; now obsolete. 

Lisle Hard spun thread, made of long 
staple, combed cotton, the yarn is 
gassed and is used for hosiery and 
underwear. 

Lisse 1, French for warp; 2, a silk 

gauze used for dresses. 
List The selvage. , 

List Carpet Made with strong cotton 

warp and a filling of cloth list. 



Listados 1, Cotton checks in Venezuela; 
2, blue and white or red and white 
checked linens or cottons made in 
France, for the Latin-American trade. 

Listed Fabrics having damaged selvage. 

Listones Silk and velvet ribbons in Lat- 
in-America. 

Litt Medieval name for dyed fabric. 

Little Joans 'An eighteenth contuwy 
name for buntings, made in Eng- 
land. 

Liuse Chienyong Scarlet red, cut silk 
velvet from China. 

Livery Coarse, matted and short skirt- 
ing wool taken from English cross- 
bred fleeces. 

Livery Tweed Very strong and durable 
whipcord tweed, made of wool in 
England. Used for uniforms and liv- 
eries. 

Lizard In nautics a rope with several 
rings spliced into it. 

Llama 1, long, very smooth hair of 
brownish or black color, yielded by the 
South American llama; 2, a union 
shirting, both the warp and filling 
containing about one-third of cotton 
and the rest wool. 

Llama Yarn 'Made of a mixture of cot- 
ton and wool. 

Llanchama Native Brazilian name for 
the interior, fibrous bark of the cou- 
ratari tree; used for clothing, ropes, 
etc. 

Loaded See Weighted. 

Loaf Cotton Raw cotton formerly grown 
in Montserrat, West Indies. 

Lochrea Coarse, bleached Irish linen. 

Lock 'A tuft of wool. 

Lockout Wool with a stringy formation. 

Lockram Coarse, medieval linen fabric, 
originally from Brittany, made In 
plain weave and inferior quality. Also 
a coarse French linen fabric; obso- 
lete. 

Locks Ln wool-sorting the odds and ends 
and sweepings. 

Locrenan Coarse, stout, unbleached 
French hemp fabric; used for sails. 

Loden A thick, fulled, soft fabric, made 
in Austria and Germany. It is woven 
of wool or admixture of camel hair, 
and is quite waterproof without be- 
ing treated chemically. Used lor 
coats, sporting clothes, etc. 

Lofty A firm bold wool having an ex- 
panding staple. 

Logan 'A Highland tartan, made as fol- 
lows: Dark green stripe; a group, 
somewhat narrower, composed of red, 
black, yellow, black, red stripes of 
even width; dark green stripe; black 
stripe, wider than green; dark blue 
field (over four times wider than 
black stripe), traversed by fine red 
stripes, spaced from each other the 
distance of their width; black stripe. 

Loghouse Quilting See Canadian patch- 
work. 



LOG 



94 



LUM 



Logwood A very deep and permanent 
black dye obtained from the chipped 
wood of haematoxylon Campechian- 
um, a tree in Central America and 
surrounding islands. It is used for 
dyeing silk, which is mordanted and 
loaded previously by various salts. 

Lona Inferior, loosely woven cotton 
duck, made or used in Latin America 
for sails, clothing, etc. 

London Shrunk A permanent shrinking 
imparted to woolen and worsted fab- 
rics. The goods are dampened first 
heavily with cold water and after- 
ward dryed in open air or between 
heated plates, taking care not to 
stretch the fabric. This process is 
slow but prevents any subsequent 
shrinking. 

Londres^Very wide, fulled woolen dress 
goods of English origin. See also 
Londrin. 

Londrin 'Light, fulled French and Eng- 
lish woolens exported to South Amer- 
ica and the Levant. 

Loneta A cotton canvas in Paraguay 
and other South American countries 
and a 28- t inch wide cotton duck for 
sails in Chile. 

Long Cloth Plain and closely woven 
bleached or printed, fine and soft cot- 
ton fabric; used for underwear. It 
has very little sizing and is often 
gassed. 

Long Cross Stitch In embroidery a varia- 
tion of the cross stitch (see) the two 
stitches crossing each other, forming 
not a perfect square but an oblong. 

Long Ell Twilled English fabric made 
of hard spun single or two-ply wors- 
ted warp and woolen filling. Large 
quantities exported. 

Long NoilThe best grade of silk noils 
in England. 

Long Poll In England a plush with shag- 
gy pile. 

Long Staple (Long cotton or wool fiber. 
Long Stitch Similar to satin stitch (see). 

Long Wool Long wool staple, combed for 
worsteds. 

Longotte iPlain woven French cotton 
cloth, much heavier and stouter than 
calico. 

Longuis East Indian checked taffeta. 

Loom Figured 'Fabrics having patterns 
woven in the loom as against printed 
or embroidered patterns. 

Loom Finished 'Fabrics sold in the state 
they are taken from the loom, with- 
out any finishing. 

Loonghie See Lungi. 

Loop Pile Like that of the terry fabric 
or the pile formed by the warp before 
cutting. 

Loop Stitch Used in embroidery to pro- 
duce picot effect. 

Loop Yarn Made of a hard spun binder 
thread and a heavier and loosely 
twisted yarn, the latter forming loops. 

Looped See full regular. 



Loose Back Trade term for quilts, hav- 
ing the stitching warps floated on the 
back. Also name for welts where the 
wadding fillings are not interwoven 
with the warp. 

Loretto Obsolete rich silk fabric; used 
for vests. 

Lorna Forte Heavy cotton duck, made in 
Portugal. 

Lotanza A white linen cloth in Cuba. 

Louis Quinze Lace Imitation tape lac- 
The patterns are made of braid and 
connected with bars. 

Louisiana A number of commercial va- 
rieties of short staple upland cotton 
from Louisiana and neighboring 
States. 

Louisine Lustrous, light silk dress goods 
with twice as many warp ends than 
'fillings to the square inch. Usually 
each pick crossing two wanps at once, 
thus forming warp ribs. 

Lousiness Flaw in silk or cotton cloth 
showing speedy spots in the finished 
goods. 

Love A very sheer, plain silk fabric in 
England. 

Love Ribbon .Black or white, narrow 
gauze ribbon with satin stripes; ob- 
solete. 

Lover Linen Imitatior Irish linen ex- 
ported to America. 

Low-end Woolens 'Another name for 
woolens made of shoddy or very short 
wool fibers. 

Low Middling iFull cotton grade. See 
Cotton. 

Lowry 'Name of an improved cylindrical 
cotton bale formed from a continu- 
ous flat coil, fastened with wire ties 
and enclosed in 'bagging. Average 
weight 250 pounds. 

Lucca Cloth Medieval fabrics woven of 
silk and gold or silver in Italy. 

Lucky Minny's Line Fibrous stem of the 
Algae; used for flshing lines in Scot- 
land. 

Luftspitze "Is a lace made on shuttle ma- 
chine in cotton over a wool founda- 
tion or in silk or wool on cotton foun- 
dation. After the embroidering is done 
the foundation is destroyed with 
chemicals which do not affect the 
work itself thus leaving a lace like 
product. 

Lukchoo Chinese fabric, about 16 inches 
wide, made of silk and cotton. It is 
often blue and is used for clothing. 

Lule Term applied in the Levant mar- 
kets to very thick Oriental rugs of 
heterogeneous origin. These rugs are 
not folded but rolled. 

LumberHine Very sheer black gauze; 
used for women's dresses and veils 
under Henry VIII of England. 

Lumineux A lightweight French silk 
fabric, made in variegated effect and 
'finished with a luster; used for mil- 
linery trimmings. 



LUM 



MAC 



Lump In the English trade cloths woven 
130 yards long and 90 inches wide to 
toe split and cut into half lengths; 
also any fabric which is woven double 
its length it is sold in the market. 

Lumps Plain woven, bleached cotton 
cloth made in England 32 inches wide, 
with 64 ends and 64 picks in a square 
inch; used for calicoes. 

Luneburg Flax A fine variety of German 
flax. 

Luneville Lace 'French narrow bobbin 
lace made of hemp thread with double 
ground, now obsolete. At the present 
bobbin-made flower sprigs are sewn 
to machine-made net. 

Lungi Cotton cloth used in India, Ara- 
bia, etc., for garments. The body 
is of email 'blue and white checks, the 
selvage is composed of various colored 
stripes and a narrow red stripe is 
running lengthwise in the middle. 

Lupis 'Native name for the fine, white 
and glossy fibrous layer of the Musa 
textilis; used for delicate fabrics in 
the Philippine Islands. 

Lusca Silk fabric of unknown construc- 
tion of the Middle Ages. 

Lustering 'Finishing process which pro- 
duces a gloss in the face of the fab- 
ric through pressing, calendering, etc. 

Lustre 1, the natural 'gloss of the mo- 
hair, alpaca, the Leicester Lincoln and 
other wool or the gloss imparted to 
the face of any fabric in the finishing 
process; 2, a plain woven fabric, wov- 
en in the gray made with cotton warp 
and mohair, alpaca or some lustre 
wool filling; usually dyed black or 
blue; used for coats, skirts, etc 

Lustre Lining In England a lining fab- 
ric, made with cotton warp and a mo- 
hair or lustrous worsted filling. It 
is woven in 4 and 1 weft twill. 

Lustre Orleans 'English fabric of the 19th 
century, made with cotton warp and 
bright Yorkshire or Lincolnshire wool 
filling. 

Lustre Wool English long wool, having 
a strong long and glossy staple; used 
for dress goods. Lincoln and Leices- 
ter are included, also the wools grown 
in Indiana and Kentucky. 

Lustre Yarn Glossy hard spun woolen 
yarn, made of long, soft and lustrous 
wool. 

Lustrene Lightweight, twilled and mer- 
cerized cotton lining. 

Lustrine "Figured silk or wool satin, made 
in France. The flower patterns are 
produced with an extra warp; the 
back is plain. The fabric has a high 
finish. 

Lutestring 1, narrow black silk ribbon, 
used for eyeglasses; 2, fine, warp 
ribbed silk dress goods of high fin- 
ish. 

Luxor A soft, ribbed silk satin; used aa 
dress fabric; also an obsolete French 
woolen dress goods. 

Lyme Regis Lace Fine bobbin and needle 
point laces made in England during 
the 18th century; now obsolete. 



Lyons Thread Gold filled thread with 
copper core; used for braids, trim- 
mings, etc. 

Lyre A woolen fabric, believed to be of 
good quality, mentioned in 15th cen- 
tury English manuscripts; texture 
unknown. 



M 



Maaypoosten An Indian silk dress goods. 

Mabroum 'Lightweight, plain woven cot- 
ton fabric, made of native cotton in 
Damascus and used for garments by 
the natives; obsolete. 

Macalister A Highland tartan, the com- 
position of which is as follows: The 
ground is red, traversed by very nar- 
row pale blue and white lines, dark 
blue stripes and green stripes of two 
different Widths*. 'These lines and 
stripes are arranged in groups, in 
every instance a very narrow stripe 
of the red ground being visible be- 
tween the parts of each group. These 
groups follow in order: *>Pale blue 
line, wide green stripe, pale blue line; 
stripe of red ground, the width of the 
wide green stripe; white line, wide 
dark blue stripe, white line, two nar- 
row green stri'pes, white line, narrow 
dark blue strrpe, white line; 'strip of 
the red ground, the width of the 
wider green stripe; repeat groups de- 
scribed above between the two *, In 
reversed order; wide strip of the red 
ground; pale blue line, wide green 
stripe, pale blue line; strip of the red 
ground, the width of the wider green 
stripe; white line, narrow green stripe, 
pale blue line, white line, pale blue 
line, narrow green stripe; strip of 
the red ground, the width of the wider 
green stripe; narrow green stripe, pale 
blue line, white line, pale blue line, 
narrow green stripe, white line; strip 
of red, the width of the wider green 
stripe; pale blue line, wide green 
stripe, pale blue line; wide red stripe. 

MadAllister Commercial variety of up- 
land cotton, same as Peerless. 

Macalpine A Highland tartan with a dark 
green ground, arranged as follows: 
Wide green strip, siplit in the middle 
with a narrow black stripe; a group 
of stripes (twice as wide as the green 
strip) composed of two black stripes 
(about twice the width of the black 
in the middle of the green) at the edge 
of the group with two very wide black 
stripes inside. One of these wide 
Wack stripes is split with a white 
and the other with a yellow narrow 
stripe in the center, the order of the 
white and yellow being the same in 
each repeat. 

Macana A closely and plain woven fine 
cotton fabric, made with colored 
checks. 



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MAC 



Macarthur A Highland tartan, composed 
of the following on a dark green 
ground: Yellow stripe with a green 
bar on each side, eix times its width; 
black stripe, twice as wide as the 
yellow; green stripe somewhat nar- 
rower than this black; black bar, 
about 6 times as wide as yellow stripe; 
green stripe, as above; black stripe, 
twice as wide as the yellow. 

Macaulay A Highland tartan, with a red 
ground, composed as follows: A very 
wide red field, split by a black stripe 
in the middle; dark green stripe, two- 
and-half times as wide as black; red 
stripe, as wide as black one; dark 
green bar, the width of the black 
stripe and half of the red field; this 
green bar is split in the center by a 
narrow white line; red stripe, the 
width of the black one; green stripe, 
two-and-half times as wide as black 
one. 

Macbean A Highland tartan, the bright 
red ground of which is traversed by 
wide groups of stripes, in which the 
white, black and green lines are very 
narrow and of equal width and the 
dark blue stripes are about half the 
width of the green and dark red ones. 
The arrangement of the stripes in a 
group is: *White line, blue stripe, 
black line, white line, black line, blue 
stripe, white line, black line, green 
stripe, black line, white line, narrow 
stripe of the ground, dark red stripe 
(split with green line), narrow stripe 
of the ground, white line*, green 
stripe; repeat stripes and lines men- 
tioned between the two *, in reversed 
order. Red ground, somewhat less 
than half the width of the entire 
group. 

Macbeth A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: 'Yellow stripe; black stripe, 
somewhat wider; group of white line, 
black line, white line, black line, total 
width same as black stripe; green 
stripe, twice as wide as black*; red 
stripe (twice as wide as green), split 
by two black lines and a white line 
between, spaced; repeat group de- 
scribed between two *, in reversed or- 
der; dark blue stripe, just half the 
width of the entire complete group of 
stripes. 

MacBrlde Commercial variety of a me- 
dium long staple upland cotton; now 
obsolete. 

MaciCall (Late maturing commercial va- 
riety of upland cotton from South 
Carolina, the staple measuring 22-25 
millimeters; now obsolete. 

Macdonald A Highland tartan, one repeat 
of which is as follows: Very wide 
green stripe, split by two pairs of red 
stripes, those on the outside being 
about twice as wide as the inner ones; 
iblack stripe, one-quarter the width of 
the green; red line; dark blue stripe, 
the width of the green one and split 
the same way with two pairs of red 
stripes. 



Macdonald of Clanranald A Highland 
tartan one repeat of which is: A wide 
field of dark green, split in the middle 
by a white stripe a.nd at each side 
a narrow red line and a red stripe 
(wider than the white one) the lines 
and stripes sipaced; black stripe, same 
in width as the distance between the 
outer red stripe and the edge of the 
green .field; narrow red line; dark blue 
field (about four-fifths the width of 
the green one), split by a pair of 
red stripes (as wide as in the green 
field) the space between these stripes 
and the edge of the blue field being 
equal to the width of the black stripe. 

Macdonald of Slate A Highland tartan 
with a bright red field. Wide, dark 
green stripes are placed almost four 
times their own width from each 
other; one-third the width of these 
stripes, and on 'both of their sides are 
very narrow green stripes. 

Macdonald of Staffa A Highland tartan 
with a bright red field, on which the 
stripes are arranged as follows: 'black 
line; red stripe with a narrow green 
stripe near to each edge; dark blue 
stripe, half the width of the red; red 
stripe, as wide as the first red one, 
split in the center by a narrow white 
stripe*; green stripe, as wide as the 
red and split with a fine, narrow line 
of white; red field, three-and-half 
times as wide as the green stripe, split 
with six dark green, two black and 
four dark blue stripes, arranged as 
follows: Green near to each edge, in 
the center are two pairs of blues, with 
a pair of green stripes on each side, 
the inner stripes having a black stripe 
next to them; repeat group described 
above between two *, in reversed or- 
der. 

Macdonell of Glengarry A Highland tar- 
tan, made as follows: Black stripe; 
narrow red line; blue field, four times 
as wide as black stripe, split by two 
pairs -of narrow red stripes, of which 
the outer ones are about twice as 
wide as the inner ones; red line; 
black stripe, as above; dark green 
ifield, as wide as the dark blue, split 
by 2 pairs of red stripes of same 
width and position as found in the 
blue field and with an additional 
white line between the two pairs. 

Macdougal A Highland tartan composed 
of the following: 'Fine green line, near 
to much wider, dark green, red and 
dark green stripes of even width; gray 
stripes, narrower than the former, split 
by a fine red line in the middle; dark 
blue stripe, wider than green; red 
stripe (as wide as the first red) split 
by a fine green line; green field, three 
times as wide as red stripe*, gray 
stripe, apllt with white and edged with 
red line on each side (this group be- 
ing as wide as red stripe) ; repeat 
group described between two *, in 
reversed order; large field of red (the 
width of the two green fields and the 
gray stripe between) split by a fine 
white line in the center, with a nar- 
row gray stripe on each side of the 
white line, spaced its own width. 



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Macduff A Highland tartan composed as 
follows on a red ground:. 'dark blue, 
a wider black and a still wider dark 
green stripe, next to each other*; red 
stripe (as wide as the above group), 
split into three even parts by two 
narrow black stripes; repeat group 
mentioned above between two *, in 
reversed order; red field, made some- 
what wider than red stripe. 

Maceio 1, coarse bobbin lace made of 
cotton in Brazil; 2, a variety of Bra- 
zilian cotton, having a soft, pliable 
staple. 

Macewan A Highland tartan, composed 
of dark green bars on blue and black 
ground and split by red and yellow 
lines. 

Macfarlane A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows: 'Dark green stripe, bor- 
dered on the outer edge with a black 
and on the inner edge with a white, 
line; a narrower red stripe, split with 
a black line; dark blue stripe, bor- 
dered on the outer edge with a fine 
white line on the inner edge with a 
heavier 'black stripe; narrow red 
stripe * ; wide white stripe, split 
with a dark green stripe; re.peat 
group mentioned between two*, in 
reversed order; bright red field, be- 
ing half the width of the entire group 
of stripes. 

Macgillivray A Highland tartan, compos- 
ed as follows over a red ground; wide 
red field, split by a pair of narrow 
pale blue stripes, each edged with a 
fine dark blue line on the outside;* 
pale blue stripe, of same width; very 
narrow red stripe; dark blue stripe, 
as wide as pale blue and red stripes 
combined; very narrow red stripe; 
dark green stripe, as wide as dark 
blue and red combined*; red stripe 
(as wide as dark green, dark blue 
and two red stripes combined) split 
by a narrow dark blue stripe in the 
middle with a narrow pale blue stripe 
on each side, these stripes spaced their 
own width; repeat group described 
between two *, in reversed order. 

Macgregor A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows, over a bright red field: 
Group of three dark green stripes, the 
middle one being a little wider. This 
one is split by a white stripe, which 
in turn is outlined by fine black lines. 
The green stripes are spaced one-third 
their own width from each other in 
the group, the red space between each 
group being the width of two green 
stripes and a red between combined. 

Machine Cotton In England cotton thread 
used in sewing machines. 

Machine Lace A large variety of cotton. 
wool or silk laces, made on machines. 

Machine Twist Three-ply silk thread, 
spun with left hand twist. 

Macinnes A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows over a bright red ground; 
red stripe; group of two black and 
two red stripes of even width, entire 
width same as former red stripe; 
black stripe (over twice as wide as 
first red stripe), split by a narrow 
pale blue stripe in the middle; group 



of two red and two black narrow 
stripes, as above; red stripe, same as 
first one mentioned; 'yellow and red 
stripe of even width; dark blue stripe, 
as wide as yellow and red together; 
red and black stripe of even width, 
as wide as dark blue; dark green, 
twice as wide as dark blue, next to 
black, with another black stripe along 
its other edge*; red stripe, one- third 
of which taken by a white stripe; re- 
peat group described above between 
two*, in reversed order. 

Macintosh A Highland tartan with a 
bright red ground; the design is com- 
posed as follows: *dark blue stripe; 
a narrower red stripe; green stripe, as 
wide as the first two combined; *red 
stripe, as wide as the green, split by 
a narrow blue line in the middle; re- 
peat, in reversed order, group de- 
scribed between two *; wide red bar. 

Macintyre 'Highland tartan, composed as 
follows on a dark green field: Two 
wide, dark blue stripes, each split by 
a red stripe, spaced from each other 
by the width of the red stripes; dark 
green bar (as wide as two dark blue 
stripes and space between together), 
split by a white stripe in the middle. 

M ac I ver Commercial variety of late ma- 
turing upland cotton from South Car- 
olina, the staple measuring 22-2'5 mil- 
limeters; the yield is 30-32 per cent. 

Mackay <A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows over a dark green ground: A 
black, two dark blue and another black 
stripe of equal width, spaced from 
each other by one-eighth of their own 
width; green bar (as wide as a black 
and blue stripe, with a spacing be- 
tween combined), split by a black 
stripe, as wide as green spacing. 

Mackenzie 'A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows: 'Dark green bar, split by 
a narrow white stripe, which is edged 
on each side by a black line; black 
stripe and dark blue stripe, each as 
wide as green on each side of above 
narrow group*; narrow red stripe, 
edged with black lines, as wide as 
white and black group; repeat, in re- 
versed order, stripes described be- 
tween two *; black stripe, as above; 
dark blue bar, twice as wide as black 
stripe, split near each edge by a pair 
of fine black lines; black stripe, as 
above. 

Mackinaw A heavy double fabric, made 
in striking colored patterns of all- 
wool or mixed with shoddy; it is more 
or less felted and finished with a good 
nap; used for coats. 

Mackinaw Blanket Very heavy, all-wool 
blanket, dyed red, blue or woven in 
stripes; used for camping and outdoor 
life, as it is almost waterproof. 

Mackinaw Flannel Very heavy, napped, 
woolen fabric, usually red or blue; 
used for shirts, etc. 



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98 



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Mackinlay A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows: *dark green stripe, one- 
third of which is occupied, in the cen- 
ter, by a red stripe, edged with black 
lines*; wide black stripe, half of en- 
tire green striipe; dark blue stripe, 
three times as wide as black, split 
near each edge by a pair of narrow 
black stripes; wide black stripe, as 
above; repeat group described between 
two ; wide black stripe, as above; 
dark blue stripe (twice as wide as 
black stripe) split by a pair of narrow 
black stripes in the middle; wide black 
stripe. 

Mackinnon Highland tartan, composed as 
follows, over a red ground; *Green 
stripe; red stripe, split with white and 
edged with black; next to black dark 
green stripe, twice as 'wide; red stripe, 
twice as wide as green; narrow green 
and wider dark blue, next to each 
other, as wide together as green 
stripe; narrow red stripe; wide green 
stripe, somewhat wider than wide red 
stripe; red stripe, less than half the 
width of former green stripe; group 
of dark blue and green (of equal 
width and placed next to each other) 
as wide as red stripe just mentioned; 
"group of red, black and red stripes 
of equal width, each as wide as half 
of the former group; repeat, in re- 
versed order, groups mentioned be- 
tween two *. 

Mackintosh Cloth treated with rubber; 
sometimes two layers of cloth are 
united with pressure, having a rub- 
ber layer between; used for raincoats. 

Maclachlan A Highland tartan, com- 
posed as follows: "'Wide rose bar, 
split by one pair of narrow black 
stripes placed near one edge and 
spaced evenly from each other and 
the edge; wide black stripe, as wide 
as former two narrow black stripes 
and two rose spaces; dark blue bar, 
about three times as wide as wide 
black stripe, and split by a green 
stripe in the center; wide black 
stripe*: rose bar as wide as blue 
bar, and split in the center by a pair 
of narrow black stripes; repeat 
groups mentioned between two *, in 
reversed order. 

Maclaine of Loehbuie A Highland tartan, 
composed as follows: Two dark green 
stripes, with a pale green between, of 
equal width, and next to each other, 
the pale green being split by a yellow 
line in the center; red bar of the same 
width as combined group. 

Maclaren A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows: Dark green bar, split in 
the center by a narrow, yellow stripe, 
which is edged by black lines, each 
green stripe being further split by a 
narrow, red stripe, placed nearer to 
the outer edge; black stripe about 
one-eighth of green field; dark blue 
bar. slightly narrower than green 
field. 



Maclean of Duart A Highland tartan 
composed as follows: * Wide, dark 
green stripe; a group (narrower than 
green stripe), containing a fine line of 
black, white, black, yellow, a stripe 
of black and line of pale blue *; dark 
blue stripe, as wide as above group; 
repeat, in reversed order, groups men- 
tioned between two *; red field (as wide 
as entire complete group above) split 
in the center by narrow lines in pale 
blue with black between, placed very 
close to each other. 

Maclennan A Highland tartan; see de- 
scription under Logan. 

Macleod A Highland dress tartan, com- 
posed as follows: Three wide black 
stripes, divided by very narrow yel- 
low lines; wide yellow bar (somewhat 
wider than former group), split in the 
center by a narrow red stripe. 

Macmillan A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows: Wide yellow bar, split by a 
narrow crimson line in the center, 
each half being split again in the cen- 
ter by a wider crimson line. A crim- 
son bar, as wide as the yellow one, 
split near to the edge by a yellow 
stripe and in the middle by a pair of 
ifine lines. 

Macnab A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: Wide red stripe, split in the 
center by a narrow crimson stripe; 
crimson stripe (more than half the 
width of the red stripe) split by two 
narrow dark stripes, and spaced their 
own width and placed near the edge 
away from the rep stripe*; dark green 
stripe, measuring half the width of 
'first red one; repeat group mentioned 
between two*, in reversed order. 

Macnaughton A Highland tartan, com- 
posed as follows: *Wide green stripe; 
black stripe, half of the green; dark 
blue stripe, half of the green*; red 
stripe, about two and a half times as 
wide as the green, split by a dark 
'blue stripe (half of the green), this 
being split again by a fine black line; 
repeat group, in reversed order, men- 
tioned between the two*. In the 
filling the wide red stripe is split by 
a solid dark blue stripe, half the width 
of the green. 

MacNeil A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: Black stripe; dark blue stripe 
(more than twice as wide as black), 
split by a white stripe, which leaves on 
each side a blue stripe equal in width 
to the black; black stripe; dark green 
stripe, as wide as the blue, split in 
the center by a narrow stripe, out- 
lined by blue, the green on each side 
is as wide as the black stripe. 

Macnicol A Highland tartan, composed of 
black and green stripes and black, 
green and pale blue lines on a red 
ground. 

Maco Variety of raw cotton from Egypt. 

Maco Foot Black hosiery, knitted with 
natural color cotton foot. 

Maco Yarn 'Made of natural colored 
Egyptian cotton. 



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MAD 



Macphee A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows over a bright red ground: 
Wide dark green bars with narrow 
green line along each side (spaced its 
own width) ; these groups of three are 
placed from each other farther than 
their width, each alternate red space 
being split by a fine white or yellow 
line. 

Maopherson 'Several Highland tartans. 
The dress tartan is composed as fol- 
lows: Wide red stripe, divided into 
three even parts by two narrow dark 
blue lines; * green stripe, as wide as 
one section of the former red and a 
blue line combined; very fine yellow 
line; black stripe, as wide as a single 
section of the red; dark blue aibout 
twice as wide as the black, split in the 
center by a pair of fine black lines *; 
red stripe, as wide as dark blue, split 
in the center by two fine white and 
'between these two fine black lines, 
all placed very close to each other; 
repeat, in reversed order, group men- 
tioned between two *. 

The hunting tartan is composed on 
a gray ground: Wide bar of black, 
edged on each side and split in the 
center by a group of red, blue, and 
red stripes, the blue being almost 
twice as wide as the red edges; gray 
bar, somewhat narrower than the 
black (exclusive of the edge groups), 
split by a group as above. 

Macquarrie A Highland tartan "with a 
red ground, composed as follows: 
Wide stripe of dark green; red field, 
a little over three times the width 
of green stripe, split near to each 
edge by a pair of closely spaced very 
narrow green stripes. 

Macqueen^A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows: Wide red bar, divided into 
four even parts by three narrow black 
stripes; a black bar, considerably 
wider than the red, split in the cen- 
ter by a narrow yellow stripe. 

Macrae A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: *Dark blue stripe, split in 
the center by red line; a narrow white 
line, separated from the blue stripe 
by a narrow red line, is along each 
edge; red stripe, wider than the blue, 
split in the center by a pair of close- 
ly spaced green lines *; green stripe, 
wider than the red, divided into three 
even parts by two narrow red lines; 
repeat, in reversed order, groups 
mentioned between two *; red field, 
as wide as the two wide red and 
green stripes combined, divided into 
five equal parts by four groups of 
closely spaced groups of three dark 
blue lines each, the middle line in 
each group being somewhat wider 
than the lines on the outside and the 
blue groups measuring the same 
width as the red, between the groups. 

Macrame A heavy and coarse lace made 
'by tying threads into intricate knots 
to form geometrical patterns; sim- 
ilar to the knotted lace (see); it is 
usually finished with a fringe. It is 
of Arabian origin. 



Madagascar Lace 'Has the threads 
twisted into loops and scallops; made 
by the natives of Madagascar. 

Madam 'Soft finished white shirting In 
Turkey. 

Madapolam 1, originally a bleached cot- 
ton fabric of East India, stout and 
plain woven, and occasionally print- 
ed; 2, plain woven, sized cotton fab- 
ric, heavier than chiffon; used for 
embroidery foundation in German, 
Swiss and Austrian factories, and 
also for shirts; 3, various fine bleach- 
ed cotton muslins in Servia. 

Madai Strong and silky seed hair, 
grown on the giant Asclepias in In- 
dia. 

Madder A plant, called Rubia tinctor- 
ium, grown in Asia, the root of which 
yields a rich and fast scarlet dye; 
used formerly on cotton and wool. 
Now displaced by artificial dyes. 

Madder Bleach A name still used to de- 
note the most complete form of 
bleaching for cotton piece goods. The 
goods are singed and shorn, washed, 
boiled in lime, treated with sulphur- 
ic or muriatic acid, boiled in lye and 
treated with bleaching powder. 

Madeira Embroidery Is worked upon 
fine cambric in eyelet patterns, sim- 
ilar to the modern English embroid- 
ery. 

Madeira Lace The early specimens are 
coarse torchon laces; afterward bob- 
bin laces made in imitation of ma- 
lines and other laces. 

Madonna Fancy English alpaca cloth of 
the nineteenth century. 

Madrapa A coarse East Indian muslin. 

Madras 1, East Indian cotton, having a 
short but fairly strong staple of 
golden brown color; it contains large 
quantity of dirt; 2, a curtain mate- 
rial, the foundation being a square 
mesh net, the designs being formed 
with short colored threads run in 
parallel; 3, early in the nineteenth 
century a dress goods made of mix- 
ture silk and cotton; 4, a washable, 
lightweight cloth, made with a white 
ground in plain weave and narrow, 
colored warp stripes, sometimes form- 
ing cords. Usually made of all cot- 
ton, but is also mixed with silk; used 
for shirts, summer dresses, etc. 

Madras Gauze A very light fabric, the 
foundation of which is in gauze 
weave, the designs being formed by 
an extra heavy weft; the floats are 
cut away; used for dresses, etc. 

Madras Goods Cotton goods made in 
India for exports; made off white 
warp and black, blue or brown fill- 
ing, both warp and filling being about 
No. 12 yarn. 

Madras Hemp Trade name for Sunn 
hemp. 

Madras Lace Black and white silk and 
cotton bobbin lace, made in M. in 
Maltese patterns. 

Madras Muslin Sheer cotton fabric, 
made in leno weave and having an 
extra filling of much lower count 
than the ground filling. This extra 
weft forms the figures. 



MAD 



100 



MAL 



Madras Work Consists of embroidered, 
bright colored madras handkerchiefs. 

Madras! Native East African name for 
Turkey reds. 

Madui Grass mat made in India. 

Magnesium Chloride Used as dressing 
material. 

Magnetic Pure linen cloth, made in Ger- 
many and Belgium and bleached in 
Holland. 

Magpie Black and white patterns on 
veilings and laces. 

Magrabine Coarse, half bleached Egyp- 
tian linen cloth. 

Magruder Two commercial varieties of 
early maturing American cotton, the 
staple measuring 25-30 millimeters; 
the yield is about 33 per cent. 

Maguey Very long, white and soft leaf 
fiber yielded by the Agave Ameri- 
cana (century plant) in the Philip- 
pines and by the aloe in Central 
America and Porto Rico; used for 
cordage, fishing lines, nets, etc. 

Mahlida An East Indian cloth, made of 
the fine wool of the cashmere goat. 

Mahoe or Mahaut Soft and white fiber, 
yielded by the hibiscus plant in the 
West Indies and Central America; 
used as substitute for hemp. 

Mahoitre Shoulder wadding used under 
Edward IV. in England. 

Maholtine Bast fiber of good quality, 
yielded by a species of the abutilon 
plant in tropical America and India; 
used as substitute for jute. 

Mahot Pincet Very strong bast flber, 
yielded by a species of the lagetta 
in South America; used for cord- 
age. 

Mahout 1, in the Levant trade a fine 
and light, fulled cloth, made in Eu- 
rope, of fine Spanish wool; 2, also a 
coarse woolen fabric, used in Egypt 
and Asia Minor for garments. 

Maibafi Very thin Japanese reeled silk. 

Mail Cloth A highly finished silk cloth 
woven like honeycomb; used for em- 
broidery foundation. 

Mailles de bas Plain French serge dress 
goods, having eight leaves and four 
picks in a repeat. 

Majagua Very long bast fiber, yielded 
by the Hibiscus tiliaceus of Central 
America. Does not deteriorate in 
water. 

Makaloa Fine mats, made with colored 
geometric patterns of the young 
leaves of a sedge, Cyperus laevigatus, 
in Hawaii; used for garments, etc. 

Makat Light, twilled woolen cloth, dyed 
in light colors, made in France for 
Turkish blankets. 

Makatlik Turkish name for Oriental 
runners; used as divan covers. 

Make Same as the construction of the 
fabric. 

Makko-jumel Raw cotton first among- 
those cultivated in Egypt. Now en- 
tirely superseded by other varieties. 



Malabar East Indian catton handker- 
chiefs printed in brilliant contrasting 
colors. 

Malachra Long, fine and silky fiber of 
the Malachra capitata in the West 
Indies; used for ropes. 

Malasap Coarse fiber used for cordage 
in the Philippines. 

Malborough See Malbrouk. 

Malbrouk Obsolete French wool serge, 
made very smooth, with small de- 
signs. It had a hard twist, single 
warp. The spacing of the warps and 
that of the picks was about equal. 

Malcolm 'A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: Dark green stripe; group of 
the same width as green, composed 
of black, pale blue, black, yellow and 
'black lines of equal width; dark 
green stripe, as above; black stripe, 
as wide as green; dark blue stripe 
more than twice as wide as green, 
split in the center by a pair of closely 
spaced fine red lines; 'black stripe, as 
above. 

Malefique A stout, twilled Belgian wors- 
ted fabric; used for bags in pressing 
oil. 

Malella Medieval silk fabric of unknown 
construction. 

Malgaran Trade name in America for 
various Central Asiatic rugs of un- 
identified origin. 

Malicques A silk satin; obsolete. 

Malida East Indian fabric, made of 
goat's hair; the best grades contain 
large proportion of the hair of the 
Thibet goat. 

Maline Trade name for hexagonal open 
mesh, plain net of silk or cotton, us- 
ually finished with size; comes in 
black and white; used for trimming 
dresses and millinery. 

Malines^A stout, plain woven worsted 
of two or three-ply warp and single 
filling of a different color. 

Malines Lace Bobbin lace with sprigs 
or dots outlined with a heavier cor- 
donnet over a hexagonal or round 
mesh ground. It is made in one piece 
of white flax thread. 

Mali no Very long, strong leaf fiber, 
yielded by the aloe in Hawaii; used 
for cordage. 

Mallius A commercial variety of short 
staple, prolific upland cotton from 
Louisiana. 

Malmal "Native East African name for 
bleached cotton muslin. Also gener- 
ic term for the finest cotton muslins 
in India, often embroidered in gold. 
See also Mull. 

Malo A very fine netted fabric in Ha- 
waii, made of olona fiber, and used 
for loin cloth by the natives. Often 
feathers are sewed to it. 

Malta Jute Coarse, East Indian vege- 
table fiber. 

Maltese Lace^Heavy bobbin lace show- 
ing arabesque and geometric designs 
without any ground, made of white 
or black flax or silk thread. 



MAM 



MAR 



Mamaki Fibers yielded b ythe Pipturus 
albidus in Hawaii; used for coarse 
cords and ropes. 

Mammoth Two commercial varieties of 
late maturing upland cotton from 
Georgia, the staple measuring 28-30 
millimeters ;t'he yield is over 30 per 
cent. 

Mamoudie 1, various East Indian cali- 
coes; 2, natural colored, closely wo- 
ven cambric from the Levant. 

Mamoudis Very soft, fine, yellowish lin- 
en, originally from Persia. 

Manchester Cottons 1, originally woolen 
fabrics made formerly in England, 
measuring 22 yards in length, three- 
quarter yard in width, and weighing 
30 pounds at least; 2, at the present 
a great variety of cotton fabrics made 
at Manchester, England. 

Manchester Velvet All-cotton velvet 
made in England with plain weave 
back. 

Manchu Crepe Cotton or silk crepe, 
made with very fine warp stripes of 
colored silk thread. 

Mandarine French fabric, woven with 
cotton warp and silk filling. 

Mandrenaque Cloth from the Philip- 
pines made of cotton warp and palm 
fiber filling. 

Mandypyta Raw cotton from Para- 
guay, yields a reddish brown staple; 
used for ponchos. 

Mandyu Native name of three kinds of 
raw cotton in Paraguay, yielding 
white staple. 

Manganous Chloride Used as fixing and 
printing agent. 

Mangled Hessian >A smoother and more 
glazed burlay (see) than the ordin- 
ary. 

Manila Hemp Very light, tenacious and 
lustrous fiber, yielded by the Musa 
textilis in the Philippine Islands; 
used for ropes and for the finest 
sheer fabrics. 

The principal classes are current, 
fair current and brown. The old pri- 
vate marks, as UK, daet, etc., have 
been replaced by the following set of 
standard, made compulsory by law; 
Fair, medium, coarse and coarse 
brown. The fiber is also called very 
short (less than 4 feet), short (4 to 
5 feet), normal (5 to 8 feet), long 
(over 8 feet). 

Manillese^Embroidered and often knot- 
ted drawnwork made of agave fibers 
in the Philippine Islands. 

Manipulated Goods Those containing 
substitutes. 

Manirito A useful fiber, yielded by the 
bark of a species of the sour-sop in 
Venezuela. 

Manta 1, in Central America, term for 
gray cotton sheetings; 2, in Colombia, 
various kinds of cheap cotton fabrics 
or plain woven goods. 

Manta Blanca Bleached cotton sheeting 
in Mexico. 

Manta Triquena Unbleached cotton 
sheeting in Mexico. 



Mantel Grijn Cross ribbed Dutch cam- 
let, made with two-ply goats' hair 
warp and worsted filling, having warp 
ribs. 

Mantelle A medieval English worsted. 

Manto Plain black shawl, worn by Chil- 
ean women; usually made of wool or 
mixed with cotton. 

Mantua Black and colored silk fabrics, 
originally from M., Italy; now ob- 
solete. 

Maolao su Chiyong Scarlet red Chinese 
silk velvet. 

Map Mounts Inferior, sheer and plain 
woven cotton muslins in England; 
used for mounting maps. 

Marabout 1, white silk thread used for 
crepe, made of three strands twist- 
ed together very hard, and dyed in 
the gum; 2, a very light silk dress 
fabric, or ribbon, similar to the crepe 
in appearance, woven of marabout 
yarn in plain weave; 3, five or eight- 
leaf, silk satin; used for millinery. 
It is made with single warp. 

Maracapas A Philippine fiber; used for 
ropes. 

Maragnan Formerly the best grade of 
raw cotton grown in the West In- 
dies; now less known. 

Maranham Raw cotton from Brazil with 
glossy, yellowish and strong staple, 
sometimes quite dirty. 

Maranta Tropical American plant, yield- 
ing leaf fibers used for mats. 

Maratarong^Philippino name for a 
coarse fiber used for cordage. 

Marble Cloth Book cloth, made of cot- 
ton, usually paper lined. 

Marble Silk Medieval silk fabric, wov- 
en with various colored wefts in a 
marble effect. 

Marbled Cloth A silk and wool dress 
goods in England, woven with a. mot- 
tled face in various colors, produced 
.by multi-colored weft. 

Marbre A medieval French worsted, 
woven to imitate the veins of the 
marble. 

Marbrinus Worsted fabric, woven of 
different colored yarns, imitating the 
veins of the marble; used for church 
vestments and often embroidered in 
England; obsolete. 

Marceline A plain woven silk fabric, 
woven with single warp and with 
one or more picks in one shed; also 
a plain woven, lustrous French silk 
dress goods, made with two-ply warp 
and single filling. 

Marcella A fine cotton pique; used for 
bedding in England. 

Marchey East Indian calico of fancy 
colored checks and stripes. 

Marduff Native name in East Africa for 
stout, twilled gray cotton fabrics; 
used for tents, sails and native 
dresses. 

Marengo Obsolete, French pulled wool- 
en cloth, made Mack, slightly shot 
with white. It is made in plain or 
twill weave and is used for over- 
coats. 



MAR 






102 



MAT 



Margherita Italian embroidered, ma- 
chine-made net. 

Marguerites-Obsolete French dress goods 
made of wool, silk and linen; not 
fulled. It was woven with a high 
warp. 

Marie Antoinette Curtain, having ap- 
plique sprays, flowers and leaves of 
cord and tape. 

Marine Fiber iPoseidonia Australia, ob- 
tained from the bottom of the gulf in 
South Australia. The fiber is not 
very strong and is brittle when dry. 
It is believed to be New Zealand flax 
submerged and rotted in salt water. 
It has good affinity for basic dye- 
stuffs, but acid, salt and sulphur dyes 
produce little result. This fiber has 
'been discovered only lately and was 
experimented with as wool substitute 
for cheap clothing and rugs but no 
eatisfactory result was obtained. 

Marine Stripes Good quality English cal- 
ico shirting of equal stripes in blue 
and white. 

Market Bleach Trade term for bleached 
cotton fabrics which are usually 
starched and calendered. 

Marking Cotton Cotton thread, usually 
dyed blue or red; used to embroider 
the outlines of a pattern. 

Marl Single or two-;ply yarn in Eng- 
land, used for filling; It is made in two 
colored effect, usually one color twist- 
ed around the other. 

Maryborough Obsolete English twilled 
woolen, the warp and weft being of 
different colors; the cloth is finished 
with a high gloss. 

Marli 1, obsolete French gauze of vari- 
ous construction, made with large 
mesh; used for curtains and stiff en- 
ers; 2, obsolete French bobbin lace, 
made with point d'esprit patterns over 
a net ground. 

Marli d'Angleterre French silk gauze, 
made with two sets of warp; obso- 
lete. 

Marmato A medieval silk and gold bro- 
cade; said to be identical with ar- 
ramas. 

Marocs French woolen eerge, of various 
qualities, made with a nap on the 
face. 

Marquise Finish High gloss imparted to 
fine cotton satins. 

Marquisette A very light and sheer, leno 
woven cotton or silk fabric with an 
open mesh. 

Marry-Muff A coarse fabric worn by the 
common people in medieval England. 

Marseilles A stiff, double faced, quilted 
white cotton cloth, similar to pique, 
made in plain weave with large em- 
bossed patterns; used for shirt bos- 
oms, men's vests, women's dresses, 
bed covers, etc. 

Marseilles Quilt Is a double cotton cloth, 
composed of two plain woven fabrics, 
one warp being the stitching warp 
and one weft a heavy wadding filling. 
The figures are embossed, formed by 
Interweaving all threads with each 
other, but the two fabrics are not 
united at the ground. 



Marseilles Work. Consisted originally of 
outlining flowers and other ornaments 
with stitches over a previously padded 
linen or canvas ground. 

Marsella Heavy, bleached, twilled linen, 
given a soft finish. 

Marston Commercial variety of late ma- 
turing cotton from Louisiana, the sta- 
ple measuring up to 30 millimeters; 
the yield is 30-31 per cent. 

Martin Commercial variety of late ma- 
turing, prolific cotton from Louisiana, 
the staple measuring 26-30 milli- 
meters; the yield is 30 per cent. 

Martiniques An 18th century woolen fab- 
ric in England. 

Masalia 'Lightweight cotton fabric, wov- 
en in a twill, producing moire effect. 
It is given a smooth, glossy finish. 

Mascades Silk cloth, used in Latin- 
America as head cover. 

Mascaret Loosely woven, high finisJied 
worsted satin with woven figures. 

M ash ru 'Fabric made of mixture of wool 
and cotton in India, for the use of 
orthodox Mohammedans. 

Maskati 'Native East African name for 
fancy woven cotton fabrics; used for 
turbans, loin cloths, etc. 

Maskel >A l'5th century lace in England, 

made with spots. 
Masloff 'Wide, stout, Russian woolen 

dress goods. 
Massiru 'Plain woven, light East Indian 

silk cloth; used for garments. 
Mastic Cloth 'Embroidery canvas woven 

in alternate wide stripes of basket 

weave in cotton and waste silk satin. 

Mastodon Commercial variety of short 
staple upland cotton from Mississippi; 
now obsolete. 

Masulipatam Inferior knotted rugs made 
in India. 

Mat 1, in nautics, made of old ropes, in- 
terwoven and beaten flat; 2, in hand 
made laces the closely filled part of 
the pattern. 

Mat Braid Heavy, pleated worsted braid; 
used for binding. 

Mat Weave 'See Basket weave, or hop- 
sack weave. 

Mata 'Plain woven gray cotton shirting 
in Central Asia; used for shirts and 
drawers; made 11 inches wide. 

Matabie General term in East India for 
all fabrics having woven or printed 
gold or silver patterns. 

Matapalo Fibrous bark, yielded by a spe- 
cies of fig tree in Peru; used for gar- 
ments by the Indians. 

Matching Process in wool sorting; con- 
sists in grouping the parts of corre- 
sponding quality from various fleeces. 

Matchings The different sorts of wool 
into which the fleece is divided in wool 
sorting. 

Matelasse Originally a padded silk mate- 
rial, the ornamentation produced by 
quilting in the loom; Jacquard figured 
fabrics made with mohair or silk fill- 
ing or warp woven with floats. 



MAT 



103 



MEN 



Material-General name for light and nar- 
row denim, and cottonades in the 
Balkan States. 

Matheson A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows: Wide red field, split in the 
center by a group of five dark green 
stripes, of which the middle one is 
much heavier, each pair on the side 
being fine lines; *dark blue stripe 
about one-eighth of the red field; dark 
green stripe (as wide as the blue) split 
in the center by a pair of narrow red 
lines; red stripe, somewhat narrower 
than the blue; two narrow green and 
red lines alternating; dark blue 
stripe, as above*; dark green stripe, 
twice as wide as the blue, divided into 
three equally wide parts by two nar- 
row red lines; repeat in reversed or- 
der, group described between two*. 

Matka East Indian fabric, made of spun 
silk. 

Matrimonio Soft finish, bleached cotton 
bed sheeting in Venezuela; about 52 
inches wide. 

Matta Short staple cotton grown on the 
lowlands around Pernambuco, Brazil. 

Matthews Commercial variety of very 
prolific, long staple, early maturing 
American cotton; the staple meas- 
uring 35-40 millimeters; the yield is 
29 per cent and above. 

Matting Oxford Trade name for oxford 
shirting (see) made in mat weaves. 

Mattis 'Late maturing commercial va- 
riety of American cotton, the staple 
measuring 25-30 millimeters; the yield 
of lint is 30-32 per cent. 

Maubois 'French droguet made of silk. 

Maud Scotch wool plaid in natural gray 
stripes. 

Mausari Thin, open face but coarse cot- 
ton fabrics, made in India; used for 
mosquito netting. Generally made in 
check pattern. 

Mauritius Hemp Trade name for the 
strong leaf fiber, yielded by the Fur- 
craea gigantea in 'Mauritius; used for 
cordage, gunny bags; similar to sisal. 

Maurvi Very strong thread made of a 

species of hemp in India. 
Mauveine A bright, but fugitive violet 

dye, derived from the -coal tar, the 

ifirst of this kind discovered by Wm. 

Henry Perkin in 1856. 

Mawata Waste silk of duppious in 
Japan. 

Maxey 'Commercial variety of prolific 
American cotton, the staple measur- 
ing 30-35 millimeters; the yield is 
30-32 per cent. Also called Meyers 
Texas. 

Maxwell A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: A wide green stripe, split by 
a red stripe in the center; on each 
side of green stripe, and separated 
from it by a red stripe is a black 
stripe, about one-fifth the width of 
the green stripe; a red field (as wide 
as the group measured between the 
outer edges of the two black stripes), 
split in the center by a pair of nar- 
row green lines. 

Mayenne A fine, bleached French linen. 



Mayo Name for a twill, producing short, 
zigzag figures in alternate colors. 

Mazamet A sort of French melton. 

Mazarine Obsolete woolen fabric, dyed 
dark blue; used in France and Eng- 
land for magistrates' robes. 

M bocaya 'Long, durable and strong leaf 
fiber, yielded by the Cocos sclero- 
carpa in South America; used for nets 
and other fabrics by the natives. 

Mecca Rug iSee Shiraz. 

Mechlin Lace 'Same as Malines lace. 

Mechlinet .Now obsolete, fine English 
waistcoating made of cotton and lin- 
en. 

Mecklenburgh 1, 18th century woolen 
fabric in England, sometimes made 
with silk flowered patterns; 2, stout 
English wool damask. The ground is 
of colored hard twist warp stripes 
with colored flower patterns. 

Mecomba ^Native East African name for 
the cloth-like bast, obtained from the 
(Brachystegia tree; used by the na- 
tives for clothing. 

Medicis 'French bobbin lace, similar to 
the Cluny. 

Medium Cloth 'English woolen dress 
goods, in quality between the fine 
Spanish stripes and the broad cloth. 

Medley Cloth A mixture cloth, dyed in 
the wool, originated in the early part 
of the 17th century in England. 

Meermaid's Lace See Venise point. 
Megila 'Indian name for jute cloth. 
Meherjun Coarse Persian carpet wool. 

Mekla Coarse cotton fabric in India; 
used for skirts by the native women. 

Melange 1, French for mixture effect; 2, 
yarn spun from printed top; 3, color 
effect on fabrics woven from such 
yarns. 

Meles Rugs 'Small, coarse, all-wool 
rugs made in Asia 'Minor; the loose 
and short pile is tied in Ghiordes knot. 
Very bright reds, blues and yellows 
are usually used in a great variety of 
designs. The sides and ends are fin- 
ished with a selvage and there is a 
fringe at the ends. 

Melimeli Native East African name for 

a thin bleached cotton muslin. 
Melis iFrench hemp sailcloth. 

Melton Fabric made of all-wool or cot- 
ton warp and woolen weft; the face 
is napped carefully, raisins the nap 
straight, which is shorn to show the 
weave clearly; used for ouits, coats. 

Memphis French woolen dress goods; ob- 
solete. 

Mende 'Fine, smooth French serges of 
various grades; used for lining. 

Mending One of the finishing processes 
in cloth manufacturing. It consists 
of repairing the broken places in the 
cloth (after it was taken from the 
loom) with the yarn woven. 

Mending Bagging 'Coarse and heavy, 
plain woven jute cloth; used for 
mending torn cotton bales. 



MEN 



104 



MIG 



Mending Cotton A two strand, soft spun 
thread, made of combed cotton; used 
for mending hosiery. 

Menin Lace 'Bobbin lace, similar to the 
Valenciennes (see) with the threads 
of the mesh ground twisted three and 
a half times. 

Menouffieh Variety of Egyptian cotton, 
having a good, silky staple. 

Menzies A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: Wide red field; "two white 
stripes with a narrower red between, 
the group being about one- third the 
width of the red field; red stripe, as 
wide as a white and the red stripe 
together in the previous group*; 
'White stripe (as wide as the just 
mentioned red stripe and the group 
together) split near each end by a 
narrow red line; repeat, in reversed 
order, the stripes mentioned between 
the two *. 

Meraline 'Narrow-striped, all-wool dress 
goods in England. 

Mercerized Cotton Cotton fiber, made 
lustrous by treating it with caustic 
soda at normal temperature and un- 
der tension to prevent shrinking. Mer- 
cerized cotton has stronger affinity 
for dyes. 

Mercerized Wool 'Wool is treated for a 
brief period at a low temperature in 
an 80 degree Tw. solution of caustic 
soda; this gives a high lustre to the 
wool and strengthens it, but the fiber 
cannot be felted after. 

Mercerization Process by which cotton 
yarn or cloth is given a silky lustre by 
treating it under tension in solution 
of caustic soda. If the cloth or yarn 
is not under tension, it does not take 
a lustre but shrinks and becomes 
thicker and stronger. This is used 
to produce crepe effect in union cloths. 
Cotton cloth is also mercerized in 
stripes or patterns by printing, thus 
producing crimp effect. 

Merezhiki All-white hand embroidery 
over linen, made by the peasants in 
Ukraina, Russia. 

Merino i r breed of sheep, originally from 
Spain, yielding the finest wool; 2, a 
fine and na.rrow cotton fabric, used 
for dresses in the Philippines; 3, a 
French shawl made with two-ply 
merino wool warp and wool or silk 
filling; 4, knit goods made of mix- 
ture of cotton and wool; 5, a woolen 
fabric, made in England of shoddy, 
obtained from soft woolen or worsted 
dress goods; 6, a twilled English 
worsted fabric, made of very fine 
single merino yarn, either face and 
back alike or with twilled face and 
plain back. 

Merinos Damasse A French Jacquard 
dress goods, made of merino wool; 
obsolete. 

Merletto Italian for lace. 

Merveilleux 1, diagonal silk lining, given 
a lustrous finish; 2, a very fine and 
heavy silk satin, with a twilled back. 

Meseritsky Wide, stout, Russian woolen 
dress goods; exported to China. 



Mesh The open spaces in nets, knitting, 
crocheting and lace. 

Meshhed Rugs Medium and large sized 
all-wool Persian rugs with medium 
long pile tied in Ghiordes knot. The 
design has usually very large palm 
leaves placed diagonally and also ani- 
mal forms. Deep blue and red are 
the characteristic colors. 

Meshi 'In the Bible means silk. 

Messaline 'Fine, supple silk dress goods 
made with fine silk filling in satin 
weave. 

Messel lawny An English woolen fabric 
of unknown structure; used in the 
17th century. 

Mestiza 'South American name for a 
merino wool, yielded by the cross of 
pure merino and the native creola 
sheep. 

Metl 'Native name in Yucatan for the 
agave fibers. 

Mexicaine 'French silk dress goods and 
ribbon made with narrow stripes and 
small figures on a taffeta founda- 
tion. 

Mexicans A variety of gray English cot- 
ton goods, made for export; woven 
with well sized, coarse warp and me- 
dium fine filling, containing about 72 
threads each way. 

Mexican Embroidery (Made with ingrain 
cotton, silk or wool on muslin, cam- 
bric or linen; used for dresses, tow- 
els, etc. Usually only outlines of the 
patterns are embroidered. 

Mexican Grass Same as sisal hemp (see). 

Meyers Texas Commercial variety of 
prolific upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 30-95 millimeters; the yield 
is 31 per cent. Also called Maxey. 

Mezeline Light weight, inferior French 
brocatelle, made of all-cotton or cot- 
ton and wool, with patterns of small 
checks, or large, colored flowers; used 
for bed covers; obsolete. 

Mezzettta 'Raw silk from Sicily. 

Mhabrum Thin, loosely woven, twilled 
cotton fabric made in Asia Minor; 
used for garments. 

Midani iSilk warp faced fabric with cot- 
ton filling, having narrow colored 
stripes divided by narrow white 
stripes; made in Asia Minor. 

Mi-fils The finest and thinnest French 
cambric. 

Mi-florence 'Light, plain woven silk lin- 
ing, finished with a high gloss. 

Mi- torse Malf twisted French embroid- 
ery silk. 

Middling Full cotton grade. See Cotton. 

Middling Fair Full cotton grade. See 
Cotton. 

Mignardise Crochet work using narrow 
braid to form the body of the pat- 
tern. 

Mignonette 1, plain cotton netting; used 
for curtains; 2, French calico with 
small pattern. 



MIG 



105 



MOC 



Mignonette Lace Narrow bobbin lace of 
lightweight made in the 16th century 
and 17th century of white flax thread; 
used for headdress. The mignonette 
pattern is very small and delicate. 

Migot In France a sort of Spanish wool. 

Mikado A fine and light all-silk taffeta 
in England. 

Milan Braid A corded flat mohair braid; 
used for trimming. 

Milan Point Originally plaited gold and 
silver lace and reticella. Later fine 
needle-point laces, made with scroll 
designs, large flat flowers in cloth 
stitch. At the present a machine made 
lace, the design outlined with silk. 

Milanaise In France a silk yarn with a 
cotton core. 

Milanese Knitted fabric with very fine 
gauge, with almost equal elasticity 
both ways. It is a warp knitted fab- 
ric made with flat bearded needles 
and thread laying attachment; uee3 
for underwear. 

Milanese Lace An embroidered drawn 
work, made of abaca by the natives 
of the Philippine Islands. 

Mildernix 'Medieval sailcloth used in 
England. 

Mildew Flaw in dyed silk goods caused 
by the failure of the broken filaments 
to absorb the dye. 

Military Braid Flat, coarse ribbed wors- 
ted, braid; used for trimming uni- 
forms. 

Milk and Water An English fabric of the 
16th century; structure is unknown. 

Mill Ends Remnants, seconds, short ends 
of fabrics woven at the mills. 

Mille Point Twilled English woolen, of 
high finish, with small patterns. 

Millerain An English waterproofing pro- 
cess. 

Mille Raye Originally a percale with 
many narrow black and white stripes; 
also a modern cotton and silk dress 
goods with numerous, very narrow 
stripes. 

Milled 'Same as fulled or felted. 

Miltons Thick and well fulled woolen 
suiting; used for hunting garments in 
England; came usually in brown, red 
and blue colors. 

Mina Cloth Stout twilled cloth of wool 
and cotton, 

Minas Geraes Variety of raw cotton from 
Brazil. 

Mineiro Sort of raw cotton from Brazil. 

Miniature .French silk dress goods, hav- 
ing small flowers formed by floating 
filling threads; obsolete. 

Minikin Bay^A 17th century coarse Eng- 
lish worsted cloth. 

Minorca Twilled, silk and linen cloth; 
obsolete. 

Minpow Generic term in the Canton 
market for a variety of cotton goods, 
mostly imported. 

Minter 'Late maturing commercial vari- 
ety of prolific upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 22-25 millimeters; the 
yield is 30-32 per cent. 



Mirecourt Lace Originally a French bob- 
bin lace, similar to Lille (see), lately 
bobbin made sprigs are appliqued on 
-machine net ground. 

Mirganji Indian jute of a fairly strong 
but harsh fiber. 

Mi roil French for the gloss given the 
fabrics in the finish. 

Mirror Velvet Has the long silk pile 
pressed down in different directions. 

Mirzapur Knotted wool rugs, made in 
India. The design is usually floral 
in cream and deep red colors. 

Mispick A flaw in the texture of the 
cloth, consisting of irregular cross- 
ings of the warp and filling; caused 
"by the imperfect shed in the loom. 

Mistral (Plain woven, sheer worsted dress 
goods woven with nub yarns. 

Mitafifi Variety of Egyptian cotton, hav- 
ing a fine, long, strong staple of dark 
brown color; extensively cultivated. 

Mitcheline Quilt <A double cloth, woven 
with two sets of wa/rp and two sets 
of filling, the figures formed by in- 
terchanging the two fabrics. The two 
fabrics are united together through- 
out the entire structure. 

Mitkal 'Narrow cheesecloth or cotton 
sheeting, gray or bleached, made in 
Russia. 

Mixed Checks 'English striped or checked 
fabric, the white stripes being of lin- 
en and the color of cotton. 

Mixed Fabrics Contain more than one 
kind of fiber. 

Mixing 'The blending of several varieties 
and grades of cotton or wool to ob- 
tain a uniform average as to color, 
strength and length of the fibers. 

Mixture 1, yarn which is spun of fibers 
in more than one color but each kind 
of 'fiber being only of one color; 2, 
fabric woven of such yarn. 

Mixture Crepe (Made of silk warp and 
hard spun cotton filling; used for 
dresses, waists, etc. 

Mock Leno Light cotton, linen or silk 
fabric, made all white, or with colored 
stripes. In the weave regular open 
warp stripes are formed by the inter- 
lacing of groups of closely placed 
warp and weft threads, without be- 
ins deflected from their relative par- 
allel position. The groups are sepa- 
rated from each other by a certain 
distance. It is similar in effect to 
the leno (see). 

Mock Quilting English cotton cloth, sim- 
ilar to pique but not as closely woven. 

Mock Satin Strong, stiff weft faced wool 
satin with flower patterns woven into. 

Mock Seam Hosiery in England, the leg 
of which is cut and the foot fashioned. 

Mock Twist A fancy single yarn; used 
for dress goods, similar to the double 
and twist (see) but the two colors 
are not outlined as sharply and reg- 
ularly. It is produced by intermit- 
tent feeding of dyed and undyed stock 
in the spinning frame. 



MOC 



106 



MON 



Mock Velvet Obsolete English napped 
woolens. 

Mockado or Mokario Fabrics used for 
ciothing in the 16th and 17th centuries 
in England. 1, one was a woolen fab- 
ric, often mixed with silk, heavily 
napped and woven with figures; 2, 
another solid colored napped woolen 
fabric was also called mock velvet. 

Modena 'Light weight dress goods from 
Italy, made of mixture of silk waste, 
cotton and wool. 

Moderne Thin French cloth made of mix- 
ture of waste silk with cotton or 
wool. 

Modes In bobbin and needle-point laces 
various stitches which fill out the pat- 
terns. Also called fillings, jours and 
lead work. 

Modica Raw silk from Sicily 

Moff A silk cloth from South Russia. 

Mohair Very long, straight, fine and lus- 
trous white hair, yielded by the ajir 
gora goat in Asia Minor, the Cape 
Colony and the United States. It 
--has no felting properties; used for 
dress goods, plushes, lining, braids, 
etc. 2, lightweight, plain or twilled 
glossy and smooth dress fabric, made 
with silk wool or cotton warp and 
mohair filling, forming little patterns. 
It is dyed in the piece, although the 
warp is often dyed before the weav- 
ing. 

Mohair Braid Black or colored braid in 
England; made of two cords woven 
together. 

Mohwal 'Bast fiber of the Bauhinia vahlii 

in India; used for ropes. 
Moina Commercial variety of a prolific 
upland cotton, having fine, long staple; 
is somewhat obsolete. 

Moire The "watered" effect given in the 
finishing process to mostly silk but 
also cotton and wool fabric. This 
effect is produced in various ways; 
1, see moire antique; 2, the fabric 
is passed between engraved cylinders 
which press the moire design into the 
face. This moire is not as lasting as 
the first one. Ribbed fabrics are bet- 
ter adapted for both these moire ef- 
fects, although many smooth fabrics, 
like taffeta, are treated this way. 

(Besides these moire effect is pro- 
duced by printing the fabric, the vari- 
ous colors overlapping each other; 
moire effects are also obtained by cer- 
tain weaves. 

Moire Anglaise 'Same as moire antique. 

Moire Antique To produce this finish the 
fabric is folded lengthwise with face 
in, the selvages coverine a"h oth >r 
and stitched together. The fabric Is 
then dampened and passed between 
hot cylinders. This 1 moire is lasting 
and shows the greatest variety of de- 
signs. 

Moire Francaise Moire made in stripes. 
Another variety called moire ronde. 

Moire Imperial All-over watered effect 
of undistinct design. 

Moire Metallique A frosted watered ef- 
fect on silks. 



Moire a Pois 'Moire silk fabric, woven 
with small satin dots on the face. 

Moire Poplin Is a poplin dress fabric, 
made of wool and given a moire fin- 
ish. 

Moire Ronde The designs are like the 
rings of a tre, all similar to each 
other; also called moire francaise. 

Moirette Plain woven cotton fabric, made 
of fine warp and thicker polished fill- 
ing, finished in a moire effect by 
pressing. 

Moiting Process which consists of pick- 
ing out all sticks, leaves, etc., from 
the wool fleece in the sorting. 

Mojo Very tough, durable bast fiber of 
good elasticity, yielded by the m. tree 
in Honduras; used for ropes. 

Mokho Raw cotton grown in Senegam- 
bia. The staple is fine, silky and 
white. 

Molaine In England various fabrics, 
made of cotton warp and wool fill- 
ing. 

Moleskin A very strong, stout, smooth 
colon fabric, made with one set of 
warp and two sets of filling, of the 
same yarn, spun two picks on the 
face and one pick on the back, the 
former combined with alternate warp 
ends, forming a modified satin weave. 
The back filling is combined with 
every warp end forming a three-end 
weft twill. It is used for working 
men's clothes. 

Molinos -1, in Austria a plain woven cot- 
ton fabric, made of medium fine yarn; 
it is often printed and is used for 
shirts, etc.; 2, variety of Mexican raw 
cotton, has a yellowish, glossy staple. 

Mollet In France, a very narrow fringe 

of silk or gold. 
Molieton French for melton. 
Momie Cloth Black dyed dress goods of 

cotton or silk warp and wool filling. 

It is similar to .crepe. 

Momme Japanese weight, equal to 3.75 
grams, used to measure and express 
the weight of silk fabrics. 

Moncahiard, Mocayar -Plain or twilled 
French fabric of silk warp and woolen 
filling. It is made mostly black. 

Mon-Chirimen A very fine Japanese silk 
crepe of high lustre, used for em- 
broideries. 

Money Bush 'Commercial variety of up- 
land cotton from Mississippi, yield- 
ing a medium long staple; somewhat 
obsolete. 

Monks' Cloth Medieval English worsted, 
the piece measuring 12 yards by 45 
inches. 

Montagnac A soft and bulky twilled 
woolen overcoating, the warp is en- 
tirely hidden by the filling. An extra 
set of effect filling, made of very 
slack twist woolen yarn, floats on the 
face, and is napped and made into 
tufts or curls in the finish. Real m 
is made of cashmere wool. 



WON 



107 



MOS 



Montbeliard Stout French ticking, made 
with blue and white checks or cross 
stripes. 

Montcayer Fine French dress goods, 
mostly in black, made of silk warp 
and two or three-ply worsted in plain 
or twilled weave. 

Monteiths English cotton handkerchiefs 
with white dots over a colored foun- 
dation. 

Montichicour An East Indian fabric 
made of silk and cotton. 

Montserrat Variety of raw cotton from 
East India. 

Monzome Shusu Japanese silk satin, 
woven with stripes. 

Moon Commercial variety of American 
cotton, maturing in medium time, the 
lustrous and strong staple measuring 
30-35 millimeters; the yield is 31-33 
per cent. 

Moonga 'Species of brown colored wild 
silk yielded by the Antheraea in As- 
sam and East India. See Muga. 

Moorish Lace-^-A drawn work of antique 
origin, still made in Morocco. 

Moorva Long and very strong leaf fiber; 
yielded bv the sansevieria plant in 
India; used for ropes, nets, etc. 

Moquette Formerly term for Brussels 
carpet; now sigrvirfies a plush similar 
to Utrecht velvet, woven in two lay- 
ers, face to face, the pile warp pass- 
ine from the lower to the upper cloth 
and vice versa; after weaving the 
pile is cut in the middle between the 
two grounds. Used for carpets and 
rugs. 

Moqui Cotton cultivated by the Moqui 
Indians in Arizona, U. S. A. The 
staple is short, coarse and of green- 
ish polor. 

Moqui Blanket Plain woven, all-wool 
bla"kts made by *he Moaui Indians 
in the U. S. A. The design consists 
mostly of black, blue and brown 
stripes. 

Mora Hair Curly fibers yielded by the 
pt^ro of the Southern moss, in the 
Gulf states and Centra/1 and South 
America; used for stuffing. 

Moravian English sewing cotton of 8 
strands. 

Mordants Variety of chemicals (salts) 
which when united with certain dyes 
attach these to the fabric in shape 
of insroluble colors, mostly lakes. 

Mordanting The process of impregnating 
textiles with some mordant, not dye- 
stuffs themselves but usually salts, 
which will fasten the dye applied 
after. 

Morea Variety of raw cotton from 
Greece. 

Moreas Fancy striped satin of cotton 
warp and silk filling, finished with 
high gloss. 



Moreen 1, originally a Dutch, all-worsted, 
cross ribbed camlet, with a moire fin- 
ish; 2, a plain woven stout fabric, 
made in England, one side ribbed and 
watered and the other made smooth 
with a high finish. It is made of hard 
spun worsted, but also of cotton, in 
the latter case the filling being polish- 
ed yarn. Used for skirts (formerly) 
and for upholstery. 

Morees 'English cotton muslin for the 
African trade. 

Morenos In South America several 
grades of unbleached linen, im- 
ported from France. 

Moresque Name for designs made in a 
mixture of two colors in Brussels or 
Wilton rugs. 

Morfil tStout, twilled, Belgian worsted 
fabric used for bags for pressing oil. 

Moriche Very tough and durable leaf 
fiber yielded by the Ita palm in Vene- 
zuela; used for cordage. 

Morris Rug Closely woven modern Eng- 
lish rugs, dyed with vegetable dyes 
and having simple floral, usually 
acanthus designs. Named after Wil- 
liam -Morris, its originator. 

Morrison A Highland tartan composed 
of green, black and blue stripes and 
white and yellow stripes over a red 
ground. 

Mortling Name in England for wool 
taken from dead sheep. 

Mosaic Canvas Very fine embroidery 
canvas, made of silk or cotton. 

Mosaic Lace 'Modern Venetian bobbin 
lace, the patterns being composed of 
many small sprigs and medallions 
applied to a net ground. 

Mosaic Rug A cut pile rug, made in Eng- 
land, the pile of which is glued in 
colored pattern to a canvas founda- 
tion, instead of woven to it. 

Mosambique 1, woolen dress goods with 
the nap raised in squares, dots or oth- 
er 'figures; 2, a light, sheer French 
fabric, made with yarn dyed cotton 
warp and mohair filling; comes in 
stripes and checks. 

Moscovite A dress silk, woven with or- 
ganzine warp and cotton filling, form- 
ing ribs; comes mostly in light col- 
ors. 

Moscow 'Heavy, shaggy woolen overcoat- 
ing. 

Moscow Canvas Made in fancy patterns 
with gold, silver, blue and black 
threads interwoven, resembling 
plaited straw. Used for embroidery. 

Mosquito Bar Similar to mosquito net- 
ting, having several warp and weft 
threads placed closer to each other at 
regular intervals. 

Mosquito Netting An open face, very 
light cotton fabric, woven in gauze 
weave, dyed in solid colors. 



MOS 



108 



MUN 



Moss Yarn Coarse woolen yarn of fuzzy 
or nubbed surface, used for embroid- 
eries. 

Mosses Large hanks of reeled silk, 
weighing about one pound each, pro- 
duced by the natives of China in the 
home industries. 

Mossing In England same as napping. 

Mosul Embroidery The Oriental patterns 
are filled closely with herringbone 
stitch and are heavily outlined. 

Mosul Rugs Made in (Mesopotamia, 
usually all wool, but warp and weft 
are, sometimes, of cotton and the 
soft, silky pile of goat's or camel's 
hair, tied in Ghiordes knot. Yellow 
and brown colors are often used. The 
design consists of various geometrical 
patterns and several border stripes. 
The ends are finished with a narrow 
web or fringe. 

Mota Thick cotton cloth made in India. 

Motchenetz Trade term for Russian, 
water retted flax. 

Motes Very small pieces of seed or 
imall immature seeds found in al- 
most any ginned cotton, a large 
quantity of which detracts from the 
value of the fiber. 

Motia Coarse and heavy cotton cloth 
woven with various patterns in India, 
used for winter clothing by the poorer 
classes. 

Motif Same as pattern or design on tex- 
tiles. 

Motlado A medieval English mixture 
worsted. 

Motley 1, medieval English mixture 
worsted, 7 yards long and 45 inches 
wide: 2. same as mixture. 

Motril Variety of raw cotton from Spain. 
It has a white to reddish yellow, lus- 
trous, strong fiber. 

Moule Soft, thick but light woolen over- 
coating, made in France. 

Moulinage French for silk reeling. 

Mou I Inee French for ply yarns, made of 
variously colored strands; used espe- 
cially for dress goods and suitings. 

Mountain Flax Another name for asbes- 
tos. 

Mountmellick Embroidery Raised Irish 
embroidery, executed on a heavy, 
firm fabric with a number of heavy, 
fancy stitches. The designs are in 
natural or conventionalized flowers, 
leaves and also scrolls. 

Mourat Fine, brown colored wool from 
the Shetland Isles. 

Mourning Crepe A light, plain woven, 
silk crepe dyed black and made crisp 
with gum. 

Mousquet 'Fine woolen rugs of very close 
texture and brilliantly colored designs 
fro-m Asia Minor. 

Mousseline Very light, plain woven, 
sheer fabric, made of cotton, wool or 
silk; used for dresses, etc. 



Mousseline de Laine Plain woven, soft, 
light and open fabric, made of fine 
gassed worsted yarn, often mixed 
with cotton. 

Mousseline de Soie A plain and open 
weave fine and light fabric, made of 
silk. 

Moustiquaire Very light, transparent 
East Indian silk gauze, made either 
plain, striped, or figured. 

Mucuna Strong leaf fiber, yielded by the 
Mucuna urens in Brazil; used for 
ropes. 

Muddai Very strong, silky fiber, yielded 
by a species of asclepias in India; 
used for ropes. It is mixed with cot- 
ton when spun; has good affinity for 
dyes. 

Mudj Matting made of Buffalo grass in 
India. 

Muga 1, species of brown wild silk, yield- 
ed by the Antheraea in Assam; 2, 
stout, coarse silk fabric, made in In- 
dia. 

Muka 'Native name for the fiber yielded 
by the New Zealand flax. 

Mukharech Short staple cotton raised in 
the interior of Mesopotamia. 

Mule Twist The finest cotton yarns, 
spun on the mule. 

Mull Plain woven, very soft, sheer and 
light silk or cotton dress goods; 
comes in white or colors. Starched 
mull is made of coarse cotton, stiffen- 
ed with size and used for underlining, 
millinery, etc. 

Mull Muslin A fine, undressed white 
muslin; used for dresses. 

Mulmul Closely woven East Indian cot- 
ton muslin; see Mull. 

Mulmulkha The finest kind of Dacca 
Tnuslin. 

Mulquinerie Obsolete French term for 
lawn and batiste. 

Multan Knotted rugs made in India. 
They have geometrical designs in 
deep blues and reds. 

Multi bolus Commercial variety of Amer- 
ican cotton, of Mexican origin; now 
obsolete. 

Multiflora Commercial variety of early 
ripening upland cotton from Alabama, 
the medium long staple forming clus- 
ters of bolls. 

Mummy Canvas Stout, closely woven 
linen canvas of .brownish color. 

Mummy Cloth 1, a fine, closely woven, 
plain linen fabric, used in ancient 
Egypt for wrapping mummies. The 
best examples have a double warp 
and single filling and two or three 
times as many warp ends than picks 
in a square inch; 2, unbleached, plain 
woven, heavy linen or cotton fabric, 
used for embroidery ground; 3, a 
crinkled lustreless black cloth, made 
with cotton warp and wool filling; 
also called momie cloth. 

Mungo Wool obtained from felted rags 
by tearing them up. 



MUN 



109 



NAG 



Munj 'Strong and elastic fiber which 
stands water well; is yielded by a 
species of the sugar cane in India; 
used for ropes, mats, and baskets. 

Munroe A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: Wide red stripe, split near 
each edge by a tine blue and yellow 
line, the two lines placed next to each 
other, the blue being on the outside; 
*green stripe, half the width of the 
red; red stripe, half the width of the 
green, split in the center by a narrow 
blue and yellow line, placed next to 
each other; dark blue stripe, half 
the width of the green; *red tield, one 
and one half times wider than the 
first red stripe mentioned, split near 
to each edge by a narrow yellow and 
tolue line (placed next to each o-ther 
with the yellow line on the outside) 
and split in the center by three green 
stripes, spaced from each other by 
their own width; repeat, in reversed 
order, groups mentioned between the 
two (*). 

Murga Native name of the Indian bow 
string hemp. 

Murgavi Native Indian name for the 
Moorva (see). 

Murray of Athole A Highland .tartan, 
composed as follows: Green stripe, 
split by a red line in the center; 
black stripe, half the width of the 
green; dark blue stripe, a little wider 
than green one, split in the center by 
a red stripe, outlined with a fine 
black line; black stripe, as above; 
green stripe, split by red, as above; 
black stripe, as albove; dark blue 
stripe, twice as wide as the black, 
split near each edge by a pair of nar- 
row black stripes, spaced from the 
edge and from each other their own 
width. 

Murray of Tulllbardine A Highland tar- 
tan, composed as follows: Red 
stripe; group (twice as wide as red 
stripe), consisting of fine blue line, 
fine red line, black stripe, fine red line, 
fine blue line, red stripe, blue stripe, 
red stripe, fine blue line, fine red line, 
blue stripe (narrow), fine red line, 
fine blue line, red stripe, blue stripe, 
red stripe, fine blue line, fine red line, 
folack stripe, fine red line, fine blue 
line; red stripe, as the first one; 
*dark blue stripe, little less than half 
the width of the red; red stripe, as 
wide as the blue, split by a fine green 
line near the edge next to the blue; 
green stripe, half the width of the 
first wide red*; red stripe, almost 
twice as wide as the green, split by 
two blue and a narrower black stripe; 
repeat, in reversed order, stripes men- 
tioned between the two (*). 

Mururuni Leaf fiber, yielded by a palm 
in Brazil; used for hats, baskets, etc. 

Mushaddah Coarse cotton fabric; used 
as loin cloth, etc., in Abyssinia. It is 
made on hand looms in Hodeida. 

Mushroo An Bast Indian cotton back 
silk satin, figured with white or gold 
flowers, some having wavy stripes of 
yellow and gojd. 



Mushy Dry, fuzzy wool, yielding large 
percentage of noil in combing. 

Muslin 1, plain woven, bleached or gray, 
soft finished cotton fabric in a great 
variety, ranging from the finest Dacca 
muslin to coarse fabrics; used for 
dresses, aprons, sheets, shirts, the lat- 
ter often having warp stripes; 2, a 
very light, loose, plain woven cotton 
fabric, considerably stiffened in the 
finish; used for foundations in 
dresses. 

Musi metCoarse cotton muslin, usually 
sized. 

Muslinette In England a thick variety of 
muslin; used for dresses. 

Musselburgh Stuff Narrow and coarse 
Scotch woolen of the 18th century. 

Mustabet Very rich and expensive fab- 
ric of the Middle Ages; texture un- 
known. 

Mustardevelin A napped woolen fabric, 
made in gray mixture, used in the 
15th and 16th centuries in England. 
Also called mustardevilliers. 

Musulmane French silk dress goods, 
originated in the 18th century; often 
brocaded with gold or silver; obsolete. 

Myoto Pine Japanese woolen rugs. 

Mysore Inferior East Indian knotted 

rugs. 

Mysore Silk Soft, fine, undressed East 
Indian silk dress goods, made plain, 
dyed or printed, mostly in floral pat- 
terns. 



N 



Nabo Native name of the strong fiber, 
yielded by the Nauolea in the Philip- 
pines; used for cords, ropes. 

Naboika 'Russian homespun linen, print- 
ed with fast colors by means of wood- 
en .blocks; used for clothes, religious 
vestments, covers, etc. 

Nac or Nachiz Medieval silk brocade of 
Oriental origin. 

Nacarat 1, orange red colored fine linen 
in Latin-America; 2, in Portugal a 
fine crepe or muslin, dyed in flesh col- 
or, which is used by women as rouge. 

Nacre 1, iridescent, changeable effect; 2, 
silk fabrics woven in colors produc- 
ing effects similar to the mother-of- 
pearl. 

Nae Hawaiian name for a netting, hav- 
ing a very fine and close mesh; used 
for garments. 

Nagapore Bright colored, light and soft 
silk fabric, made in India. 

Nago Nodzi Navajo blanket made with 
black and white stripes running weft- 
wise, occasionally with a little red; 
has red tassels at the corners. 



NAI HO 



NAT 



Nainsook-s-PIain and open woven, light, 
white, cotton fabric; used for under- 
wear, dresses, etc.; comes plain or 
with cord stripes or cord plaids. 
Originally is from India. It is pro- 
duced In the finishing process. The 
English nainsook is finished soft, 
while the French is made crisp. 

Nak Medieval name for cloths of gold. 

Nakhai Bicliidi Navajo blanket of Mexi- 
can origin, woven with weft stripes 
in red, blue, black and white. 

Namad Felted carpets of Persia and In- 
dia. 

Namazlik Turkish name for prayer 
rugs. 

Nambali Silk fabric with religious names 
printed on; used for garments in 
India. 

Namdas Felted woolen cloth, made in 
Thibet. Is often embroidered and 
used for rugs and carpets. 

Namitka A fine sheer veil, woven in 
southern Russia from homespun silk 
by the peasants and used for head 
ornament. 

Nanako Plain woven Japanese silk fab- 
ric. 

Nancy Embroidery French needlework, 
combining embroidery in colored silk 
with drawnwork. 

Nanduty Very fine lace made of cotton 
or pita fiber in South America. It is 
made in small squares joined to- 
gether. 

Nankeen 1, originally a medium weight, 
plain woven, yellowish brown fabric 
made in China of a native cotton and 
finished pure. Imitated by other cot- 
ton fabrics, dyed in the same color, 
used by Chinamen for clothes; 2, 
cotton cloth in Roumania, having a 
white warp and pink, red or yellow 
colored filling; it is finished with a 
size; 3, English and French all-cot- 
ton, very stout, plain , woven fabric, 
dyed in the yarn and made in solid 
colors, stripes, with equal number of 
threads in the warp and weft in a 
square inch; used for clothing. 

Nankeen Cotton Grown in China and In- 
dia; has reddish staple. 

Nankin 1, Chinese cotton canvas of yel- 
lowish or grayish tint, made in pieces 
of 70 yards long. It came also in blue, 
black, red, green, yellow and brown; 
obsolete; 2, a French cotton piece 
goods, similar to the Chinese; 3, fine 
net made of unbleached linen; obso- 
lete; 4, see Blonde Lace. 

Nankinet 1, similar to nankin but not 
woven as close; 2, fine, fancy colored 
percales. 

Nansu Nainsook in Venezuela. 

Nap The downy substance, covering 
either side, entirely or partly, of a 
woolen or cotton fabric. It is formed 
by the loose fibers of the warp or 
weft threads, and is produced by 
scratching the cloth and thus raising 
the nap. In this respect it is dis- 
tinctly different from the pile (see) 
which is always formed by a cut yarn 
separate from the ground of the cloth. 



Napery Table and household linen. 

Napiei 1. double faced coating with wool 
face and vicuna or goats' hair back; 
2, good grade of floor matting, made 
of hemp and jute. 

Napolitaine A French flannel, originally 
made with all-woolen warp and fill- 
ing, loosely woven, not fulled, and 
dyed in the piece, striped or printed; 
used for dresses, scarves, etc. 

Napped Goods Woolen or cotton fabrics, 
finished with a nap (see) on the face 
or the back. The nap might cover 
the entire fa'bric or only parts of its 
surface, forming stripes or figures. 

Napping A finishing process in the man- 
ufacture of certain woolens and cot- 
tons (like broadcloth, flannel, etc.). 
After weaving the fabric one side of 
it is scratched up (gigged or napped). 
The nap thus raised is brushed and 
shorn even. 

Narainganji India jute of good commer- 
cial value; it has a strong, soft and 
long fiber of reddish brown color; 
grown in the Dacca district. 

Narrow Fabrics Ribbons, tapes, shoe lin- 
ings, etc. 

Narrow Goods Piece goods of cotton, 
wool or silk, made 27 inches wide or 
less. 

Narrow Wale Narrow diagonal ribs, 
round or flat, on some woolens and 
worsteds. 

Narrowing In knitting the reduction of 
the number of stitches for the pur- 
pose of shaping. 

Narumi-shibori Japanese cotton and silk 
crepes, dyed as follows: After taken 
from the loom the fabric has many 
small knots tied into it by means of 
wax thread and placed in the dye. 
After taken out of the dye, the wax 
thread is removed, leaving behind 
spots untouched by the dye. These 
spots form small conical prominences, 
as the dye also slightly shrinks and 
crinkles the fabric. 

Narwuli White, soft and not very strong 
bast fiber of a tree of same name in 
India; used for ropes. 

Nate^A French mercerized cotton cloth. 

Natrium Bifluoride^Used as substitute 
for cream of tartar and potassium bi- 
chromate. 

Natte (French term for a basket weave 
silk fabric made with different colored 
warp and filling. 

Natural Refers to undyed or unbleached 
cotton or wool. 

Natural Dyestuffs Are obtained directly 
from the various plants and animals, 
as for instance indigo, cochineal, etc. 

Naturell In Germany and Austria a very 
light and soft finished, plain woven 
cotton fabric; used for underwear. 



NAV 



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Navajo Blanket Heavy, stiff wool blank- 
et, woven with geometrical patterns 
always in straight or zigzag lines in 
bright color combination on primi- 
tive, upright frame by the Navajo 
Indian women. It is very closely wov- 
en and waterproof. The first speci- 
mens were of native wool or unrav- 
eled bayeta, the yarn of which was 
often twisted harder. Later German- 
town yarn and cotton warp was in- 
troduced. Most blankets are alike 
on both sides. 

Naval Lace Gold braid used on uniforms. 

Navy Serge A very strong and fine serge 
used for uniforms by the U. S. Army. 
Made of fine worsted, dyed indigo 
blue in the wool. 

Navy Twill Heavy weight, navy blue 
wool twilled flannel; used for work- 
ing shirts. 

Ndargua Variety of raw cotton from, 
Senegambia. The staple is coarse, 
short and strong and of white color. 

Nead End In Kngland that end of piece 
goods which is shown. 

Near-silk Trade term for several mer- 
cerized cotton linings. 

Neat Com'bing wool taken from the sides 
of an average lustre fleece; used for 
yarns from 32s to 36s. 

Necanee East Indian blue and white 
striped calico. 

Needle Cords Closely woven worsted 
dress goods, made of fine, gassed sin- 
gle yarns, producing closely placed, 
fine ribs, similar to rows of needle 
holes. 

Needle Felt See Punched felt. 

Needle-point Lace Laces made with the 
needle, irrespective of style or de- 
sign; see bobbin lace. 

Needle Work All kinds of plain and dec- 
orative works (embroidery and lace) 
executed with the needle by hand. 

Negrepelisse French woolen cloth, thor- 
oughly fulled with long raised nap; 
mostly black. 

Negretti A large species of native Span- 
ish sheep, yields fine and soft wool. 

Negro Cloth A coarse homespun fabric, 
used for clothing by the negro slaves 
in America. 

Negro Cotton Commercial term for vari- 
ous cotton grown in Western Africa. 

Neigelli, Neghelli Cloth made of the fiber 
of sunn hemp in India. 

Named Persian felt rug with patterns 
of colored wool pressed into it. See 
Namad. 

Neps Little knots of immature or In- 
completely developed tangled fibers: 
their presence is usually the result 
of improper ginning though some- 
times caused through careless pick- 
ing and carding. It is hard to spin 
or dye. 

Neri Grade of waste silk, obtained from 
the inner smooth skin of the cocoon, 
left over after the reeling. 

Nessu i Native name in East Africa for 
nainsook. 



Net 1, in hand made laces the mesh 
ground; 2, see tulle and maline. 

Net Canvas Made of cotton or linen with 
an open texture, in black or white 
and stiffened with gize; used for em- 
broidery ground. 

Net Leno Leno fabrics having the cross- 
ing warp (see) floating on the face of 
the fabric and forming zigzag lines. 

Net Silk Another name for thrown silk 
in England. 

Netting In nautics, network made of 
cord or rope. 

iNettle Cloth 1, mentioned in 16th cen- 
tury English manuscript; is of un- 
known structure; 2, a light, sheer fab- 
ric, woven of the stem fibers of the 
nettle in Germany. 

Nettle Fiber Short, fine stem fiber yield- 
ed by the nettle; used for twine, cloth, 
etc., in Austria, Germany, etc. 

Neuilly French machine-made tapestry 
made in imitation of the real gobe- 
lins. 

New Rag sorting term, signifying new 
tailor's clips for rags. 

New Draperies 16th century English 
term for serges, bays, says, perpetu- 
anas, etc. (see each). 

New Zealand Cotton Fine, strong bast 
iflber, yielded by the young branches 
of the ribbon tree in New Zealand; 
used for fishing lines. 

New Zealand Hemp 'Long, soft, white, 
silky and very strong leaf fiber 
yielded by the Phormium tenax in 
Australasia; used for ropes, twine, 
matting and cloths. The base mark 
is "fair Wellington." 

New Zealand Tow 'Waste resulted from 
the scutching of the New Zealand 
flax; contains short .fibers. 

Newar-^Cotton tape, made by the natives 

of India; used for cots. 
Neyanda Strong silky leaf fiber, yielded 

by the bow string he.-np in Ceylon; 

used for ropes, cordage and coarse 

cloth, etc. 

Nguine Coarse, reddish cotton, grown in 

ISenegambia. 
Ngutunui Native name for a species of 

the New Zealand flax (see) yielding 

fibers suitable for the finest fabrics. 
Nid d'Abeille (French for honeycomb 

pattern. 
Nifels Mentioned under Edward IV. in 

England, thought to have been a sort 

of veil. 

Niggerhead Same as boucle (see). 
Niihau Fine Hawaiian mats, made of the 

stem fibers of the makaloa, the cy- 
press hedge. 
Nlkerie Variety of raw cotton from 

South 'America. 
Nilghiri iNettle Soft, silky and very 'long 

bast fiber, yielded by the Girardinia 

palmata in India. 

Nilla A cloth made of mixture of silk 
with bast fibers in East India. 



NIL 



112 



OAK 



Nilsaria Stout East Indian calico with 
stripes or cheeks composed of round 
blue dots. 

Nimes French piece dyed, wool dress fab- 
ric of medium quality, originally hav- 
ing 2,200 warp ends. 

Ninon A stout French chiffon; used for 
summer dresses. 

Nip Flaw in the yarn, consisting of thin 
places. 

Nipa 1, a palm in the Philippines, the 
leaves of which are used for mats, 
hats, sails, and raincoats for the na- 
tives; 2, the cocoanut tree in the 
Nicobar Islands. The leaves are 
clipped in wide strips and used for 
sail cloth. 

Nishiki A very rich gold and silver bro- 
cade, made in Japan. 

No ThrowSame as trame (see). 

Node An English cotton dress fabric 
haying a boucle face and having 
twisted knots either in the warp or 
the filling. 

Noil Short wool fibers which are carded 
and used for woolen goods. It is the 
result of combing the wool, which 
process separates it from the top. 

Nomad Carpets Persian knot wool car- 
pets of plain design. 

Non Battue Loosely woven French linen 
canvas of inferior grade. 

Nonpareilles Camlet like French cloth, 
made either of all wool or mixed with 
goats' hair or linen yarn. See also 
lamparillas. 

Norfolk Cloth Fine medieval English 
worsted; used for clothing. 

Normal Trade term for knit gcods, made 
of natural colored cotton and wool 
mixed. 

Normal Mixture Knit goods, made of a 
mixture of cotton and wool, the color 
being black and white mixture. 

Norman Embroidery 'Conventional de- 
signs fllled with crewel wool, parts of 
the pattern being covered with open 
fancy embroidery stitches in floss 
sil'k. 

Normandy Laces Bobbin laces, made in 
imitation of Malines and the Chantil- 
ly lace. 

Normandy Val Trade name for machine 
made lace, similar to the shadow lace. 

Northamptonshire Lace English bobbin 
laces, made in imitation of Lille, Val- 
enciennes and Brussels laces. The 
mesh ground is very fine. 

Norwegian Yarn Fine, slack-twist yarn, 
made of Norwegian lambs' wool in 
natural white, gray or black; used for 
hand knitting in England. 

Norwich Crape A 19th century English 
fabric, made of silk warp and wors- 
ted filling in colors different from 
each other or dyed two shades of the 
same color. It is woven both sides 
alike, without a wale and is finished 
with a gloss; used for women's dress- 
es. In the 17th century it was an 
English worsted crepe dyed in black. 



Norwich Fustian An English worsted 
dress goods of the 16th century. 

Norwich Satin Glossy English worsted 
fabric of the 16th century. 

Norwich Shawl A fine English silk shawl, 
originally made with checks and 
stripes and embroidered afterwards; 
later it was made of printed silk 
yarn. 

Nottingham Lace .Machine-made cotton 
laces, mostly curtain laces, originally 
from N., England. The characteristic 
of the curtain laces is the well marked 
warp threads, the patterns being 
formed by a sort of darning stitch. 

None 'French for knotted. 

Nouka Good quality of Georgian wool. 

Nouveaute 'French for novelty; fabrics 
and trimmings outside of the staple 
lines. 

Novato A woolen or silk fabric; used in 
the 16th and 17th century in Eng- 
land. 

Noyales 1, fine French bleached linen, 
sometimes mixed with cotton; 2, un- 
bleached, French hemp sail cloth, the 
strongest .grade made with a six- ply 
warp. . 4 

Milage French for clouded color effects. 

Nub Yarn Fancy cotton, wool or silk 
yarn, having a ply core, around which 
is twisted another thread, forming 
knots at regular intervals. 

Numbering 'See count. 

Nun's 'Cloth <A very thin, plain woven 
black woolen fabric, similar to bunt- 
ing; used for mourning wear, for 
dresses for nuns, office coats, etc. 

Nun's Thread Very ifine, bleached linen 
thread, made by the nuns in Italy and 
Flanders since the 16th century; used 
for laces. 

Nun's Veiling 1, a very light and flimsy 
black veiling; used for mourning, 
made of cotton, silk or wool warp and 
woolen filling and having a border on 
one side; 2, a heavier fabric of the 
same composition; used as dress 
goods. 

Nun's Work Early name for various 
needle work, as laces, embroidery, 
knitting, etc. 

Nurse Cloth Stout cotton shirting in 
'South Africa, showing stripe designs. 

Nursery ClothBleached, quilted, wash 
able cotton muslin; used in the nur- 
sery. 







Oakum 1, the coarse fibers of flax and 
hemp, separated by scutching; it is 
mixed with tar and is used for caulk- 
ing ships; 2, in nautics old ropes un- 
twisted and pulled apart; used for 
caulking. 



OAT 



113 



OPU 



Oatmeal A sort of armure weave, with a 
resemblance to oatmeal. 

Oatmeal Cloth-^Soft and thick cloth of 
linen cotton or wool with a pebbled 
face like ratine; used for upholstery 
draping, dresses, etc. Often made with 
waste filling. 

Oats Karly .maturing commercial variety 
of American cotton, the staple meas- 
uring 20-25 millimeters; the yield is 
32-34 per cent. 

Odjaklik Turkish name for Oriental 
hearth rugs, usually having a center 
field with pointed ends. 

Oeil de Perdrix 1, a fancy ground in old 
French laces, consisting of brides, 
ornamented with groups of knots; 2, 
plain French serge dress goods, made 
with eight leaves and four picks in a 
repeat. 

Oeillet French for eyelet. 

Ogilvie A Highland tartan of very com- 
plicated composition, consisting of 
wide red and blue stripes, narrower 
^l^ek and red stripes and lines of blue, 
black, red and yellow. 

Oilcloth Used for table or floor cover. 1, 
table oilcloth is thin, pliable and made 
on cotton base; 2, floor oilcloth is 
thicker, made on burlap base which is 
laid over with several layers of lin- 
seed oil mixed with ochre and othei 
pigments; the goods are then printed 
and varnished. 

Oilskin Cotton fabric, made waterproof 
with boiled oil; used for sailors' coats. 

Giselle Hemp--<See Rozelle hemp. 

Okinawa Jyofu Fine and lightweight 
dress goods made of the leaf fibers 
of the banana tree in Japan; used 
for summer dresses. 

Okra 1, white, very light but brittle and 
not very strong fiber yielded by a 
species of hibiscus in India, the West 
Indians, etc.; used for ropes, cordage, 
etc; 2, commercial variety of early 
maturing American cotton, the staple 
measuring 24-26 millimeters, forming 
small bolls; the yield is 30-32 per 
cent. 

Olala Native Hawaiian name for the 
young leaves of a sedge, dried and 
bleached over the flre, and used for 
ifine mats, which are made into gar- 
ments. 

Olanes Printed cotton cloth in Cuba with 
small, usually dark red designs over 
a white foundation. 

Old Bess Cotton formerly grown in the 
"West Indies; the staple was coarse 
and inferior. 

Oldhame English worsted fabric of the 
14th century. 

Ollyet Wool fabric made in Norwich, 
England in the 17th century. 

Olona Very strong and durable bast fiber 
yielded by a species of the nettle 
(Touchardia latifolia) in Hawaii; 
used for fishing nets, cords and lines. 

Olone Unlbleached "French sailcloth, made 
with hemp warp and tow yarn filling. 



Ombre French term for ribbons and dress 
goods, shaded with various colors or 
various shades of the same color. The 
change in the color or the shade takes 
place usually from one selvage to the 
other along the entire length of the 
fabric. 

Onde I, a light French woolen dress 
goods; 2, French term for moire ef- 
fect on silk and wool fabrics. 

Ondee Yarn made of a ifine and a heav- 
ier strand. 

Ondule 1, various plain woven, light silk 
or cotton fabrics, having the warp 
or filling but mostly the latter placed 
in wavy line without any gauze 
weave. Warp ondules are made with 
several sets of warps; used for dress 
goods; 2, a French corded and twilled 
dress fabric, made with eight warp 
ends and eight picks in a repeat; 3, a 
stout, completely fulled cloth with a 
long, raised nap. 

Onteora Rug (Modern American rug wov- 
en on hand looms. The weft consists 
of piece ends of colored denims, form- 
ing blocks, stripes and arrows as de- 
signs. 

Oomrawuttee East Indian cotton, having 
a regular, strong but short staple of 
a white or creamy color; usually dirty. 

Ooze 1, loose fibers on the yarn; 2, flaw 
in the yarn, consisting of unevenly 
twisted .places. 

Open BandYarn twisted to the right 
hand. 

Open Lace See Darned lace. 

OpenworkIn embroidery, laces, knitting 
and crocheting interstices in a ground 
of closer texture, often to form or 
enhance a pattern. 

Opera Flannel A narrow and very 
smoothly finished lightweight wool 
flannel, usually dyed in light colors; 
used for women's and children's gar- 
ments. 

Opera Length In women's hosiery is 
about 34 inches. 

Oporto Coarse Portuguese wool; used for 
carpets. 

Opuhe Yields a very tenacious bast 
fiber; used for fishing nets in Hawaii. 

Opus Anglicum 'Medieval Latin name for 
embroidery made in England by chain 
stitch worked in circular lines. 

Opus Araneum Medieval name for a 
coarse darned netting. 

Opus Consutum Medieval Latin name for 
applique (see). 

Opus Filatorum Medieval name for darn- 
ing embroidery on a square mesh 
foundation. 

Opus Pectineum 'Medieval Latin term for 
a brocaded silk fabric woven on hand 
looms with the aid of a comb-like in- 
strument. 

Opus Plumarium Medieval Latin name 
for embroidery in feather stitch. 

Opus Pulvinarium 'Medieval Latin name 
for embroidery made on open can- 
vas ground with silk or wool in cross 
stitch. 



OPU 



114 



OUT 



Opus Saracenicum Medieval Latin term 
for tapestry. 

Opus Scissum Latin name for the first 
cut work. 

Opus Tiratum Latin name for drawn- 
work. 

Orange. Fine French calico, printed with 
fast dyes; now obsolete. 

Orangelist A coarse woolen lining, made 
in great widths and dyed in bright 
colors; made in Kngland for the Span- 
ish markets; obsolete. 

Orchil Violet dyestuff, used for animal 
fibers, obtained from a lichen (ro- 
cella tinctoria). 

Ordinary 'Lowest of American cotton full 
grades. See Cotton. 

Orenburg Shawl A framework knitted 
fabric, made by shifting certain loops 
sideways the distance of several 
needles and thus forming the design. 

Organdie A fine, thin, sheer, plain wov- 
en cotton muslin finished very clear 
and crisp with little size; comes 
usually bleached, but also dyed or 
.printed; used for dresses and trim- 
mings. 

Organzine A fine silk yarn, used for 
warp; it is composed usually of three 
to eight cocoon filaments twisted 
lightly to the right and two or three 
such threads twisted together to the 
left. The best grade of reeled and 
twisted silk is used. 

Oriental Embroidered laces, made on 
Plauen machines. 

Oriental Carpets Hand-made carpets of 
Asia, especially Asiatic Turkey, Per- 
sia, Bokhara, Afghanistan and India. 
They have either hand-knotted pile 
or are woven similar to tapestry. The 
material is usually wool, but the 
finest Persians have silk pile. The 
design is characteristic of each dis- 
trict and good examples of carpets 
show beautiful rich and finely blended 
colors. 

Orientate 'Single faced, ribbed, French 
silk dress goods with a high finish, 
made with ply warp. There are 18 
warp ends and 18 picks in a repeat. 

Orleans 1, lightweight fabric, originated 
in England in the early part of the 
19th century; it was woven .usually 
in plain, tout also in five harness twill 
with a two-ply cotton warp and wors- 
ted filling which completely covered 
the warp and dyed in the piece; used 
for men's wear, dress goods, linings. 

Orleantine 1, French serge dress goods, 
made with 10 leaves and 10 picks in 
a repeat; 2, French dress goods made 
with two-ply warp, having eight 
leaves and six picks in a repeat. 

Ormuk A fine, soft fabric, made_ of the 
hair of young camels in Turkestan. 

Ornis Fine East Indian muslin with wov- 
en gold and silver stripes. 

Orraye Heavy and closely woven silk 
satin of Persian origin with embroid- 
ered flowers; it is made alike on both 
sides. 



Orrice Gold and silver lace; used in Eng- 
land in the 18th century. Now a sort 
of upholstery braid. 

Orsey Silk Same as organzine. 

Ortica Obsolete name for light, thin fab- 
rics, woven of nettle fibers. 

Ortigao Strong bast fiber, yielded by a 
species of the nettle in Brazil; used 
for nets, clothing, etc., by the na- 
tives. 

Ortigues A coarse French packing can- 
vas. 

Osbro 117th century English worsted fus- 
tian; often mixed with silk. 

Osiei A willow, salix viminalis, the bark 
of which is used for baskets, ropes 
and garments by the Indians. 

Osman A very firm terry cloth made in 
England, the loops being beaten up 
on four picks. 

Osnaburg 'Plain woven, strong cotton 
fabric, made in blue and white or 
brown and white stripes and checks 
or solid colors; used for overalls, 
farmers' clothing, etc., in the United 
States. Originally from Germany. 

Ostads ^A twilled and thoroughly fulled 
woolen cloth with nap raised, shorn 
and calendered; now obsolete. Orig- 
inally from Holland. 

Otbornoi General trade term for superior 
grade of classed flax and hemp in 
Russia. 

Ottoman A lustrous plain woven silk 
fabric with heavier cross ribs than 
faille. The warp completely covers 
the filling, which is of cotton. 

Ottoman Cord A silk or wool dress fab- 
ric, made with very heavy warp, form- 
ing ribs and much -finer, hard spun 
filling, which entirely covers the warp 
in plain weave. 

Ouate Vegetale French trade term for 
various tree cotton fibers; used for 
stuffing. 

Oudenarde Tapestry woven with foliage 
design in Belgium. 

Oulemari Native Indian name for the fi- 
brous bast of the Couratari tree in 
French Guiana; used for cloths, 
blankets, etc. 

O unce The weight of one square yard of 
cloth, as standard, is expressed in 
ounces. 

Ounce Thread Fine linen yarn for laces 
and embroideries; made in England. 
Also called Nun's thread. 

Oursine A French shaggy faced woolen 
coating, similar to bearskin. 

Ourville A French linen. 

Oushak Rugs Usually large sized, all- 
wool rugs made in Asia Minor. The 
medium long, soft and loose pile is 
tied in Ghiordes knot. 

Outing Cloth Soft cotton fabric, woven 
with colored .patterns and napped on 
both sides; used for dresses, shirts, 
trousers, etc. Same as outing flannel 
or domet. 



OUT 



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PAK 



Outinq Flannel 1, an all-wool or cotton 
mixed fabric; used for men's and 
women's outing garments. It is 
woven with a four-leaf, even-sided 
twill, fulled, napped, shorn and 
pressed; 2, a flannelette, made in imi- 
tation of the above. 

Ouvre French term for fabrics having 
checks and other small patterns, pro- 
duced on an ordinary loom. See 
Damasse. 

Overcast Stitch Used in embroidery 
around the edges of open parts, as 
for instance in eyelet embroidery. 

Overcheck Two checks of different colors 
woven over each other, or a check 
pattern placed over a ground in solid 
color. 

Overcoating A great variety of medium 
weight or heavy woolen or worsted or 
union fabrics, woven for overcoats. 

Overshot Term in England for floats 
formed by the weft. 

Overspun Irregular yarn, showing too 
much twist at the thin places. 

Oxalic Acid Used in printing cotton and 
dyeing and mordanting wool. 

Oxford 1, stout cotton shirting, woven 
chiefly in plain or fancy basket 
weaves, with clean and narrow colored 
warp stripes. The weft is slack twist, 
thick and lustrous cotton yarn, usual- 
ly in white. In England it is woven 
.plain, with two warps in a heald and 
a soft spun filling in each shed. In 
Germany and Austria it is made with 
two picks in each shed; 2, stiff fin- 
ished, yarn dyed cotton checks and 
stripes in Asia -Minor; 3, woolen gray 
mixture fabric, woven of yarns hav- 
ing black and white strands; 4, in 
knit goods dark gray mixture yarns. 

Oxford Gray Various fabrics, made of 
yarn containing black and white fibers 
mixed in various proportions. 

Oxo Wool lA flax substitute for wool. 

Oyah Lace Coarse Turkish crochet lace 
made of colored silk yarn. 

Ozier 'Early maturing .commercial va- 
riety of upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 25-28 millimeters, forming 
medium bolls; the yield is 30-S2 per 
cent. 



Pabnapar Fine white or colored cotton 
cloth, woven with email patterns by 
the natives of India. 

Pachras Bright striped thick cotton cloth 
made in India; used for garments. 

Pack 1, 240 pounds measure for wool top 
and flax; 2, linen yarn 'measure, equal 
to 60,000 yards. 

Pack Cloth 'Coarse burlap; used for pack- 
ing. 



Pack Duck In England a coarse, stout 
linen fabric; used for packing. 

Pack Thread Very strong twine; used for 
tying bundles. It is made two or three 
.ply, of hemp or flax, in various thick- 
nesses and fineness. 

Packing Whit A 15th century English 
woolen. 

Paco Another name for alpaca. 

Pacputan Coarse wool from northwestern 
India. 

Pad Thick, moire silk ribbon, in colors, 
for watch chains or narrower, in 
black, for guard for eyeglasses. 

Padded Back In England printed linings, 
the back of which is printed solid gray 
or black. 

Padding A process in mordanting cotton; 
the fabric is thoroughly soaked in 
a solution of metallic salts, the ex- 
cess bath is removed by squeezing, the 
cloth is dried and the salts are fixed 
by dunging (see). 

Paddings Jute cloth, similar to the Hes- 
sian, in natural color or black; it is 
stiffened and used as padding for 
coats. 

Padou A narrow silk ribbon in France. 

Paduasoy Stout, rich Italian silk fabric; 
name obsolete, the fabric being known 
as peau de sole. 

Paesano Trade term for the best two 
grades of Naples hemp; the third and 
fourth grades are called cordaggio. 

n oblong piece of cotton, dyed 
blue or red; worn as loin cloth in 
Africa. 
Pagnes Cotton cloth in Sierra Leone. 

Pagnon A fine French woolen fabric; ob- 
solete. 

Paile (Medieval French silk fabric of 
Arabic origin. 

Paillette Spangled; silk or net orna- 
mented with liquid gelatin or glass. 

Paina A lustrous seed fiber, growing wild 
in Brazil; used for stuffing pillows 
and said to be spun in Switzerland. 

Painted Cloth Canvas with various mot- 
toes painted on it in oil; used for 
hanging in medieval England. 

Painters' Canvas 'Fine corded woven fab- 
ric, one side ribbed and the other 
made similar to knit fabric; made of 
all-wool or mixed with cotton. 

Paisley 'Shawl Made in the 19th century 
in Paisley, Scotland, in imitation of 
the cashmere shawl. It was made of 
fine cashmere wool warp with a silk 
core and botany worsted .filling. The 
shawl was woven face downward, 
later made double faced; now obso- 
lete. 

Paisseau (An obsolete French woolen 
serge. 

Paita Variety of raw cotton from Peru; 
see Payta. 

Pajam Bast Indian cotton fabric. 

Pakea 'Fine mats woven without any fig- 
ures by the natives of Hawaii; used 
for garments, etc. 



PAK 



116 



PAP 



Pakki Long ells in the Chinese trade. 

Paklaken^Said to be an English fabric, 
made of wool, usually white; obsolete. 

Palambangs Plain woven cotton fabrics, 
worn as loin cloths or scarfs in India, 
made with a fancy border and head- 
ing. 

Palampooi -Rich, printed cotton fabric, 
made in India and China; used for 
bed cover. 

Palanche Heavy cloth made of linen 
warp and woolen filling; used as lin- 
ing for sailor's clothes in France; ob- 
solete. 

Palicat -Fine cotton handkerchiefs from 
Asia Minor. 

Pall Fine and rich woolen fabric; used 
by the nobles, in medieval England. 

Pallas -French pile fabric; used for coat- 
ing, made of cotton warp and filling 
and long goafs' hair warp. It is either 
dyed black in the piece or printed in 
fur effect. 

Pa I mat -Very soft, medieval silk fabric 
with figures of palms woven in; used 
for bed spreads. 

Palmet .Strong black leaf fiber yielded by 
the Prionium palmita in South Africa; 
substitute for horsehair. 

Palmette Shawl made in France with a 
foundation of two-ply wool warp and 
combed wool filling, and carded wool 
yarn for the figures. 

Palmetto Leaf fibers, yielded by the 
palmetto palms; used for hats, mats, 
etc. 

Palmyra Stiff and harsh leaf fiber, yield- 
ed by a palm in Ceylon; used for 
brushes. See Bassine. 

Palometa 18th century worsted from 
Flanders; often mixed with linen. 

Palo Barracho In Argentine a soft silky 
fiber, yielded by the pod of the Bom- 
bax ventricosa. 

Palungao Soft, white, silky and very 
durable fiber, yielded by the hibiscus 
plant in India; used as hemp substi- 
tute. See also Ambari Hemp. 

Pamna Hazara An Indian cotton muslin. 

Pampa South American sheep, yielding 
long, straight and bright wool. 

Panache French for high and variegated 
colored effect. 

Panama -Plain woven worsted dress 
goods, dyed in the piece; hopsacking 
made of coarse yarn in basket weave, 
made plain or in two colors. There is 
also a dress goods of cotton warp and 
double wool filling producing an effect 
similar to the texture of the Panama 
hats. 

Panama Canvas Thick, cream colored, 
basket weave canvas; it is beetled and 
used for embroidery. 

Panama Weave Consists of several warp 
and weft threads crossing each other 
at once, producing a mat like effect. 

Pandanus A palm in East Africa, India 
and Polynesia; the leaves are used 
for mats, baskets, hats. 

Pang A Chinese silk dress goods. 



Pangalo A new variety of Egyptian cot- 
ton; the staple is described as brown- 
ish, of silky gloss and strong. 

Pangane Very long and strong leaf fiber, 
yielded by the Sansevieria plant in 
Eastern Africa; used for cordage, 
nets, etc. 

Pangdan -Name of the screw pine in the 
'Philippines; the long leaves are split 
and woven into bags and mats. 

Pangfil <A Chinese silk cloth. 

Panha See Paina. 

Panne Pile fabric, having a longer pile 
than velvet but shorter than plush; 
the pile is laid or pressed down. The 
ground is usually organzine silk and 
the pile of wool. 

Panno Combrido An East Indian calico 

Pannonia Leather Has a coarse cotton or 
jute ground covered with a layer of 
varnish, which is finished to resemble 
leather. 

Pannus A medieval silk fabric, made in 
Italy. 

Pano Cru 'Heavy cotton sheeting or T 
cloth in Portugal, made with colored 
head ends. 

Panossare Oblong piece of cotton with 
red stripes; used as loin cloth in Af- 
rica. 

Panriges -East Indian silk cloth with 
flower design. 

Panse de Vache Figured French linen; 
obsolete. 

Panting Same as trousering. 

Panus Tartaricus A medieval fabric. 

Papeline Originally a lightweight dress 
goods, made in Avignon, France, of 
silk warp and silk waste filling in 
plain colors, or figured; one side had 
a selvage of different color than the 
warp. 

Paper Cambric Lightweight, lustrous 
cotton lining. 

Paper Cloth Cotton, hemp or jute fab- 
ric coated with paper on one or both 
sides, between heavy rollers; used for 
boxes, etc. 

Paper Muslin Light weight cotton mus- 
lin, sized and given a lustrous finish; 
used for lining. 

Paper Yarn Unfinished, pure sulphate 
paper is out into strips one-sixth inch 
wide and upwards, according to the 
required size of the yarn. Each strip 
is wound on a bobbin, from which it 
is spun by dampening it first, sized 
and finally twisted. It can be dyed 
before or after spinning and it takes 
waterproofing well; used for packing 
twine, tarpaulins, waterproof canvas, 
trimmings, drapery fabrics, carpets, 
mats, towelings. It is used usually 
as filling with cotton or wool warp, 
and also has been made into cheap 
clothing. For the finest sizes tissue 
paper is used and for very strong 
yarns Swedish kraft paper. 

Papery -Excessive smoothness given to 
the cloth with the aid of sizes in the 
finishing process. 



PAP 



117 



PAT 



Papoon Plain woven cotton fabric; used 
in India; made of different colored 
warp and filling or in small checks. 

Papyrus The paper reed, Cyperus papy- 
rus, of Egypt: the stem fibers are used 
for cloth, sails, mats, cords, etc. 

Para Variety of raw cotton from Brazil. 

Para Fiber Commercial grade of the 
piassava (see). 

Paragon An 18th century pure worsted 
fabric in England; a.nother name for 
peropus. 

Paraguay Lace Bobbin lace, made of fine 
threads with wheel designs in Para- 
guay. 

Parahyba Variety of raw cotton from 
Prazil, having a fairly strong, harsh 
staple of white color. 

Paramatta English dress goods, orig- 
inated in the 19th century, woven with 
cotton warp and Botany filling in 2 
>"! 1 weft faced twill. It is also used 
for raincoats. 

Parangon 'Silk cloth in the Levant. 

Parao Strong leaf 'fiber of the Hibiscus 
tiliareus in Society Islands; used for 
ropes. 

Parchment Cotton A fine, plain woven 
colon fabric in England, sized and 
(finished to resemble parchment. 

Parchment Lace 'See Guipure. 
Parchmentier 18th century wool fabric, 
made in Norwich, England. 

Pardia Kufr Very fine cotton fabric, 
made in India and embroidered with 
gold and silver birds or flowers; worn 
as a shawl. 

Pardo A temporary, brown colored vari- 
ation of several Peruvian cottons. 

Pareu Narrow and cheap cotton cloth in 
the Society Islands, printed with fruit 
and flower designs in red or blue on 
white foundation or red on white; 
used for skirts or loin cloths by the 
natives. 

Parhdai Cotton muslin from India, hav- 
ing plain or gold selvage. 
Paris Cord Stout, all-silk cloth with fine 
weft ribs, originated in France; used 
for neckwear, etc. 

Paris Embroidery Consists of small 
leaves and berries embroidered with 
white cord on pique or with floss silk 
on colored satin or cloth. 

Parisian Cloth In the 19th century an 
English fabric, made of cotton warp 
and worsted 'filling, often woven with 
dobby figures. 

Parisienne 1, a silk cloth in France made 
with small patterns; 2, a figured or- 
leans, very fashionable in the middl" 
of the 19th century in France and 
England; 3. very soft, lightweight 
French dress fabric, made black, of 
merino wool. 

Parkal In India same as percale. 

Paropa A fabric made of silk and wool, 
used in England during the 16th 
and 17th centuries. Also called 
peropus. 

Parlrre Obsolete light silk damask in 
France. 



Parthenos French silk velvet dress 
goods. 

Partridge Cord A mottled corduroy 

Parwalla General term in Bengal for cot- 
ton cloth with a colored selvage 

Pasac Philippine fiber, used for cordage. 

Pashim, or Pashmina Very fine, downy 
wool found under the hair of the 
cashmere goat in India; it comes in 
gray, white or drab colors and is used 
for the finest rugs and shawls. 

Passement 1, obsolete French term for 
lace; 2, French name for the traced 
and pricked parchment, on which 
hand made laces are executed. 

Passementerie Braids, fringes, etc., used 
for trimming. 

Passing Thread consisting of a narrow 
flat strip of gold twisted around a silk 
core. Used for embroidering and 
tapestry work. The smallest size is 
called tambour. 

Passing Braid Is made of passing, (see). 

Pastille 1, pattern consisting of dots 
only; 2, round dots, usually of velvet 
or other thick material woven or ap- 
pliqued to nets, veils, etc. 

Pastourelle Plain French serge, made 
with eight harnesses and four picks 
in a repeat. 

Patagonian Long staple, heavy shrinking 
wool from Southern Chile, washes 
very white; used for hosiery. 

Patchwork Needlework, consisting of 
joining various colored and shaped 
clippings of materials with fancy 
stitches, to form quilts, covers, etc. 

Patent Axminster Pile carpet woven on 
power loom, chenille being used for 
filling. 

Patent Beaver All-wool beaver cloth of 
very fine quality, fulled very thor- 
oughly, making the fabric almost 
waterproof. 

Patent Cord Obsolete French and Eng- 
lish pile fabric, made with wool or 
cotton warp, wool filling and a long 
pile of wool. 

Patent Flannel A very light and sheer 
English flannel. 

Patent Yarn Union yarn made of linen 
and cotton before fine spinning was 
invented; name now obsolete. 

Patentes (Bleached, cotton sheetings in 
Portugal. 

Patna ilndian knotted wool or cotton 
rugs, having geometrical designs in 
white and various blues. 

Patole Bordered silk fabric with printed, 
embroidered or hand painted patterns, 
made in India. It is made about a 
yard wide. 

Pattern The ornamental design which is 
only a decorative element in a fabric 
and different from the weave. In 
laces and embroideries it is often 
characteristic of the different makes. 

Pattes De Lievre French term for a West 
Indian tree cotton. 



PAT 



118 



PEN 



Patron d'Hollande Fine bleached and 
figured French table linen; obsolete. 

Patu A very fine Bast Indian fabric, 
made of pashim wool. Also a very 
strong but coarse fabric, made of 
goats' hair. 

Patwa Very strong bast fiber, yielded by 
the Bauhenia vahlii, a climbing plant 
in India; used for cordage; also 
called mohwal. 

Paukas Coarse Kast Indian calico. 

Paukpan iBast fiber yielded by the 
Aeschyomena aspera, a small bush 
in Burma; used for cords and hats. 

Paules A medieval English worsted 
cloth. 

Paunch Mat A thick mat woven of ropes 
and flattened; used in ships. 

Pavie Fine, bleached and figured French 
table linen; obsolete. 

Payta Variety of raw cotton from Peru, 
the staple is of grayish color, little 
lustre and strong. 

Pearce 'Commercial variety of early ma- 
turing upland cotton, yielding 32-33 
per cent of medium long lint. 

Pearking Obsolete English trade term 
meaning examination of the finished 
goods. 

Pearl 'See Bar. 

Pearl of Beauty Another name for 
Buffyn (see), made with warp stripes. 

Pearl Braid Made of three or more onde 
yarne. 

Pearl Edge iSee Picot. 

Pearl Knitting Knitted fabrics having all 
loops of one row lying in one direc- 
tion and the next in an opposite 
direction. 

Pearling Obsolete Scotch term for linen 
or silk lace; also a fine cambric. 

Peat Fiber Obtained from peat, used for 
stuffing, etc. 

Peau French for skin; a very common 
name (in connection with other words, 
as "mouse," "peach," etc.) for 
modern dress goods, with an ex- 
ceedingly ifine, downy nap, which is 
produced mostly by the emerizing 
process (see) and shorn after. 

Peau De Cygne A stout silk fabric, made 
with a pebbled face and given a high 
finish. 

Peau De Diable A very durable French 
trousering, made of all cotton and 
printed. 

Peau de Gant^White silk damask dress 
goods. 

Peau De Mouton A French twilled 
woolen coating, having a curled pile 
of mohair or wool. 

Peau D'Ours A very shaggy woolen over- 
coating, (bearskin). 

Peau De Poule Plain colored French 
serge, having eight leaves and four 
picks in a repeat, also an obsolete 
French silk dress fabric. 

Peau de Soie Stout and very soft dress 
silk, dyed in the piece, showing on 
both or only on one side fine cross 
ribs. 



Peau De Suede Woolen dress fabric 
made with velvet plaid design. 

Pebbled The effect produced by various 
irregular twill weaves, mostly on silk 
fabrics. 

Pechiyong A white Chinese plush made 
of wool and cotton. 

Peeler Late maturing commercial variety 
of American cotton grown in the 
Mississippi delta, the strong and 
lustrous staple measuring 2>5-2S milli- 
meters; the yield is 30-32 per cent. 

Peerless Early maturing commercial 
variety of upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 23-27 millimeters, forming 
small bolls; the yield is 32-33 per 
cent. 

Pegging A finishing process for vel- 
veteens; it consists in rubbing the 
pile with blocks of wood or soap- 
stone to impart a gloss. 

Pekin 1, French silk dress goods having 
alternate stripes of velvet and satin 
or gauze; 2, general term for colored 
warp stripes of even width spaced 
evenly. 

Pekin Crepe Silk crepe made with yarn 
dyed, colored warp stripes and the 
regulation crepe 'filling of alternate 
right and left hand twist picks. 

Pekin Gauze^Xarrow velvet stripes over 
a gauze foundation. 

Pelade 'French term for wool, pulled from 
slaughtered sheep in Egypt and Syria. 

Pelang White or colored silk satin made 
in China. 

Pelerine Work Framework knitting in 
which the shifting of the sinker loop 
forms the design. Used for shawls. 

Pelestrina Lace Italian bobbin lace used 
for the household. The characteristic 
pattern is the leaf of the grapevine. 

Pelisse A soft but heavy twilled woolen 
fabric, used for coats. 

Pelleton French term for goats' hair from 
Asia Minor, used for hats. 

Pellon A sort of baize made with an 
extra long napped faced with a curly 
and glossy finish. 

Pelo Italian for silk twisted of eight or 
10 strands, used for gold and silver 
cloths. 

Pelote French for ball fringe. 

Pelotage The lowest grade of vicuna 
wool from Peru. 

Pelt Wool Taken from the skin of 
slaughtered sheep. 

Peluche French for plush. 

Peluche Argent Made with silk warp and 
two picks of silk and one pick of 
silver thread alternately; the pile ef- 
fect is obtained by using silver che- 
nille after every ten picks. 

Peluche Duvet French plush made with 
silk warp and cotton filling, the pile 
toeing of swansdown; obsolete. 

Pelure D'Oignon Very light, dressed, five- 
leaf silk satin, used for hat trim- 
mings. 

Penang -Stout, East Indian printed cot- 
ton cloth. 



PEN 



119 



PER 



Pencil Antiquated English name for long 
and narrow strips of silk, used for 
pennants 

Pencil Stripes Dress goods for men's 
wear, usually dyed in the piece, hav- 
ing very fine dotted stripes formed by 
a single silk thread in a different 
color. 

Penelope Canvas Open canvas made of 
cotton or linen with double threads 
in the warp and filling; it is heavily 
sized in the (finish. Used for em- 
broidery foundation. 

Peniche Portuguese peasant bobbin lace 
in black and white, made with geo- 
metrical designs. 

Peniston iStout English woolens of low 
grade stock, similar to melton; ob- 
solete. 

Pepita In Germany and Austria shep- 
herd checks in two colors, on dress 
goods, men's trouserings and suitings. 
Named after a Spanish actress. 

Pepper and Salt Mixed colored effect in 
woolens and worsteds, produced 
with ply yarns of black and white 
strands (double and twist). 

Pepperdust Staple Trade term for cot- 
ton staple containing very fine but 
numerous particles of leaves. 

Percal Cuadrito In Cuba a blue and 
white or black and white checked 
cotton cloth. 

Percale-^Plain woven, light weight, wash- 
able, dull finish, closely woven and 
printed cotton fabric, used for dresses, 
etc. Usually printed in black or 
other dark color, but it comes also 
in white. Originally from India. 

Percales 1, ordinary cotton prints in 
Chile; 2, in Cuba a cotton batik with 
white designs over dark red, blue or 
black ground. 

Percaline 'Light weight, plain woven 
glazed and watered cotton fabric, 
made of single yarn and dyed in the 
piece. Used for lining, stiffening, 
bookbinding, etc. This expression is 
also used for silesia. 

Perces 'Waste silk, obtained from stained 
or imperfect cocoons. 

Perches <Medium grade French linen. 

Perching Inspection of the fabric after 
taken from the loom and before fin- 
ishing to detect imperfections. 

Perle Woolen dress goods having the nap 
raised in forms of dots from the fill- 
ing yarns. 

Permanents In England, a light cotton 
cloth, used for trimming; it is dyed 
in various colors and is often fin- 
ished with a gloss. 

Permo 1, English dress goods, made of 
mohair warp twisted together with 
cotton. The cotton is removed by 
carbonizing after the weaving; 2, 
patented finishing process, consisting 
in the removal, through carbonization, 
of the cotton yarn which was woven 
together with the single mohair yarns 
in order to give strength to the mo- 
hair during the process of weaving. 



Pernambuco Finest of Brazilian cottons 
having a strong and somewhat wiry 
staple of light golden color. 

Peropus or Parapes English worsted of 
the 17th century similar to camlet. 

Perpetuana 17th century stout English 
worsted similar to lastings. 

Perpetuelle A fine, closely woven, very 
durable worsted serge in France and 
England. 

Perroquets French hemp sailcloth. 

Perrotine Printing Is done by blocks 
fastened to an iron frame. The cloth 
is passing between the blocks and 
iron plates; used for printing hand- 
kerchiefs. 

p ers e Obsolete French printed or paint- 
ed cottons made in Oriental designs. 
Also obsolete general term for print- 
ed cottons. 

Persening 'Waterproofed jute and linen 
fabrics. 

Persian Very light silk lining, printed 
with large flowers; used in England 
in the 18th century. 

Persian Berries Yellow color used in 
eteam calico printing; yielded by the 
berries of the buckthorn. 

Persian Cord 1, thin, washable dress 
goods of wool warp and a heavier, cot- 
ton filling, the latter forming fine 
ribs, finished only on the face; 2, 
weft face fabric, consisting of cot- 
ton warp and worsted filling, two 
warp threads being run -through each 
heald, thus forming ribs. 

Persian Cross Stitch Or rep stitch 
used in embroidery, it is a variety 
of the cross stitch, composed of a long 
tent stitch, taking over six horizon- 
tal threads in a slanting direction 
and over two threads in height; this 
stitch is crossed over in the middle 
like a cross stitch. 

Persian Knot One of the two different 
knots in which the pile is tied in 
hand made Oriental rugs and car- 
pets. A loop is formed around the 
warp thread and is tightened by be- 
ing pulled. Thus the pile is placed be- 
tween all warp threads. It is also 
called Senna knot. 

Persian Lawn A fine, plain woven, sheer 
linen fabric, is often printed. 

Persian Rugs 'The finest among Oriental 
rugs. Made of silk, cotton or wool, 
the warp mostly of cotton, with 
short, close, velvet like pile. The col- 
ors are very soft, lustrous, the de- 
sisns consist of floral and also of 
animal patterns. The shapes are 
usually oblong. 

Persiana Thin silk fabric, woven plain 
and printed with large flower pat- 
terns. 

Persienne Fancy French caMcoes, made 

in imitation of East Indian calicoes; 

obsolete. 
Perte Unbleached French hemp sailcloth, 

the (finer grades being used as bedding 

linen. 



PER 



120 



PIE 



Peruvian Sea Island Peruvian cotton, 
having a long, very fine and 
moderately strong fiber of golden 
brown color. 

Peruvienne Heavy French silk with 
multi-colored flower patterns; ob- 
solete. 

Petaline Embroidery Of Japanese origin; 
the petals and leaves of the flowers 
are stamped separately on silk or 
linen, a fine non-rusting wire is 
couched around the edge; this is 
fastened down with long and short 
buttonhole stitches and the entire 
petal or leaf is covered with white 
or colored silk. It is then cut out 
and the petals combined into a flower 
and attached to the foundation; the 
different petals or leaves can be bent 
to imitate nature more closely. 

Petanelle A fabric, being the mixture of 
chemically treated peat and wool, 
made in England according to a sec- 
ret process and said to have hygienic 
properties; used for shirts and clothes. 

Petate IMats made by the natives of the 
Philippines of the leaves of the buri 
palm, the pandang or a sedge. 

Petenuche French term for a low grade 
of silk waste. 

Peteria White, silky, but rather weak 
pita fiber from Brazil. 

Peterkin 'Commercial variety of medium 
maturing upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 22-25 millimeters; the 
yield is 34-36 per cent; also Texas 
wood, Wise and Crossland. 

Petersburg Flax Fine Russian flax of 
natural brownish shade. 

Petersham 1, thick ribbons made in all 
colors, moire finished; used for waist 
belting; 2, a very thick, waterproof 
woolen coating of dark blue color in 
England; used for overcoats by the 
seamen; 3, rough faced, heavy woolen 
overcoating, woven with nub yarns. 

Petin A French cloth made of mixture 
of wool and camels' hair. 

Petits Carreaux Plain French serge, 
made with eight leaves and four picks 
in a repeat. 

Petit Drap 'French term for a light, plain 
woven woolen. 

Petite Draperie French term for all- 
woolen or worsted fabrics which are 
not subject to fulling or shrinking 
after they are woven. 

Petit Grain French term for stout silk 
taffeta made of heavy yarn. 

Petit Gulf Commercial variety of medium 
maturing upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 22-25 millimeters; the 
yield is 30-32 per cent. 

Petit Point Stitch Same as tent stitch. 

Petit Poussin Narrow French bobbin 
lace, made of fine thread with simple 
delicate patterns. 

Petit Toile Stout and fine French linen 
of red and white or blue and white 
stripes or checks. 

Petit Velours French term of light cot- 
ton velvet. 



Petit Venise Obsolete fine damask table 
linen with small designs often con- 
sisting of square checks; made in 
France and Holland. 

Pfelle Medieval silk fabric of Arabic ori- 
gin. 

Philip and Cheney Obsolete English fab- 
ric of unknown structure. 

Phillizellies 17th century English wors- 
ted, same as Peropus. 

Phoras Sheer East Indian cotton cloth. 

Photee The finest variety of cotton 
grown along the Brahmaputra; used 
for the best grades of Dacca mus- 
lin. 

Phrygian Work Antiquated name for 
embroidery. 

Phrygienne French silk satin dress goods 
with small brocaded patterns; ob- 
solete. 

Phthalic Anhydride Very bright red arti- 
ficial, direct dyestuffs, used mostly 
on animal fibers. They fade easily. 

Piara Variety of raw cotton from Peru. 

Piassava Brown, stiff and wiry fiber, 
yielded by the leaf stalks of the mon- 
key bass tree in Brazil; used for 
brooms and coarse ropes. 

Picarde Ratine A French cotton fabric, 

resembles the Turkish toweling of a 

light weight and flat weave; made 
40 inches wide. 

Pichina Wide French twilled woolen 
suiting made of natural brown wool. 
Formerly used by religious sects, now 
obsolete. 

Pick The weft which is shot through the 
fabric at every flight of the shuttle. 
It 'might extend from selvage to sel- 
vage or only part of the width of the 
fabric. 

Pickings Tufts of short merino wool, 
containing dry vegetable matter. 

Picklock A wool sorting term, meaning 
the second best sort in the fleece, 
used for cording. 

Picot Loops along the selvage of a fabric, 
made by placing in the loom a wire 
parallel to the selvage of the fabric, 
this wire catching certain picks in 
the weave. After the fabric is woven, 
the wire is removed, leaving the loops 
behind; 2, in laces small loops dec- 
orating the edges of the pattern. 

Picot Yarn Same as loop yarn. 

Picotte Inferior, all-wool, light camlet 

made in Flanders; obsolete. 
Piece A fabric woven in lengths varying 

from 24 yards to 100 yards and over. 

Piece Dyed 'Fabrics dyed after woven or 
knitted. The dyestuff usually does 
not penetrate clear through the body 
of the fabric. 

Piece Goods 1, all textile fabrics woven 
in lengths, to be sold by the yard; 
2, especially such woolen and worsted 
fabrics. 

Pieces 'Small bunches of wool staple 
taken during the sorting from various 
fleeces and sold in lots. 



PIE 



121 



PIN 



Pieds Courts A French tapestry velvet. 

Pielles Cabrados or Negros Lightweight 
wool trouserings in South America. 

Piemontaise French unfinished silk 
fabric made of ply warp; used for 
dresses, etc. There are 12 leaves and 
12 fillings in a repeat; obsolete. 

Pierced Cocoon Cocoon from which the 
moth came out by piercing the wall. 
It cannot be reeled, but is used for 
spun silk. 

Pigment Style Method of textile print- 
ing, used mostly on cotton piece goods. 
Insoluble pigments are mixed with a 
thickener and the matter applied to 
the fabric; the thickener will fix the 
color to the cloth after it was set 
by steam. 

Pignas 'Colored cotton handkerchiefs in 
Venezuela. 

pjje A coarse and thick woolen fabric 
made in Holland. 

Pile Yarn in certain fabrics, like velvet, 
velveteen, terry, astrakhan, etc., 
covering the face of the fabric (en- 
tirely or partly) and showing not its 
side like the warp and weft but its 
end. The pile is warp p., weft p., or 
knotted pile according to the method 
of weaving and cut, loop or curl pile, 
according to the finish. Warp pile 
is formed by a set of warp ends, 
separate from the ground warp, which 
are carried at certain intervals over 
wires. When these wires are removed, 
the loops formed by the pile are left 
or again these loops can be cut. Silk 
and wool velvets and certain pile rugs 
have such a pile. Weft pile is formed 
by a set of filling threads separate 
from the ground weft, forming floats 
on the fabric. These floats are cut 
and brushed up. Velveteen has such 
a pile. Knotted pile is found on hand- 
made rugs. It Is formed by tying 
various colored wool, silk or cotton 
yarn to the warp threads. The yarn 
is cut off and shorn at even length. 
In loop pile, which is always formed 
by warp threads, these are not cut 
tout left in a loop as woven like terry. 
In cut pile, formed either by warp or 
filling threads, the loops of the warp 
or the floats of the weft are cut, 
forming short lengths of yarn (pile) 
which is erect or laid down, but is 
always straight. The length of the 
pile is different, being shorter in vel- 
vet than in plush. Curl pile is usually 
produced by warp threads, when 
woven, although the same effect is 
also obtained by knitting. This warp 
thread is wound around a core and 
set before weaving. After cutting the 
loops, the pile regains its curliness 
(see astrakhan). In order to prevent 
the pile from separating from the 
ground easily, it is often lashed, 1. e. 
carried under two and over one 
thread, instead of only under one 
thread. The nap on fleece lined un- 
derwear is also called pile. 



Pile Fabric See corduroy, velveteen, 
terry velvet, plush, velours, astrakhan, 
Utrecht velvet and the various rugs 
and carpets, both hand made and ma- 
chine woven. See also: pile. 

Pile on Pile Fabric having patterns 
formed by a pile of a different length. 
The difference in the length of pile 
on the same fabric can be obtained 
by weaving or shearing. In weaving 
(if pile warp is used) wires are em- 
ployed having varying thickness along 
their length or if the pile is produced 
by the filling the floats are made of 
different length, shorter floats pro- 
ducing shorter pile than long floats. 
A greater variety of patterns can be 
obtained by shearing the evenly 
woven pile. Part of the pile is pressed 
down and the remaining erect pile 
is shorn short. After the pressed 
down parts are brushed up again they 
will have a longer pile and thus form 
a design. 

Pile Warp A set of warp threads, 
separate from the warp forming the 
ground. It is carried over wires of 
various thicknesses, at intervals, thus 
forming the pile. 

Pillow In England a cotton and linen 
dimity, the face finished smooth, 
napped or printed. 

Pillow Cord 'Bright colored cotton or silk 
cord, used by upholsterers. 

Pillow Lace 'See bobbin lace. 

Pillow Linen In England a fine linen 
fabric, containing 150 ends and picks 
in a square inch, used for pillow cas- 
ing. 

Pillow Tubing Cotton pillow casing, 
woven without any seam. 

Pilot Cloth Heavy, stout and cqarse 
navy blue twilled woolen fabric fin- 
ished with a nap; used by seamen. 

Pilsworth In Turkey a bleached cotton 
cloth, with a soft linen finish, very 
little sized. 

Pin Check Very small check pattern. 

Pin Rib Very fine warp cord in some of 
the fabrics. 

Pina Cloth .Made in the Philippine Is- 
lands of the fibers of the pineapple. 
It is very thin and transparent. 

Pinara Variety of raw cotton from Peru. 

Pinasses East Indian cloth made of pure 
bast fibers; it has a yellow or brown 
color. 

Pinchina 1, originally a heavy, all-wool, 
plain woven fulled French cloth made 
about 52 inches wide. Formerly it 
was perfumed; 2, an inferior, all-wool, 
twilled suiting of same width, made of 
coarse undyed wool; 3, name for a. 
variety of narrow and medium wide 
droguets. 

Pincop Cotton weft yarn. 

Pine Tree Very stout, heavy, fulled 
knitted woolen fabric, used for cloth- 
ing in Canada. 

Pine Wool Pine leaf fibers, knitted into 
underwear or woven into coarse cloth. 



PIN 



122 



PLA 



Pineapple Fiber Soft, very fine, lustrous 
and durable leaf fiber, yielded by the 
pineapple in the Philippine Islands. 
It is one of the very finest among 
the fibers and used for the sheerest 
muslins. 

Pinguin Long, weak and coarse leaf 
fiber, yielded by a species of the wild 
pineapple in Jamaica. 

Pinking Cutting the edge of the fabric 
in scalloped form. 

Pinsheds Little loops of gold thread 
found in single spots on some 
medieval velvets. 

Pintado 1, an East Indian calico; 2, 
ordinary cotton prints in Latin Amer- 
ican countries. 

Pique 1, stout, strong cotton or linen 
dress goods, woven either in cross rib 
effects or in figures. It is made with 
two sets of warp and one (or in tha 
heavier grades two) sets of filling, 
the heavy filling forming the rib ef- 
fects, etc., the back warp binding 
the face and back together. Used for 
dresses, vests, etc.; 2, name for silk 
waste yielded by damaged, stained or 
imperfect cocoons. 

Pique Anglais Solid colored French serge, 
having eight leaves and eight picks in 
a repeat. 

Pique -Damas .Solid colored silk French 
dress goods; obsolete. 

Piquete^Corded twilled French vesting, 
made with eight warps and four picks 
in a repeat. 

Piramides 17th century fine and narrow 
English worsted, made with two- 
colored yarns. 

Piranshahi Siah Dyed nainsook in Persia. 

Pirenean Wool Very fine, loose twist 
English woolen yarn for knitting. 

Piripiri ' Fine stem fiber of the Pipturus 
argenteus in Tahiti; used for cords, 
nets and bags. 

Pirl Gold or silver thread made spiral 
by winding. 

Pirle An English finishing process, 
rendering the woolen fabrics water- 
proof and unshrinkable. 

Pirn A conical shape, over a conical 
wooden core, into which weft yarn 
is wound for the loom, mostly in the 
linen weaving. The yarn is laid par- 
allel. 

Pishteh In the Bible means flax and 
linen. 

Pita Very long, strong, glossy, white and 
silky fiber, yielded by the various 
agaves and pineapples in Central 
America. Used for threads, fine 
hammocks, etc. 

Pitambar Yellow colored silk or cotton 
fabric; used as loin cloth in India. 

Pitch^l, in hand-made carpets and rugs 
the number of knots in a square inch; 
2, in loom-made carpets and rugs the 
number of warp ends in 27 inches. 

Pitchy Wool in the grease. 

PittCommercial variety of prolific up- 
land cotton from Mississippi, now ob- 
solete. 



Pittman Commercial variety of early 
maturing and prolific cotton from 
Louisiana, the staple measuring 23-25 
millimeters; the yield is about 31 per 
cent. 

Placarder Ffench term for a resist dye- 
ing process by which the ground will 
take the dye but the pattern remains 
white. 

Plagae 'Linen sheeting in ancient Rome. 

Plaid A large variety of twilled cotton, 
woolen, worsted or silk fabrics, woven 
in tartan pattern, consisting of colored 
bars crossing each other at right 
angles and forming large squares. Also 
a coarse worsted shawl, woven simi- 
larly, and worn in Scotland. 

Plaiding Obsolete English kersey. 

Plain 1, a wool with little crimp; 2, 
fabrics without any ornament as to 
weave or color. 

Plain Braid Flat braid made of three 
threads. 

Plain Gauze Leno weave where the warp 
threads cross other warps always in 
the same direction. 

Plain Knitting Knitted fabric made with 
uniformly constructed loops lying in 
similar direction. It has a different 
appearance on each side. 

Plain Weave The simplest among all 
weaves, the principle of which is that 
only one warp and weft cross 
each other at one time (see twill). 
The relative count of the warp and 
the weft and the count of the fabric 
offer the greatest variety. The warp 
and filling can be of the same count, 
or nearly so, as in taffeta, muslin, 
voile, chiffon, "batiste, etc. In some 
of the plain woven fabrics (like warp 
cords) the warp is of considerably 
lower count than the filling, while in 
Ottomans, failles and other cross 
ribbed fabrics the filling is much 
heavier than the warp. It is also 
called taffeta or linen weave. 

Plainback An English worsted fabric, 
originated in the 19th century; it is 
made of single yarn with a twilled 
face and plain back in imitation of 
jean. 

Plaindin Obsolete Scotch wool serge. 

Plains Medieval English worsteds. 

Plaited Stitch Or herringbone stitch used 
in embroidery to imitate the herring- 
bone effect. 

Plaiting The felting of the hair or wool 
for hat bodies, by means of heat, 
moisture and pressure. 

Plantain Strong bast fiber of the plan- 
tain tree (Platanus), similar to the 
Manilla hemp. Used in India for 
cordage and mats. 

Planting A process in weaving by which 
the various colored extra warps are 
interchanged. 

Plated Knit Goods Two separate yarns, 
cotton and silk or cotton and wool, 
are laid on the needles and formed 
into loops on the framework in such 
a manner that each yarn appears only 
on one side of the fabric. 



PLA 



123 



POI 



Platille A fine quality of pure French 
linen. 

Platt Machine lace made flat without any 
raised work. The pattern is worked 
by threads running in zig zag line 
between straight and parallel threads. 
Some of these laces have the design 
outlined by a heavier thread while 
others are made without this out- 
line. 

Pleasaunce Fine lawn, used for dresses 
and veils under Henry VIII of Eng- 
land. 

Pleures French term for pulled wool, 
taken from sheep that died of natural 
causes. 

Plodan In the 16th century a coarse 
woolen made in two or three colored 
checks worn in Scotland by citizens' 
wives for cloaks. Believed to be the 
early form of plaid. 

Plommett A 16th century fabric in Eng- 
land, made of worsted and silk or 
linen, the piece weighing 4 Ibs. and 
measuring 14 yards. 

Plucked Wool Shorn from a carcass 
several days old. 

Pluie Lustrous dress goods and tapestry, 
made in France of silk or camel hair 
warp with gold or silver threads inter- 
woven in the filling. 

Plumetis Embroidery in feather stitch 
over a clear and light ground. 

Plumette French woolen or silk mixed 
dress goods, not fulled; obsolete. 

Plunket, Plonkete or Blunket. 1, in the 
15th century a blue color; 2, under 
Edward VI a coarse woolen fabric. 

Plunket Azures BUue woolens from 
England. 

Plush 1, a warp pile fabric with a silk 
or wool pile, made longer than that of 
the velvet. There is no generally ac- 
cepted rule as to the length of the 
pile, although in some parts of Europe 
if the pile is 16-100 of an inch, or 
longer, it is considered plush, if short- 
er, velvet. Used for dresses, coats, dra- 
pery, according to quality. Double 
plush pile on both sides; 2, a term 
used in knit goods; see single plush 
and double plush. 

Plush Stitch A stitch applied in Berlin 
work to form a fringe along the edge 
of the embroidery and it is left either 
in loop form or is cut. 

Ply 1, the strand composing the thread 
or yarn, being usually twisted the 
opposite direction than the thread. The 
number of plies express the construc- 
tion of the yarn; 2, the layer of fa- 
brics in a men's collar for instance. 

Pochote Very fine and lustrous fiber 
yielded by the Eriodendron anfrac- 
tuosum in Mexico. It is similar to the 
kapok. The fiber is used for fine 
cloth and for hats, in this case mixed 
with rabbit's fur. 

Pocket Drill Stout, unbleached cotton 
drill, used for pockets. 

Pocketing Cotton velvet used for over- 
coat pockets; also napped cottons 
used for the same purpose. 



Poll 1, French term for pile; 2, silk thread 
used as core for gold tinsel, consist- 
ing eight or 10 reeled filaments twist- 
ed together. 

Poile de Chevre Fine, soft French dress 
goods made with colored silk or cot- 
ton warp and angora filling. 

Point 1, in hand-made laces denoting 
fine quality, irrespective of the make; 
2, French term for stitch in laces. 

Point a I' Aiguille Lace sprigs made with 
the needle, irrespective of the de- 
sign. 

Point D'Alencon Same as Alencon lace. 

Point Anglaise French for feather stitch. 

Point D' Angleterre Originated in Eng- 
land as bobbin lace, improved upon 
by Flemish needle point stitches in 
the 17th century. The ground shows 
great variety, the net ground being 
bobbin-made around the patterns. 
Often cordonnet or ribs are produced 
by plaiting the threads and also bob- 
bin made brides or fancy needle jours 
are employed. 

Point d'Anvers Same as Antwerp lace. 

Point Applique Applique lace, made of 
needle-point sprigs attached to a net 
ground. 

Point d'Arabe Coarse French bobbin 
curtain lace of Arabian origin, made 
of ecru cord with large patterns. 

Point d'Armes An embroidery stitch 
used on transparent materials for 
leaves and flowers, showing on the 
face a hemstitch while the threads 
are crossed in the back in a closa 
lattice fashion. 

Point dIAttache A variety of stitches In 
embroidery, by which fancy mate- 
rial is attached to the foundation. 

Point de Biais Embroidery stitch con- 
sisting of slanting satin stitches made 
of different length. 

Point Bisette Same as Bisette lace. 

Point de Brabancon lA flat filling used 
in needle-point laces, consisting of 
rows of buttonhole stitches linked to- 
gether. 

Point a Brides Generic term for laces 
with bars in the ground. 

Point Brode Bobbin lace sprigs, made 
with raised work. 

Point de Bruges See Bruges lace. 
Point de Bruxelles^See Brussels lace. 
Point de Cable Same as rope stitch. 

Point Cam pan Narrow French bobbin 
lace edging of the 17th century. 

Point a Carreaux A French bobbin lace 
made with a simple, trellis-like pat- 
tern. 

Point de Chainette Same as chain stitch. 

Point de Champ All laces having a mesh 
ground, irrespective of style. 

Point de Chant See Point de Paris. 

Point Chaudieu In macrame lace a chain 
bar, formed by looping one thread 
around the other. 

Point Chemin de Fer Same as railway 
stitch in embroidery. 



POI 



Point de Cone In guipure lace a cone 
shaped form stretching over four 
square meshes and filled in with cloth 
stitch. 

Point de Cordova A filling in needle-point 
laces, made stretching three threads 
close to each other and darning dote 
over. 

Point de Cote Same as rope stitch. 
Point Coute See Darned lace. 

Point Crochet A lace made by crochet- 
ing; the various sprigs are made sep- 
arate and joined together with bars, 
resulting in a guipure lace. 

Point Croise An embroidery stitch which 
forms in the front rows of continuous 
short stitches (like the hemstitch) 
while the thread is crossed in the 
back. 

Point de Croix Same as cross stitch. 

Point de Diable An embroidery stitch, 
consisting of a star with eight rays 
in a square. 

Point de Dieppe Same as Dieppe point. 

Point Double See Point de Paris. 

Point Duchesse See Bruges lace. 

Point d'Echelle A variety of ladder stitch 
in embroideries in which the bars 
are stitched across an open space. 

Point d'Epine Same as feather stitch. 

Point d'Escaliei Same as ladder stitch. 

Point d'Espagne Heavy guipure-like 
needle-point lace of the 17th and 18th 
centuries somewhat resembling Point 
de Venise and made of gold or silver 
thread with thick cordonnet outlines. 

Point d'Esprit 1, machine net with small 
dots scattered all over; 2, light and 
open stitches in needle guipure laces, 
consisting of loops forming various 
patterns in the square meshes. 

Point d'Etoile iA stitch over square mesh 
ground in needle-point laces; it is a 
more or less ornate star, covering 
nine or 16 squares. 

Point Evantail In guipure laces fan- 
shaped spots formed by darning 
stitches. 

Point Faisceau A heavy stitch in needle- 
point laces, consisting of herringbone 
stitches joined with a loop in the 
center. 

Point de Feston A filling in needle-point 
laces, consisting of festoons fastened 
with a knot at every loop. 

Point de Feuillage In raised macrame 
lace a bar made with four threads. 

Point de Filet A ground in needle-point 
laces made by fastening loc-ps to each 
other in buttonhole stitch, which form 
a filet mesh. 

Point de Flanders See Brussels lace. 

Point de France Term applied to French 
needle-point laces similar to the Point 
de Venise started by Colbert in the 
17th century. 

Point de Gauze Very fine needle-point 
mesh for Brussels lace. 



124 



POI 



Point de Genes 1, a species of Aetzstick- 
erei (see), made on a wool ground; 2, 
a stitch over square mesh in needle- 
point lace; two or three threads are 
stretched diagonally across several 
squares of the mesh and fastened to- 
gether by darning. 

Point de Gerbe A stitch in guipure lace, 
made by looping a thread several 
times around the opposite sides of 
a square mesh, forming buttonhole 
loops on one side; the threads are 
drawn together at the middle in a 
buttonhole stitch. 

Point de Gibeciere A bar in macrame 
lace formed by four threads, divided 
into two even groups and looped over 
each alternately. 

Point de Gobelin See Gobelin stitch. 

Point de Grecque^A ground in needle- 
point laces, consisting of darned 
square spots alternating with octag- 
onal meshes. 

Point Guipure See guipure lace. 

Point de Havre Narrow French needle- 
point lace of the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies, similar to Valenciennes. 

Point d'Hongrie French rug of hemp 
warp and silk filling with various fig- 
ures. 

Point d'lrlande Inferior machine imita- 
tion of Venise lace. 

Point Jesuit Crochet imitation of Venise 
laces made in Ireland. 

Point de Jours In embroidery open 
spaces with buttonholed edge and 
some filling. 

Point Lace iMade by the needle and 
thread. The term "point" applied also 
to very fine bobbin laces. 

Point Lache In needle-point laces trian- 
gles filling half of the square meshes; 
they consist of rows of buttonhole 
stitches linked together. 

Point Lance iAn embroidery made with 
short, straight and broken stitches in 
colored wool. 

Point de Malines '1, same as Maline lace; 
2, a filling used in needle-point laces, 
consisting of small circles, button- 
holed all around and connected with 
each other in a zig-zag line. 

Point de Marli A bobbin made net used 
as ground for bobbin laces in the 
18th century. 

Point de Marque Same as cross stitch. 

Point de Medicis Old name for Italian 
needle-point lace with raised cordon- 
net. 

Point Mexique In Mexican embroidery 
the outlining buttonhole stitch in 
black or colored silk. 

Point de Milan 'Lace with a small mesh 
ground and large trailing scroll pat- 
tern. 

Point a la Minute Cross and star shaped 
stitches; used to fill in small spaces. 

Point de Moscow Early Italian needle- 
point laces in Russian designs. See 
also Russian lace. 



POI 



125 



POL 



Point Natte 1, embroidery made with 
pieces of bright satin appliqued on 
a dark foundation, the edges fast- 
ened with braid; the pieces of satin 
are embroidered in floss silk or wool 
yarn; 2, an embroidery stitch ar- 
ranged in herringbone effect without 
a center line. 

Point Neige 1, needle-point lace of very 
fine design ornamented with various 
loops and picots; 2, a crochet work, 
made with regular open places and 
stitches radiating from each open- 
ing; used for quilts and jackets. 

Point Net Xet made by the needle and 
used as ground for applique laces be- 
fore the invention of the bobbinet. 

Point None Same as buttonhole stitch. 

Point Noue In needle-point laces a knot- 
ted buttonhole stitch. 

Point Ondule Double bar in macrame 
lace. 

Point d'Or See Point de Pois. 

Point de Paris 'Narrow French bobbin 
lace of the 17th century, similar to 
Brussels. 

Point de Paris Ground For black bobbin 
laces, consisting of hexagons and tri- 
angles. 

Point Passe Same as satin stitch in em- 
broidery. 

Point Pecheur Italian bobbin lace, made 
in white or black, similar to the Mal- 
tese lace. 

Point Perle Same as satin stitch. 

Point Plat In laces such patterns which 
have no raised parts. 

Point Plat Applique 'Modern Belgium 
lace of bobbin made sprigs applied 
to machine-made net. 

Point de Plume A padded satin stitch. 
Point Plumetis Same as feather stitch. 
Point de Pois 'An embroidery stitch, con- 
sisting of small dots. 

Point de Poste See Point de Pois. 

Point de Pyramide Same as Point da 
Cone. 

Point de Raccroc Same as Raccroc 
stitch. 

Point de Ragusa Same as Ragusa lace. 
Point de Repasse See cloth stitch. 
Point de Reprise A filling in needle-point 

laces, consisting of darned triangular 

spots. 

Point a Reseau Needle-point lace, the 
pattern being formed by the meshes of 
the ground. 

Point de Riz In embroidery short, irreg- 
ularly scattered stitches with a fan- 
cied resemblance to rice. 

Point de Rose 1, one of the most deli- 
cate needle laces, made originally in 
Venice, where the art revived of late. 
The beautiful and intricate patterns 
are made in raised effect, connected 
with bars; 2, a stitch in embroidery, 
consisting of broad buttonhole stitches 
over a padded surface. 



Point Russe Short straight stitches in 
fancy embroidery, forming geometri- 
cal patterns, Irke stars, diamonds, 
crosses, etc. 

Point de SableSee Point d'Armes. 

Point Saracene French tapestry made in 
imitation of Turkish carpets. 

Point Serre A stitch in needle-point laces; 
the thread is carried diagonally across 
each square mesh, looped and drawn 
tight and carried across the following 
meshes in zigzag line. 

Point de Sorrento Ground in needle-point 
laces; it consist sof a series of long 
loose loops, each worked around by 
a number of loose buttonhole stitches, 

Point Tiellage A stitch in needle-point 
laces; the thread is carried diagonal- 
ly across a square mesh and twisted 
half way around the knot in the cor- 
ner and carried afterwards through 
the next mesh. A second thread is 
carried between the same corners of 
the squares, but as it is twisted the 
opposite way around the corners, it 
forms a slight angle with the first 
thread. 

Point de Tigre Same as overcast stitch. 

Point Tire See drawnwork. 

Point de Toile See cloth stitch. 

Point Tresse i!6th century pillow lace of 
human hair. 

Point de Tricot In crocheting forming 
large open squares by chain stitches; 
used for fancy quilts, made of heavy 
wool yarn. 

Point de Tulle 1, see Mignonette; 2. a 
very fine ground in needle-point laces. 

Point Turc 1, a filling in needle-point 
laces, consists of rows of interlinked 
festoons fastened to straight threads; 
2, same as ladder stitch in embroid- 
ery. 

Point de Valenciennes 1, same as Valen- 
ciennes lace; 2, a filling in needle- 
point laces, consisting of squares sep- 
arated by open work; the squares 
are made of rows of buttonhole 
stitches linked together. 

Point de Venise 1, the finest of the 
needle-point laces, the characteristics 
being the padded cordonnets, the de- 
sign often being raised repeatedly, 
the great variety and fineness of the 
stitches and the rich ornamentation of 
the edges of the patterns and the 
brides with picots and stars; 2, a fill- 
ing in needle-point laces, consisting of 
rows of festoons, the loops in every 
alternate row being fastened with 
four buttonhole stitches. 

Pointed Twill >A twill weave, producing 
a zig-zag effect. 

Pointille 'French for small dots. 

Polarin In England curl pile fabrics with 

a cut mohair pile. 
Poldavis Coarse, plain woven linen; used 

in England. 

Polemieten See Dutch camlet. 

Polemite Holland and French solid col- 
ored camlet, made of two-ply Angora 
warp and worsted filling, forming 
cross ribs. 



POL 



126 



POW 



Polish Rugs 'Made in Warsaw in the 16th 
century in a factory established by 
Mersherski. The pile is of silk having 
gold and silver weft threads inter- 
woven. 

Poll sea ux 'Coarse, stout French linen 
canvas of various widths. 

Polished Twine Two-ply coarse hemp or 
flax twine with a smooth finish; used 
In stores to tie packages with. 

Polishing >A finishing process in which 
the yarn is stretched and given a 
smooth surface and gloss with starch, 
wax, etc. 

Polka Dot Round printed dots differing 
in color from the ground. 

Polka Gauze Swivel embroidered dots 
scattered over a gauze ground; used 
for dresses, etc. 

Polledavy Unbleached French hemp sail- 
cloth. 

Pollock Commercial variety of fairly 
early maturing American cotton, the 
staple measuring 35-40 millimeters. 

Polo Cloth Double faced, soft and loosely 

woven woolen cloth; the nap is raised 

and shorn. 
Polonaise Corded silk dress goods, made 

in France. 
Polychrome Bobbin lace made of fine silk 

threads of various colors. 
Polyreflets French plush having patterns 

produced by the inclination of the 

pile at different angles. 
Pompadour Design mostly on silks and 

ribbons, showing bouquets in soft, 
shades. 



Pompadour Serge English woolen serge 
with small flower patterns. 

Pompadour Taffeta Rich dress silk 
originated under Louis XV., having 
wide satin or ribbed stripes on a 
taffeta foundation with large, bright 
colored flowers, often executed in 
pile. 

Poncho 1, a narrow woolen blanket, 
made with cotton warp and woolen 
.filling napped and well fulled, being 
made quite waterproof; used in 
camping; 2, cotton or woolen fabric, 
made in plain, twill or rep weave with 
fringes at the ends, usually with cof- 
fee brown stripes; used as overcoat 
in Argentine, Uruguay and Paraguay, 
having a slit in the center for the 
head. 

Pondicherry Dyed cotton goods in the 
African markets. 

Pongee 'Plain woven, light weight fabric, 
made of ecru wild silk in India and 
China; used for dresses. 

Pongee Imperial A rich, plain woven 
and highly finished silk dress goods, 
made of pongee silk. 

Pongee Print A fine and light cotton 
goods with a soft finish, printed with 
stripes and dots; used in South Af- 
rica. 

Ponson Velvet Heavy velvet, made all 
silk or only with silk pile; used for 
women's coats and cloaks. 



Pontiac Dark gray, stoutly knitted and 
waterproof woolen fabric; used for 
skirts and coats for outdoor wear. 

Pontivy Obsolete French linen shirting 
of various grades. 

Poor Man's Commercial variety of me- 
dium maturing upland cotton from 
California, the staple measuring 22-24 
millimeters; the yield is 34-36 per 
cent. 

Poplin 1, the real Irish poplin originally 
had fine organzine warp and a heav- 
ier woolen filling, forming cross ribs; 
2, fabrics having fine, cross ribs ir- 
respective of the material they are 
made of. The better grades are dyed 
in the yarn; used for coats, dresses, 
etc. Single poplin has very fine cross 
ribs, the double poplin is much 
stouter and has prominent ribs. 

Poplinette In England a variety of 
grenadine, similar to a very light pop- 
lin. 

Porcelain Lace Lace steeped in thick 
solution of kaolin and fired which de- 
stroys the fibers but leaves the porce- 
lain behind. 

Port Philip Fine Australian merino wool. 

Port Cabello Raw cotton from Colom- 
bia. 

Porto Rico Cotton Has silky, soft, 
white staple, grown in the West In- 
dies. 

Poster Rug Woven of rags with white 
warp, having borders in several col- 
ors, showing landscapes, flowers, etc. 

Pot A length of usually 10,000 yards, 
into which pieces of linen are sewed 
together previous to bleaching. 

Pota Species of the Pandanus in the 
Solomon Islands; used for the finest 
mats. 

Potassium Chlorate Used to oxidize ani- 
line black. 

Potassium Permanganate Used for 

bleaching wool. 

Potten Kant (Characteristic pattern of 
the Antwerp lace (see), consisting of 
a pot or vase and conventionalized 
flowers. Originally the pattern pic- 
tured the Annunciation. 

Poulangy Coarse and stout French 
twilled suiting, made in solid colors 
with linen warp and woolen filling. 

Pouldavid French sailcloth of hemp 
(same as Polledavy). 

Poult de la Reine Very heavy silk dress 
goods, woven with a pebbled surface. 

Poult de Soie Solid colored silk fabric, 
made in plain weave with a two-ply 
warp and a heavier filling containing 
more than two strands and forming 
cross ribs; used for dresses. 

Pounce To raise the nap on a felt hat 
with emery paper. 

Pouritache Similar to the soutache braid 
only much heavier. 

Poussin Very light, narrow French lace, 
similar to Valenciennes. 

Powdering Dotted pattern strewn all 
over the fabric. 



ROW 



127 



PRU 



Powel Davies See Poldavis. 

Prayer Rugs Oriental ' rug of usually 
small size; used by tie Moslems to 
kneel on when praying. The chief 
characteristic is the representation of 
a niche' o-r arched doorway at one 
end, sometimes with the tree of life or 
a lamp hanging from the middle; oc- 
casionally there are only three me- 
dallions, two for the knees and one 
for the head. 

Precieuse Plain woven striped silk dress 
goods. 

Prein A German process by which the 
shearing of the goods is eliminated 
by pressing all irregular fibers into 
the body of the cloth while it is in 
the loom. 

Prelate French sailcloth and tent can- 
vas, made of hemp and coated with 
tar. 

Premium Commercial variety of early 
maturing upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 23-27 millimeters; the 
yield is 32-33 per cent; also called 
Peerless. 

President A double woolen fabric, the 
face made with cotton warp and 
woolen filling in five-leaf satin weave, 
the back with an extra mohair filling 
in two and one weave. 

President Braid A twilled woven braid 
with diagonal ribs; used for trim- 
ming. 

Presidents In Europe napped woolen 
fabrics, made with a large proportion 
of shoddy or mungo. 

Press A finishing process, consisting in 
pressing the fabric between heated 
plates or cylinders. 

Press Cloth A strong camels' hair cot- 
ton or linen fabric, plain woven; used 
generally for filtering. 

Prexillas Crudas Gray or half bleached 
canvas in Spain and Latin America; 
made of flax waste. 

Prime Merino clothing wool taken from 
sides of a very fine fleece or shoulder 
of a good fleece. 

Princess Stuff Obsolete English dress 
goods, made with two-ply goats' hair 
warp and silk filling. 

Princesse Four-leaf silk satin dress 
goods, made with single warp. 

Princesse Cashmere 'French cotton dress 
fabric, made in imitation of cash- 
mere. 

Princetta An English worsted fabrK' in 
the 19th century, made with silk warp 
and worsted filling; originally made 
of pure worsted. 

Prints Generic name for printed cotton 
fabrics, as a different class from 
white goods. They come in warp and 
calico prints in a greit variety of 
weaves, either with fast selvag-3 or 
made as splits. 



Printing A great variety of processes for 
decorating textiles of all descriptions 
by applying to certain parts various 
colors or chemicals. Printing can be 
applied to the sliver for mixture yarn 
effect (see Vagoureux) to the warp or 
to the woven fabric. 

Printing- differs from dyeing inas- 
much as it applies the color or chem- 
ical only to certain parts of the tex- 
tile by means of engraved cylinders 
or blocks while in dyeing the textiles 
are submerged in the color; the two 
processes, however, are applied to- 
gether in many processes. 

With the exception of India and 
other Oriental countries and a few 
expensive lines of silks where hand 
printing is still in use by means of 
blocks; nr-inting is done by machinery, 
with a different engraved roll for each 
color in the design. See also Perro- 
tine printing. 

The fabrics are being prepared In 
a variety of ways before printed on. 
Woolens are often chlorinated to in- 
crease their affinity for dyes or are 
treated in weak solution of ammonia. 
Linens are scoured in soda or lime. 
Cottons are always singed and often 
bleached. They are also often 
mordanted or mercerized or scoured 
in soda or lime. 

The more important styles of print- 
ing are: The pigment printing, 
where insoluble colors are fixed to the 
fabric by means of albumen; discharge 
printing where parts of a previously 
dyed ground are destroyed by chem- 
icals applied in printing; mordant 
printing for basic colors; resist print- 
ing, where the fabric is printed with 
some ctipmical which prevents the sub- 
sequently applied dye to take effect 
on certain parts of the cloth. These 
styles are combined in various ways. 

Prolific A now obsolete commercial 
variety of upland cotton, also called 
Vick and Sugar Loaf. 

Promenette French woolen ribbons. 

Prunella 1, name for the 2-1 warp face 
twill; 2, an all-worsted English fab- 
ric of the 18th and 19th centuries, 
woven in three-end twill and usually 
dyed in dark purple color; used for 
clergymen's clothes, women's shoe 
tops, etc.; 3, at the present a very 
sirong, warp- faced fabric, made of 
all-worsted or with cotton filling in 
a satin weave and is used for shoe 
tops; it is similar to everlasting. 

Prunelle 1, an obsolete, very fine French 
wool dress fabric, made with a hard 
spun, two-ply warp and a three or 
five-ply silk filling; it was usually 
dyed black; 2, a French -serge dress 
fabric of the early part of the 19th 
century, made with 12 ends and 6 
picks in a repeat; 3, French for 
prunella (see). 

Prunelle Batarde Plain French serge, 
made with 8 or 10 ends and four or 
five picks in a repeat. 



PRU 



128 



QUA 



Prussian Binding In England, made with 
silk face and cotton back and is 
twilled diagonally; is used as bind- 
ing on waterproofs and coats. 

Prussian Shawls Frinsed, twilled cotton 
shawls printed in Oriental designs in 
England. 

Prussian Velvet A German pile fabric, 
made with cotton or linen warp and 
mohair filling, which forms the pile. 

Prussienne French silk dress goods 
originated in the middle of the 18th 
century, made with brocaded figures 
formed by the warp; obsolete. 

Pua Hemp Very strong bast fiber, re- 
sisting water; found in Assam, Bur- 
mah, Japan, etc., where it is used 
for fishing nets, ropes, twine, bags, 
etc. 

Puckered 'Cockled cloth. 

Pudding Cloth Plain woven bleached 
cotton fabric in England; used in 
cooking. 

Pugliese Variety of inferior raw cotton 
from South Italy. 

Puke A woolen fabric worn during the 
Middle Ages in England. 

Pulled Wool Removed from the skin of 
killed sheep through "painting" the 
fleshy part with lime. 

Pullicate Pale orange colored cotton 
handkerchief, made during the end 
of the 18th and beginning of the 19th 
century In England for the South 
American markets. 

Pulling Cotton A test to determine the 
length, strength and uniformity of 
length of the fibers, in buying cotton 
for mills. A small quantity of cotton 
is pulled apart with two hands, the 
projecting long fibers separated from 
the rest and broken between two 
hands to test the strength. 

Pullom Silky, yellowish seed hair of the 
Bombax tree in Africa. 

Pulu Soft, lustrous, Ions brown fibers, 
obtained from the leaf stalks of the 
fern tree of Hawaii; used for stuf- 
fing. 

Punched Felt Wool stock of short staple 
but good felting property is attached 
to both sides of a burlap by barbed 
needles. The wool is then felted. 
Also called needle felt. 

Punpee Chinese unfinished taffeta. See 
iPong'ee. 

Pun jam Unbleached or piece dyed, close- 
ly woven, East Indian cotton cloth. 

Punta Arenas Very good, spongy and 
bulky wool, grown in the Terra del 
Fuego; used for knit goods. 

P unto 'Spanish and Italian for mesh or 
lace. 

Punto Aquila lA medieval Italian linen 
lace, made in the Abruzzi mountains. 
It was a bobbin lace, somewhat simi- 
lar to the English point, showing de- 
signs with raised edges, both the de- 
sign and the net ground, being made 
at the same time of fine, bleached, 
hand spun linen yarn. 

Punto in Aria Early Italian name for 
needle-point lace. 

Punto o Tul Cotton tulle in Venezuela. 



Purdah 1, East Indian, blue and white 
striped cotton-; used for curtains, of- 
ten painted by hand; 2, closely wov- 
en, but very fine cotton or linen veil, 
worn by the women of hierh caste in 
India. 

Pure Dye In the trade silk which does 
not contain other foreign matter ex- 
cept the dye. 

Pure Finish Is without any weighting or 
dressing. 

Purl 1, gold or silver embroidery thread 
constructed like a spiral spring; 2, 
see Bar. 

Purl Knitting Framework knitting, the 
loops formed in reverse direction, both 
sides of the fabric looking alike. 

Purling Early English name for narrow 
edgings made in a loose plaited fash- 
ion. 

Purnellow 18th century English fabric 
made of all worsted. 

Purse Silk Thick silk thread, made 
smooth and soft; used for embroid- 
ery. 

Purshed Velvet 'Medieval term for velvet 
the pile of which was raised in a net 
pattern. 

Purumu Fine, silky bast fiber, yielded by 
the Sida carpinifolia in the Canary 
Islands; used for cordage locally. 

Pushmina or Pushum See Pashim. 
PutEast Indian knotted rugs, made of 
fine white wool. 

Putang 'Narrow, very coarse homespun 
cotton cloth made in China. 

Puttee >A tubular, plain knit fabric with 
fleece lining. The latter is formed by 
catching an extra heavy, slack twist 
yarn, which remains straight, by some 
of the loops; this yarn is napped in 
the finishing. 

Puttoo 1, East Indian inferior wool cloth; 
used for shawls; 2, East Indian infer- 
ior goats' wool; 3, French dress goods 
and coating of thick but light texture, 
having a long nap which is of a light- 
er color than the body. 

Puy Lace (French bobbin lace, made in a 
great variety, mostly in black and 
white and also in silk guipures. 

Puyuenchow Another native Chinese 
term for pongee, made in widths of 
30 and 32 inches and boiled out after 
weaving. 

Pylaken Obsolete English fulled cloth. 

Pyrenean Wool Coarse Spanish wool; 
used for carpets. 



Q 



QuadrilleFrench for checked. 

Qualin 'See Kalin. 

Quality Binding A strong, twilled, wide 

tape, made of coarse worsted; used 

for binding carpets. 



QUA 



129 



RAI 



Quarantain Fine French woolen cloth, 
originally of 4,000 warp ends. 

Quarter Means nine inches; a standard 
in measuring the width of woolens 
and worsteds in the U. S. 

Quarter Diamond An 18th century pure 
worsted in England. 

Quatre Fils Very strong French sail 
cloth, made with four-ply warp. 

Quebradinho Sort of raw cotton, grown 
on trees in Brazil. 

Queddeng Coarse Philippine fiber; used 
for cordage. 

Queen Commercial variety of upland 
cotton, from Arkansas, the staple 
measuring 22-25 millimeters; the 
yield is 34-36 per cent. 

Queen's Cloth Trade term for a fine 
bleached cotton shirting in Jamaica; 
usually a yard wide. 

Queen Cord Stout, ribbed cotton trouser- 
ing, made in England; obsolete. 

Queen's Silk Rich, English dress silk of 
black color; obsolete. 

Queen Stitch Used in embroidery, con- 
sists of a square inside of another 
with parallel sides. 

Queensland Hemp 'Fine, strong fiber 
yielded by the sida plant in Aus- 
tralia. 

Quenkas Highly finished warp striped 
Indian silk satins. 

Quercitron A bright yellow mordant 
dyestuff, yielded by the bark of an 
oak, Quercus tinctoria, in Southern 
United States. 

Quill Embroidery See Canadian em- 
broidery. 

Quilot The fine, white and glossy inner 
fiber, yielded by the abaca plant: 
used for very flne fabrics by the na- 
tives, but only little of it is found on 
the market. 

Quilt Bleached cotton or linen fabrics 
woven in fancy designs, either as a 
single cloth, or reversible or as pad- 
ded fabrics. 

Quilting See Matelasse. 

Quinette Light weight French camlet, 
made of all wool, or mixe I with poats' 
hair; obsolete. It was used for 
skirts and lining. 

Quintain Very fine lawn, made in Q., 
France; used for embroideries and 
laces. 

Quintes The best grade of French linen. 
Quomotanetu Very strong bast fiber, 
yielded by a species of the Asclepia- 
daceae in South Africa. 



R 



Rabattue Light and thin French linen 

fabric. 
Rabanna A coarse fabric made of raffia 

fibres in Madagascar. 



Rabbit Hair Used for hats and as sub- 
stitute of vicuna, for shawls, etc. 
Raccroc Stitch Used in joining the sep- 
arately executed pieces of lace to- 
gether into a larger piece. 
Race In pile fabrics the narrow space 
between two adjoining rows of pile 
Racked Stitch Same as shogged (see). 
Radames See Rhadames. 
Radio Plain woven lustrous lightweight, 
sheer French silk dress goods, comes 
printed or dyed. 

Radzimir A very fine, lustrous, stout silk 
dress fabric in England, made in 
plain weave but weft ribs; it is usual- 
ly dyed black and used for mourn- 
ing. 

Raffia Tough fibrous strips, yielded by 
the epidermis of certain palms in 
Africa; used for plaited goods, ma/ts, 
etc. 

Rag Rug Made of strong cotton warp 
and stripes of various colored rags, 
forming patterns. 

Rags Are classified': Carpets, skirting 
(women's dress goods and men's lin- 
ing), merino (very fine women's 
dress goods), flannel, linsey (all 
other wool fabrics containing cotton), 
serge (braids, tresses, etc ), new (new 
clippings from tailors), rubbish (the 
lowest grades of rags). Each of this 
is sorted again according to colors. 
Ragusa Lace (Dalmatian needle-point 
lace of early origin, eimilar to the 
Point Venise. At the present pat- 
terns formed of picot edge silk or 
gold tape are united with brides to 
form laces. 

Railroad Canvas Black or white and 

considerably sized cotton or linen 

fabric made with open texture; used 

for embroidery. 

Railway Stitch Similar to leviathan 

stitch (see). 

Rainbow Effect Produced in calico print- 
ing by the different colored fields 
shaded into each other at the edges. 
Raincloth Twilled or satin weave light 
cotton, wool or silk cloth, dyed in the 
piece and made waterproof by rub- 
ber, oils, etc Used for raincoats. 
Rainproof Same as waterproof. 
Raised Colors In textile printing vari- 
ous dyestuffs which are treated after 
printing, in a bath which will fix or 
develop the color. 

Raised Embroidery Made with padded 
or raised patterns over a flat founda- 
tion. 

Raised Fabric Same as napped goods. 
Raised Stitch In Berlin work, is called 
also velvet stitch and is a variety of 
the plush stitch (see); it is suitable 
for raised wool work. The loops are 
being cut and brushed, imitating the 
pile of the velvet. 

Raised Velvet 'Having the pattern form- 
ed by a higher pile than that cov- 
ering the ground. See pile over pile. 
Raised Work 'In hand-made laces the 
raised edge of the sprigs. 



RAI 



130 



REB 



Raising The process of forming a nap 
on a fabric by scratching or brush- 
ing. 

Rajahs-Silk dress goods having nubs in 
the texture, similar to pongee. 

Rajmahal Hemp Very sEroujr, fine, silky 
fibre, yielded by the Marsdenia tena- 
cissima in India; used for bowstrings 
and ropes. 

Ram's Wool Shorn from male sheep; it 
is stronger than other wool. 

Ramage 'French for branching patterns. 

Rambouillet French merino wool of lus- 
trous, strong, long staple. 

Rameses -Commercial variety of early 
maturing upland cotton, the staple 
measuring up to 26 millimeters; the 
yield is 32-33 per cent. 

Rameta 'Strong stem fiber of the Lasio- 
siphon speciosus, a tree in East India; 
used for ropes. 

Ramie Very strong, fine and durable bast 
fiber of white silky color, yielded 
by the Boehmeria plant of the nettle 
family, growing in China, America, 
etc. It is difficult to decorticate. 
Owing to its porousness it is used for 
underwear. 

Rampoor Chuddah Very fine and soft 
East Indian twilled woolen dress goods 
in red, white and gray colors; also 
a fine shawl. 

Ran 1, rope measure, 20 yards; 2, silky, 
long fibre, yielded by the Malachra 
capitata in tropical Africa and Amer- 
ica; used as substitute for jute. 

Rancheria Grass used for mats, baskets, 
etc., by the Indians in the North- 
western States. 

Random Yarn Fancy filling yarn, having 
a strand wound around a different 
colored core. 

Rangoon 'East Indian cotton, having 
a short and weak staple of dull and 
stained brown color; contains much 
leaf. 

Ranter All-worsted fabric, made in Eng- 
land during the 18th century. 

Rap A skein, containing 120 yards of 
yarn. 

Rapatelle Open-work horsehair cloth, 
used for sifting flour. 

Ras Name of various twilled French 
worsteds or serges; made either en- 
tirely smooth or only slightly napped. 
Also a lightweight, slightly fulled 
woolen cloth, both absolete. 

Ras de Cypre French silk dress goods 
with cross ribs; comes usually in 
black. 

Ras de Florence Fine woolen men's 
wear, woven in fancy colored twills. 

Ras de Maroc Narrow and lightweight 
French serge, made of Spanish wool. 

Ras de Perse French woolen dress goods, 
little fulled; obsolete. 

Ras de Saint Cyi Four-leaf, gray col- 
ored, single face French serge of silk 
warp and silk wool or cotton filling; 
obsolete. 



Ras de Saint Maur Black French serge 
of silk warp and silk, cotton or wool 
filling; was used for mourning; made 
single faced or taffeta back; obso- 
lete. 

Rasete Sateens in Venezuela. 

Rash 1, inferior silk cloth in England, 
often mixed with wool; obsolete; 2, 
16th century, very fine and costly 
English worsted. 

Raso Italian for satin. 

Rateen English all-wool lining serge, 
similar to frieze. 

Ratine 1, all-wool or cotton warp over- 
coating, the heavy fleecy nap, formed 
by the weft, is rubbed into nubs in 
the finishing process; 2, coarse, ma- 
chine made cotton lace, the design 
being made in terry weave. 

Rattail Narrow, round soutache, used 
for trimming. 

Rattan 'An exceedingly strong, tough 
and durable fibre, obtained in strips 
from the stem of the rotang palm in 
Asia and Africa; used for chair seats, 
baskets, cordage, etc. 

Ratti Coating A coarse twilled woolen 
fabric. 

Rattinet Obsolete thin French woolen 
lining serge. 

Raumois Coarse and unbleached French 
ticking. 

Ravensduck Cotton sail cloth. 

Raw 1, ginned cotton, as it is sold in 
the bale; 2, wool without being 
scoured; 3, silk after reeled from the 
cocoon but before it is boiled off or 
twisted. 

Rawaye Strong bast fibre, yielded by the 
Cochlospermum in West Africa; used 
for ropes. 

Ray Striped woolen fabric extensively 
used in England for clothing during 
the 12th century and afterward. Orig- 
inally it was made with warp stripes; 
later, under Edward n, with weft 
stripes. It came originally from 
Flanders. 

Rayadillos Wide cotton goods in the 
Philippines, made usually in narrow 
blue and white warp stripes. 

Raye French for striped. 

Rayleigh Irregular bars in guipure lace. 

Raynes Very fine linen of French origin, 
used in England for shirts and bed- 
ding during the 15th century. See 
Cloth of Raynes. 

Raypour Raw silk from East India. 

Rebayn Medieval English name for fab- 
rics woven with gold patterns over 
blue silk ground, made at Cologne, 
Germany. 

Reben A medieval fine cloth of un- 
known texture. 

Rebozo 1, shawl, made of knitted silk 
or wool, worn by Mexican women; 2, 
fulled woolen fabric, usually black, 
navy or dark green, used for skirts 
by the natives in Colombia. 



REC 



131 



RET 



Recouvees Stout French linon of natural 
reddish color. 

Recovered Wool Obtained by converting 
woolen rags into fibers by tearing 
them up and reworking them again. 
Shoddy and mungo are recovered 
wool. 

Red Peruvian Cotton having a harsh, 
wiry staple of golden brown color. 

Red Tape Cotton tape of red color used 
in English law offices to tie bundles 
of papers with. 

Reed Rake Flaw in the cloth, similar 
to a pin scratch. 

Reedy Flaw in the cloth, caused by sev- 
eral warp ends running through one 
dent. 

Reel Linen yarn measure, equal to 72,- 
000 yards. 

Reeling A preparatory process in the 
manufacture of silk, consisting in 
placing the unbroken cocoons in hot 
water and unwinding the single fila- 
ments several of which are joined side 
by side, without any twist and kept 
together by the natural gum of the 
silk. 

Refin French term for the best grades 
of wools of any certain class. 

Refine Very fine napped woolen fabric, 
used for livery. 

Refleuret French term for best grade 
wool. 

Reformee Stout French sail cloth. 

Refoulets Obsolete fine French lining 
serge, made 20 inches wide. 

Regain Average normal moisture which 
the fibre should contain, as for in- 
stance: cotton, raw or yarn, 8% per 
cent; linen, 12 per cent; carded wool 
and wool waste, 18V4 per cent; wool 
yarn, 17 per cent; worsted yarn, 18^4 
per cent; jute, 13% per cent; silk, 
11 per cent; noil, 14 per cent. 

Regatta A striped or checked cotton 
fabric, made in England with a two 
and one, warp face twill and well 
starched filling; used for aprons, chil- 
dren's dresses, etc; 2, woolen fabric, 
made with alternating gray and col- 
ored or blue and white stripes of 
equal width. 

Regatta Stripes Good quality, equal blue 
and white striped calico used in 
England as dress goods. 

Regency Point A Bedfordshire bobbin 
lace, made during the 19th century, 
with a thick edge, originally with 
tape design on reseau ground, later 
with plaited ground and raised pat- 
terns similar to the Maltese laces. 

Regenerated Wool -See under mungo and 

shoddy. 
Regny Fine and durable French linen 

made in R. 

Regrettas Narrow cotton goods, mostly 
in narrow blue and white stripes and 
blue filling; used in the Philippine 
Islands. 

Regular Twill Trade name for 45 de- 
gree twill weave, without any fancy 
figure. 



Rehani Cotton fabric woven with a bor- 
der of dark blue, yellow and green 
stripes and red silk body, used in 
East Africa. 

Reinforced Hosiery Is knitted at the toe 
and heel in such a manner as to pre- 
vent unraveling of the fabric if the 
stitches wear out. 

Rembrandt Rib 'Women's hosiery made 
with lengthwise rows of five drop 
stitches alternating with inch-wide 
strips of plain knitting. 

Remeta Strong, white bast fiber, yielded 
by the Lasiosiphon eriocephalus in 
India. 

Renaissance Cloth Term used in France 
to denote cloth made of shoddy. 

Renaissance Lace Modern lace, the pat- 
tern being formed of very open tape 
with one kind of filling and bars. 

Renforce Strong, stout French sail cloth. 

Rengue Fine cloth made of pineapple 
fibre In the Philippines. 

To Renter To restore damaged tapestry 
through inserting new warp. 

Rep Cotton, wool or silk fabric woven 
with heavier weft than warp, produc- 
ing ribbed effect. 

Rep Stitch See Persian cross-stitch. 

Repeat An entire, completed pattern 
which is repeated over again in the 
fabric, embroidery or lace. 

Repellent Stout, waterproofed woolen 
coating. 

Reps 1, French drapery velvet made of 
cotton and wool; obsolete; 2, A 
French silk fabric, having organzine 
warp, the ribs are either warp or 
cross ribs. 

Requet Bleached French linen used for 
bedding, etc. 

Rere Fine, white bast fibres of th* 
Cypholophus macrocephalus in the 
Pacific Islands; used for clothing 
mats by the natives. 

Rereal 'Certain Chinese silks which are 
given a second reeling after the first 
one performed by unskilled native 
workers. 

Reseau See Net. 

Reseau Rosace Ground of the Argentan 
lace (see). 

Reserve Dye Same as resist dyeing. 

Resist Dyeing The principle of this pro- 
cess of dyeing follows: The fabric 
Is first printed with some chemical 
which will resist to the subsequently 
applied dye on the places where it 
was applied. 

Reticella or Greek Point An early form 
of lace, showing cut and .drawn work 
with button-holed edges connected 
with brides. 

Retting Process to separate the linen 
fibres from the woody parts in the 
flax straw. It is done by steeping 
in water or by exposing the straw to 
dew. 



REV 



132 



ROA 



Reveche Plain woven, soft French wool 
cloth of English origin, having a long 
nap, often curled, on one side. Later 
made in twilled or serge weave with 
a soft, spongy, fulled body. 

Revennes Strong stout sail cloth in 
France. 

Reverse 1, coarse, loosely woven French 
woolen with napped face, similar to 
flannel; used for cheap clothing- 2 
the back of the cloth. 

Reversed Twill Twill weaves with the 
warp thread predominating on the 
face. Used in cotton and linen goods. 

Reverses (Medieval English worsted fab- 
ric. 

Reversible Double faced fabrics. 

Reversible Damask See damask. 

Reversible Imperial or Reversible Satin 
A stout cotton fabric woven in 8- 
leaf satin weave, containing many 
picks in an inch, the weft forming 
the face on both sides. It is usually 
napped on one side. 

Rex- Finished Cotton velvet finished by 
dissolving and precipitating upon it 
a portion of its own cellulose, clos- 
ing the ends of the fibres, used for 
burnishing cloth. 

Rhadames Stout and lustrous silk or 
cotton mixed dress goods, made with 
fine diagonal twill and dyed in solid 
colors. 

Rhadzimii See Radzimir. 

Rhea See Ramie. 

Rhodomelina A medieval silk fabric, half 

and half dyed pink and yellow. 
Riabaul East Indian narrow and coarse 

cotton fabric. 

Rib A usually straight raised cord in 
textiles, formed by threads which are 
heavier than the others either in the 
warp or in weft, formed also by 
grouping several warps through the 
same reed or passing more than one 
llmg through the same shed. 

Riband Obsolete for ribbon. 

Ribbed Knitting Knitted fabrics, made 
with the loops of each row lying al- 
ternately to the face and back of the 
fabric, forming ribs. 

Ribbon A narrow fabric, made mostly of 
cotton, wool, silk or artificial silk in 
a very great variety of weaves. The 
main difference between ribbons and 
the narrowest dress fabrics is that 
the former are used only for trim- 
ming and not as material for the gar- 
ment. As to width ribbons are meas- 
ured by the line, one-eleventh part 
of an inch, which is the standard, al- 
though in Europe some of the houses 
adapt various actual width for the 
line. In England the old Coventry 
method of measuring width of rib- 
bon, taking the thickness of the old 
English penny as basis, is still in 
vogue for sarcenet ribbons. The 
length of a piece of ribbon in the 
trade is often 10 yards, in England 
usually 36 yards and for velvet rib- 
bons, 18 yards. 



Ribstillos Silk and velvet ribbons on the 
Western coast of South America. 

Rice Braid A braid consisting of a core 
yarn having alternately thick and thin 
places, entirely covered with a fine 
yarn wound around. It comes usual- 
ly in white, but also in color and is 
mostly of cotton; used for trimming 
and fancy work. 

Rice Cloth A plain woven cotton fabric 
made with hard spun warp and a fine 
novelty yarn, the latter having heav- 
ier places at close intervals. The 
cloth is somewhat similar to a fine 
ratine and comes in solid color and 
in printed effect. 

Rice Stitch Same as point de riz. 

Richardson Commercial variety of 
American cotton, same as Jones Long 
Staple. 

Richelieu Ribbed women's hosiery, made 
with lengthwise rows of single drop 
stitch alternating with strips of plain 
knitting three-quarter inch wide. 

Richelieu Embroidery White embroidery 
made with padded outlines in imita- 
tion of the Venise laces. 

Richelieu Guipure 'Cutwork with open 
patterns buttonholed along the edge 
and joined with bars. 

Rickrack Flat braid made in zig-zag 
form. 

Ricotti Waste silk obtained from the in- 
ner smooth skin of the cocoon after 
reeling. 

Ride Cords Very strong English twilled 
trousering having warp ribs. 

R| 9 To fol d wide pieces of finished cloth 
in the center and to wind them up. 

Rigby An English waterproofing pro- 
cess, usually applied to woolens. 

Right Hand Twist Yarn twisted to the 
right hand. 

Rikmah In the Bible denotes needle- 
work, the pattern being appliqued to 
the ground. 

Rimo A fine, silky white cotton, grown 
in the valley of Senegal. 

Rinzu Silk satin in Japan. 

Rio Grande 1, Brazilian cotton having a 
harsh, white staple; 2, commercial 
variety of upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 18-22 millimeters- the 
yield is 34-36 per cent. 

Rio de Janeiro Variety of raw cot- 
ton from Brazil. 

Ripon Lace Coarse English bobbin lace, 

now obsolete. 

Ripple Cloth Another name for zibeline. 
Riqueza Herbaceous cotton from Brazil 

giving rich yield. 

Risty or R iffy Variety of raw cotton 
from the Levant. 

Rivers General trade name for raw cot- 
ton with a good body, measuring from 
1 1-16 to 1% inches, and grown along 
the Mississippi and Arkansas rivers. 

Rizee Linen fabric made in Asia Minor, 
used for veils, shirts, etc. 

Roannes Made of cotton and linen in 
France; used for bedding. 



ROB 



133 



ROU 



Rob Roy A Highland tartan adapted and 
worn by Rob Roy. It is composed of 
alternate red and black stripes of 
equal width. 

Robbings Wool of greater length than 
noil, removed during the combing 
process. 

Robertson A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows: * dark blue stripe; nar- 
row red line; dark green stripe, as 
wide as the blue * ; red field, three 
times wider than the green stripe, 
split near each edge by a narrow 
blue stripe (spaced from the edge its 
own width), and also split in the 
center by a pair of fine, green lines; 
repeat, in reversed order, stripes 
mentioned above between two '. 
Robes 64 square twilled cotton fabric, 
printed in bright colored patterns, 
and left unfinished; used for wrap- 
pers,, kimonos, robes, etc., now mostly 
for drapery purposes. 
Rochelles 'French linen used for bedding, 

shirts, etc. 

Rococo Embroidery Applique needlework 
having plain patterns buttonholed 
with bright colored floss silk over 
ecru linen or satin, the foundation is 
then cut away. 
Rococo Lace 18th century bobbin lace 

made flat in rococo style. 
Rod Smith Now obsolete long stapled 
commercial variety of upland cotton 
from Mississippi. 
Rodinum A medieval, pink colored silk 

fabric. 
Rodondos iBleached linen in South 

America. 

Roe 'Early maturing commercial variety 
of upland cotton from Louisiana, the 
staple measuring 25-30 millimeters; 
the yield is 28-30 per cent. 
Rogue's Yarn A colored strand of wors- 
ted twisted in the rope manufactured 
for the use of the British .navy. 
Rohun Strong, reddish fibre, yielded by 
the bastard cedar in India; used for 
ropes. 

Roll 1, bleached English linen of medium 
quality; 2, sort of obsolete English 
melton. 

Roll and Chain (or Rolland Chaine) 
Fine twilled English woolen having 
warp ribs; obsolete. 

Rollette Very fine linen, sort of heavy ba- 
tiste, made in Holland and Belgium. 
Remain Closely woven, six-leaf, French 
satin lining or dress goods, made with 
single warp. 

Romal East Indian plain silk taffeta. 
Romal Handkerchief 'Linen or cotton In 

blue plaid patterns. 

Roman Carpet Woven, double faced car- 
pet, made with weft figures; woven 
usually in squares. See also Scotch 
carpet. 

Roman Embroidery The conventional 
patterns are buttonholed with silk to 
match the ecru foundation. The rest 
is cut away and the different parts 
of the pattern are joined with plain 
bars. 



Roman Stripes Bright and contrasting 
colored stripes on fabrics, mostly silk. 

Rombowline iln nautics condemned can- 
vas or rope. 

Rondelette 1, inferior French cloth made 
of waste silk; 2, sort of French linen 
fabric. 

Rone Variety of stitches in quipure lace, 
made like wheels and spider stitch. 

Roofing Felt Made of coarse animal hair, 
wool or asbestos often saturated with 
tar; used for roofing. 

Rope Made of cotton, hemp, flax, jute, 
etc., measuring from one-third inch 
to four inches in diameter. The 
strands are twisted in a diffefent di- 
rection from that of the original 
yarns. See also shroud rope, hawser, 
cable. 

Rope Silk Slack twist, thick silk yarn, 
used for embroidery. 

Rope Stitch In embroidery short and 
slanting stitches placed in such a 
manner to imitate the twist of a rope. 

Rose A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: Black stripe; dark blue 
stripe of same width; narrow red 
stripe; dark blue stripe, as above; 
black stripe, as above; green stripe, 
as above; group (narrower than green 
stripe), consisting of a black stripe 
edged with narrow white stripes; 
green stripe, as above. 

Rose Point See point de rose. 

Roseberry A stout but light waterproof 
mercerized cotton fabric, having weft 
stripes; used for coats. 

Rosecran Obsolete, figured French linen. 

Roses Obsolete lightweight and narrow 
French fabrics, made of wool, silk 
and linen, with small woven rose pat- 
terns. 

Rosetta An 18th century woolen fabric 
in England. 

Rosette Fine, bleached and figured 
French linen; obsolete. 

Ross A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: Wide red stripe, split by 
two groups of narrow blue lines (each 
group consisting of three lines, of 
which the center ones are heavier) ; 
* dark green stripe, measuring seven- 
tenth-s of the width of the wide red 
stripe, and divided into three even 
parts by two narrow red lines; red 
stripe (being three-fifths of the first 
red stripe), split in the center by a 
pair of green lines * ; dark blue 
stripe, the width and split being same 
as of the green stripe; repeat, in re- 
versed order, the group mentioned 
above between the two *. 

Rostano Silk fabric, interwoven with 
gold or silver threads, made in Spain. 

Rouane Bleached household linen in 
France. 

Rouenneries French trade term, original- 
ly applied to cottons, dyed in the yarn, 
later to all printed cottons, and lin- 
ens. 

Rouge In Austria and Germany a plain 
woven cotton fabric, made of fine 
yarn; used for trimming. 



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134 



RUS 



Rough Peruvian Cotton, having very 
clean, moderately strong but harsh 
and wiry staple of a light cream color. 

Round Twill It is based on the satin 
weave, forming round diagonal ribs. 

Rouzet or Roustet Coarse strong French 
woolen used for cheap clothing. 

Roving A slishtly twisted, soft and thick 
rope, more drawn out and twisted 
than the stubbing. 

Rowdy 'Flaw in cloth, consisting of 

streaks. 
Royal Armure A narrow, stout silk dress 

fabric, woven with a pebbled face. 

Royal Axminster A carpet having a 
tufted cut pile, formed by the loom. 

Royal Cashmere Fine English summer 
dress goods of wool warp and worsted 
filling. 

Royal Rib 'Same as cardigan. 

Royale Silk dress goods, similar to gros 
de Tours, made with two harnesses, 
four warp ends in each heddle. 

Royalette In England a stout fabric 
made with cotton warp and Botany 
filling, woven in five-leaf weft satin 
weave. 

Roybon Sort of French casimir. 

Rozelle Hemp 'Strong silky bast fibre, 

yielded by the Hibiscus sabdariffa in 

India; ueed for ropes, etc. 

Ruanas Cotton ponchos in Columbia, 
made in plain weave, usually nar- 
row woven stripes placed three-quar- 
ter inch apart. 

Rubanet English woolen and worsted 
vesting; obsolete. 

Rubber Cloth Cotton fabric, rubberized 
on one side, used for raincoats in the 
lighter weights and suit eases and car- 
riage trimmings in the coarser grades. 

Rubber Velvet Consists of a rubberized 
cloth ground over which colored flock 
is blown while the rubber is still soft, 
giving it a soft, velvety face. Used 
for raincoats. 

Rubberized Silk or cotton fabrics water- 
proofed by rubber on one side. 

Rug 1, thick and heavy floor covering 
made of cotton, wool, silk or jute, 
made with or without any pile, by 
hand or on the loom; also a twilled 
and figured blanket used for travel- 
ing; 2, coarse woolen fabric worn by 
the poorer classes in England during 
the 16th century. 

Rug Back Double shed back, given to 
carpets and rugs to increase their 
wearing quality. 

Rugby In England a stout, colored cot- 
ton shirting. 

Rugging In England a stout, coarse 
woolen fabric, finished with a thick 
nap on the face; used for floor cover- 
ing. 

Rugginose Waste silk, obtained from 
stained or imperfect cocoons. 

Rum Cotton Trade name for cotton 
grown in the Danish West Indies. 



Rumburg Linen A Fine Austrian linen, 
the fineness and number of yarns in 
the warp and weft are alike. 

Rumchundei Various East Indian silk 
dress goods in white and cream with 
dots for patterns. 

Rumswizzel Frieze coating made of nat- 
ural wool in Ireland. 

Run The unit in the American system 
of woolen yarn count, meaning 1,600 
yards of yarn in a hank, the number of 
hanks giving the yarn count. 

Run Lace English, 18th century lace of 
bobbin-made net foundation with pat- 
terns embroidered upon it with the 
needle. 

Run Work A needlework, consisting in 
running white or colored thread 
through the meshes of a net to form 
a design. 

Russaline 18th century woolen fabric in 
Ensland. 

Russell In the 19th century a stout 
worsted in England, woven with 
double warp and single filling in a 
five-end twill; used for women's 
boots, shoes, petticoats and men's 
vests. 

Russel Cord Union fabric made with 
cotton warp and worsted filling, two 
warp ends being run through each 
dent, forming cords. 

Russet 1, a gray or reddish brown coarse 
English homespun under King John 
and later; 2, an 18th century pure 
worsted fabric in England. 

Russia Braid Made of silk or mohair for 
embroidery purposes. 

Russia Crash Coarse, strong, plain wo- 
ven unbleached cloth made of hemp 
or coarse linen yarn. Used for tow- 
els, coats, etc. 

Russia Rope Commercial name for un- 
tarred cables and cordage of hemp. 

Russia Sail Duck Strong flax or hemp 
sail cloth made in Russia. 

Russian Blanket Very heavy blanket 
with thick nap raised on both sides, 
made with wool warp and heavy mo- 
hair filling, usually in different col- 
ored stripes. Used for automobile 
robes. 

Russian Cord Consist of warp ends, heav- 
ier than the ground warp, crossed on 
the wrong side by a leno at each 
nick. The ground of the fabric is a 
plain woven sheer fabric, usually in a 
color contrasting to the cord. 

Russian Duck Fine bleached linen can- 
vas, used for summer clothing. A 
heavier grade is used for sail cloth. 

Russian Lace 'Coarse crochet lace of cot- 
ton or linen with simple patterns. 

Russian Serge A very strong, thick all- 
wool serge for women's coats. 

Russian Tricot A double crochet made 
with ribs. 

Russian Twill Trade name for fine, clear 
faced twilled woolen dress goods, 
woven of right hand twist yarn and 
dyed in the piece. 



RUS 



135 



SAL 



Russian Veiling Cotton veiling made 
with large meshes and square pat- 
terns woven between them. 

Russienne Carded, French silk dress 
goods; obsolete. 

Rusty Silk Flaw in white or delicate col- 
ored silk cloth showing fine brownish 
streaks in the filling. 



Sabattus Rug Modern American hand- 
made knotted rug made in Maine. It 
is all-wool, the pile being tied in a 
special knot. The design is taken 
from Indian pottery in colors of vege- 
table indigo blue and green. 

Sable French for mottled effect. 

Sabrina Applique needlework, the 
leaves and petals of flowers made of 
colored material edged with button- 
hole stitches. 

Sacharilla Mull A very delicate bleached 
cotton muslin, made of fine yarn with 
a low construction. It is given a very 
soft finish. Used for veils and tur- 
bans by the Moslems. 

Sacci An extensive variety of the sisal 
hemp of Yucatan; has a long white 
fibre. 

Sack Cloth Very coarse cotton or jute 
fabric, woven plain, used for bags. 

Sacking 1, heavy, three or four end 
twill jute or hemp cloth of double 
warp and single filling, used for ce- 
ment and ore bags; 2, solid colored 
flannels for kimonos. 

Saddening Same as after treating. 

Saddlecloth In Arizona and Mexico 
masses of aloe fiber spread out in reg- 
ular thickness and tacked to keep 
them in place. It is not woven. 

Sad ha General term in Bengal for plain 
cotton cloth without any design in 
the selvage. 

Sadin In the Bible means linen cloth. 

Sadowa Woolen dress goods with the nap 
being raised in circles, dots, squares, 
etc, 

Saffron A fugitive yellow dyestuff de- 
rived from the flowers of the crocus; 
used formerly to some extent. 

Sagathee, Sagathis, Sagathy, Saggathy 
An obsolete French and English 
woolen, woven in four-leaf twill with 
a white warp and colored filling and 
given a high finish with the calen- 
dar. 

Saging Philippine fibre used for cord- 
age. 

Sahare^Cotton fabric with wide yellow 
and narrow white stripes and a bor- 
der of red, yellow and white stripes; 
used in East Africa for sword 
sheaths. 



Saht Linen yarn in old Egypt. 

Said Variety of raw cotton from Syria. 

Saie tSame as Say. 

Sailcloth Coarse, stout, very strong can- 
vas or duck, used for sails, etc. 

Saint Andrew In embroidery a stitch 
forming a St. Andrew cross in a 
square. 

Saint Georges Unbleached French lin- 
en of medium quality. 

Saint Jago Cotton goods in Sierra Leone, 
Africa. 

Saint Jean Coarse, unbleached French 
linen made in various widths. 

Saint Lucie Very fine French silk yarn. 

Saint Maur French serge made of pure 
silk or mixed with wool. 

Saint Nicolas French woolen serge, used 
by the army. 

Saint Omer Narrow, 17th century Eng- 
lish worsted fabric. 

Saint Rambert Unbleached French lin- 
en. 

Saint Remy A grade of French organ- 
zine or raw silk. 

Saint Vincent Variety of raw cotton 
from the West Indies. 

Sakallerides Variety of Egyptian cotton. 

Sal Ammoniac Used for dressing textiles. 

Sal a Italian name for a sedge or rush, 

used for chair seats, brushes, etc. 

Salago Coarse Philippine fibre used for 
cordage. 

Salamander's Wool Name for asbestos in 
some parts of England. 

Salamine Silk armure dress goods of 
black warp and colored filling form- 
ing pin checks on the surface; obso- 
lete. 

Salampore^East Indian blue cotton 
cloth of good quality; it is very 
loosely woven and used for garments 
by the natives in India and Africa. 

Salendang East Indian cotton goods wo- 
ven in colors. 

Salisbury White Sort of white English 
woolen flannel. 

Salona Variety of raw cotton from 
Roumelia. 

Salonique Variety of raw cotton from 
Macedonia. 

Salt Colors Direct synthetic dyestuffs 
containing table salt which increases 
the fastness of the color. They are 
used on cotton and linen at a low 
temperature but on animal fibers only 
at high temperature 

Saltillo Woolen blankets made by the 
natives of Northern Mexico, with a 
large and richly ornamented medal- 
lion, consisting of various colored 
concentric bands. This medallion is 
in the center of a ground covered 
with small all-over geometrical de- 
signs in vertical or diagonal rows. 
The leading colors of these blankets 



SAL 



136 



SAT 



are blue or red with smaller quanti- 
ties of green, yellow and black. The 
weave is usually very fine; the sel- 
vages are finished smoothly and 
without overcasting and the ends are 
finished with fringes. These blankets 
are used as ponchos or serapes. 

Saluyot A Philippine fibre used for 
cordage 

Samardine Plain French serge, made 
with eight ends and four picks in 
a repeat. 

Samarkand Medium size rugs made in 
Central Asia of wool, silk or cotton 
web and loose cotton or silk pile, 
tied in Senna knot. The design shows 
Chinese influence with five or less 
medallions, fret-work patterns and 
odd, stiff flowers. The colors are yel- 
lows, blues, reds, browns and white. 

Sameron A linen sheeting of good qual- 
ity, used in England during the 16th 
century. 

Samis or Samit A medieval fabric 
made with very heavy silk or hemp 
warp containing six threads and flat 
gold filling (tinsel). Originally was 
made in Italy. It is believed by some 
to have been similar to velvet. 

Samoa Hopi Indian name for the Yucca 
grass, used for baskets, mats, etc. 
Used for ropes, twines, saddle blank- 
ets by other Indian tribes. 

Samuhu 1, good bast fibre, yielded by a 
species of the Chorisia tree in Ar- 
gentine; used for cordage; 2, silky, 
flexible but short fibre, yielded by a 
species of the Bombaceae in Para- 
guay; used for ponchos, etc. The 
Indians use the net-like bast for 
various purposes. 

San Martha Variety of raw cotton from 
'Columbia. 

San Martin Variety of raw cotton from 
the West Indies. 

Sanat An inferior East Indian printed 
cotton cloth. 

Sandal Striped taffeta in the Levant 
trade. 

Sangales Light and thin, bleached, raw 
or striped linen from Switzerland. 

Sangati One of the finest grades of 
plain Dacca muslins (see). 

Sangi Cast Indian satin, made of tus- 
sah silk and cotton. 

Sanglier Closely woven French fabric 
made of hard twist worsted or mo- 
hair yarn. 

Sanitary Wool Trade name for natural 
wool. 

Sanna Bleached or blue cotton cloth 
from East India. 

Santipur Very fine and thin East Indian 
cotton cloth, embroidered in flowers. 

Santos Brazilian cotton, with a silky, 
white staple. 

Sanyan Variety of wild silk from West 
Africa. 

Sappy Wool containing a large percent- 
age of natural grease and subject 
therefore to excessive shrinkage. 



Saraband 'Small and medium size Per- 
sian rugs made of cotton warp and 
weft and close and short wool pile, 
tied in Senna knot. The design con- 
sists almost without exception of 
rows of pears and many narrow bord- 
ers in dark red, blue, etc. 

Saracenic Tapestry 'Earliest medieval 
name for tapestry made on basse 
lisse. 

Sarakhs Rugs Heavy, all-wool Persian 
rugs, the long and close pile is tied 
in Ghiordes knot. The design con- 
sists of medallion and floral figures 
chiefly in rich red and blue. 

Sarandaz Trade term for certain Per- 
sian and Anatolian knotted wool rugs 
of various characters, which are used 
by the head of the household. 

Sarasses Variety of East Indian raw 
cotton. 

Sarcenet 1, obsolete, light, soft and thin 
silk fabric, used as lining in England; 
2, plain, thin silk ribbon. 

Sarcilis Very coarse and cheap woolen, 
used by the poorer classes in England 
during the 13th century. Called also 
Sarciatus. 

Sardasi 'East Indian velvet, embroidered 
with gold or silver threads. 

Sard is Obsolete French woolen suiting, 
made in plain weave. 

Saree Coarse East Indian cotton cloth 
with colored heading. 

Sargette See sergette. 

Sargia Medieval Italian twilled fabric, 

made of wool and eilk. 
Sargues 'French serge made of linen and 

carded wool. 
Sarnak Silk floss from Turkestan. 

Sarong 'Woven colored cotton goods 
used for garments in Arabia and In- 
dia. 

Sarplar In England a bag of wool meas- 
uring 2,2,40 pounds. 

Sarplier A coarse, strong, plain woven 
cotton fabric; used in England for 
baling wool. 

Sarpuz 'Trade term for Persian and Ana- 
tolian knotted wool carpets; used as 
floor covering. 

Sarraux 'French linen canvas, made with 
blue checks; used by sailors for 
trousers. 

Sarsenet iPlain, woven stout piece dyed 
English cotton cloth finished with 
high gloss, often calendered to give 
the appearance of a twill; used for 
lining, etc. 

Sarung 'Sleeping mat from the Solomon 
Islands, made of pandanus leaves. 

Sash Ada Tari Arabic term for bleached 
tanjibs (see) with a dark blue or 
lavender striped heading; used for 
head covering by the natives In 
Egypt. 

Sash Marmar Aal Arabic name for flne 
bleached mulls; used by the natives 
in Egypt. 

Satan in Obsolete French woolen fabric; 
used for drapery. 



SAT 



137 



SAT 



Satara 'Highly finished, ribbed woolen 
fabric, fulled and sheared. 

Sateen Stout, lustrous piece dyed cotton 
fabric, made in satin weave (see) 
either in warp or filling flush. Also 
comes printed or in stripes; used for 
lining dresses, skirts, shoe lining, etc. 

Satellites 'Printed cotton goods in the 
African market. 

Sati-drap 'French dress goods, made of 
cotton or silk warp and woolen fill- 
ing of the same color, forming a weft 
satin. It is fulled in the finish; ob- 
solete. 

Satin A great variety of fabrics, orig- 
inally only of silk, now made also 
of wool, woven in satin weave, almost 
always warp flush, lit is a very 
smooth and glossy fabric, used for 
dresses, lining, trimming, ribbons, etc. 
The best grades are made of all silk, 
while the cheaper grades are cotton- 
back satins, the set of yarns, which 
does not form the face, being of cot- 
ton. See also sateen and satinet. 

Satins are made with taffeta or 
twill back. In double faced satins 
both sides are made in satin weave 
with two sets of warp and single set 
of filling. Satin fabrics are often 
ornamented with dobby or Jacquard 
figures in taffeta, faille, velvet, lame 
or other weaves and effects. 

Satin d'Amerique 'Satin made of mixture 
of silk and agave fiber. 

Satin Back Velvets or taffeta and other 
ribbons made with a reverse side 
of satin. 

Satin Berber Stout worsted fabric, made 
in satin weave and finished with a 
lustre. 

Satin Bonjean French worsted trouser- 
ing, fulled in the finishing. 

Satin de Bruges 'Upholstery satin of silk 
and wool. 

Satin Check Highly finished English cot- 
ton fabric, woven in checks. 

Satin de Chine 'Closely woven 10 end 
French silk satin, made with eingle 
or ply warp either in mixture of wool 
and silk, or pure wool or cotton warp 
and woolen filling; obsolete. 

Satin de Chypre Obsolete French silk 
satin. 

Satin Cloth A lightweight woolen dress 
goods, made in satin weave and lus- 
tred. 

Satin Damask 1, the best grade, lustrous 
linen damask, used for table linen; 
2, rich silk satin with fancy Jac- 
quard designs woven either in fancy 
weaves or in pile. 

Satin Delhi iFine worsted satin. 

Satin Duchesse Fine, stout and very lus- 
trous silk satin, woven in eight-end 
satin weave. 

Satin Ermine 40-end French silk satin 
ribbon, made with two sets of warp, 
one eet forming a taffeta back, the 
other the satin surface, similar to 
the fur or the plush. 

Satin Figaro Eight-end silk satin dress 
goods or millinery trimming, the warp 
being of alternately different colored 
threads. 



Satin Finish 'High gloss given to cotton, 
wool or silk fabrics by calendering. 

Satin Foulard 'Smooth and highly fin- 
ished silk foulard. 

Satin Grec 'Solid colored silk satin lin- 
ing or dress goods made with single 
warp and high finish. 

Satin Jean A stout, heavy cotton jean, 
made with a highly finished, finely 
twilled face. 

Satin de Laine 1, French twilled dra- 
pery, made of English worsted, in 
solid colors, printed or brocaded; '2, 
French dress goods and cloaking 
made in various colored brocaded pat- 
terns in satin weave. 

Satin Lisse Twilled, highly finished cot- 
ton dress goods in France, printed 
with small designs. 

Satin Luxor (Rich, stout silk satin dress 
fabric, made with a corded face. 

Satin de Lyon Silk satin made with a 
twilled back, and finely striped face; 
used for lining. 

Satin Marabou Thin, silk satin made 
with single marabou yarn (see) for 
warp. 

Satin Merveilleux A very soft silk dresa 
fabric, woven in a seven-end eatin 
weave and given a very high finish. 

Satin National Six or eight-end French 
silk satin dress goods. 

Satin Onde Five or eight-end silk satin, 
made with single warp; used as dress 
goods or millinery- 
Satin Quilt Bleached or colored cotton 
quilt, made with fine warp and 'filling, 
woven plain, a second, coarse filling 
forming raised patterns. 
Satin Regence Stout, rich silk satin dress 
fabric, made with 'fine runs weftwise. 

'Satin a la Reine Closely woven six-end 

silk satin. 
Satin Rhadames 'Fine silk satin dress 

fabric, made with fine diagonal lines 

running across the face. 
Satin Royal Double faced, silk satin with 

twilled stripes crossing the material. 

Satin Sheeting English cotton back thick 
satin, made of waste silk; used for 
dresses, etc. 

Satin Stitch Used in embroidery, called 
also long and slanting gobelin stitch; 
a gobelin stitch made slanting. 

Satin Striped Various materials, having 
stripes in satin weave. 

Satin Stripes^English satin made of cot- 
ton warp with broad silk stripes and 
mohair filling. 

Satin Sultan French dress goods and 
cloaking, also a lustrous East In- 
dian silk fabric. 

Satin Surah Twilled, very soft surah, 
finished with great lustre. 

Satin Tick Very stout, cotton fabric, 
made in satin weave; used for up- 
holstery. 



SAT 



138 



SCI 



Satin Turc 1, four-end satin in France, 
made with single warp. It is given a 
high finish and is used for shoe tops; 
2, French fabric made of wool and 
silk warp and wool filling in seven- 
end satin weave; used for shoe tops, 
trousers, etc.; similar to lasting. 
Satin Vigoureux Dress fabric having a 
satin face or satin stripes, the warp 
yarns being printed according to the 
vigoureux process (see), giving a 
mottled color effect. 

Satin Weave One of the principal 
weaves in which either the warp or 
the filling completely covers the face 
and is interwoven with the other set 
of yarn in an irregular way, usually 
crossing only one thread at a time, 
without having two threads running 
consecutively in the weave in order 
to avoid the common twilled effect. 
The set of threads forming the face 
is placed very close while the other 
set is run in at greater intervals. In 
constructing satin weave the num- 
ber of harnesses of the original twill 
on which it can be woven is divided 
in two parts, the rule being that these 
cannot be equal nor multiple of each 
other, nor can both be divisible by 
the same number. 

Satin Zephyr French dress goods, made 
of cotton warp and woolen filling, 
with a weft plush satin weave, fulled 
in the finish. 

Satinade 1, obsolete French and Italian 
tapestry, having waste silk warp 
and silk filling, dyed in different col- 
ors and forming stripe patterns; 2, 
ttiin and light French dress goods, 
having warp satin stripes over taf- 
feta foundation, the warp is of silk, 
the filling of wool or linen. 

Satine Cotton satin, see sateen. 

Satinet 1, an American fabric made of 
cotton warp and all new wool fill- 
ing, covering the face in satin weave 
and fulled; used for working clothes; 
2, in England a stout cotton satin 
with napped and shorn face and 
napped back. 

Satinette Thin silk satin in England and 
France. 

Satinisco- Inferior grade of satin; used 
for lining. 

Satranji Thick, very durable and wash- 
able woven cotton carpet from In- 
dia, made in large size. 

Sattannet 18th century pure worsted 
English fabric. 

Saulganshi East Indian calico. 

Sauvagagi East Indian gray or bleached 
cotton cloth. 

Savage 'Bleached, stout woven and hard 
finished cotton shirting in Venezuela, 
used for collars and cuffs. 

Savalan Rugs See Sultanabad. 

Saved List Cloth Coarse English woolen 
for the East Indian market, dyed in 
the piece, having -white selvage, which 
is covered by a Btrip of fabric before 
dyeing to keep the color out. 



Savonnerie 'French-make rug made in 
imitation of Oriental knotted rugs in 
rococo patterns. 

Sawn^Cotton cloth from East India. 
Saxon Camblet First name given in Eng- 
land to 'Saxonies, worsted fabrics; 
obsolete. 

Saxonienne French silk armure dress 
good of small patterns, having the 
warp in various colors; obsolete. 
Saxony 1, the finest class of wool, hav- 
ing a short, very fine but strong and 
elastic staple, with excellent felting 
properties owing to the large num- 
ber of serrations; used for the best 
grades of fulled fabrics; 2, a wors- 
ted fabric, originated in England 
during the 19th century, made with a 
warp of half-bred, English and Botany 
wool and the filling of Saxony or 
South-Down wool; 3, same as merino 
in Scotland; 4, means a white flan- 
nelette in Canada. 

Saxony Brussels Curtains, having a net 
ground, with patterns formed by lay- 
ing another thickness of mesh, tam- 
bouring the outline of the design by 
hand and cutting away the loose, 
outer parts. 
Saxony Flannel Fine flannel, made of 

Saxony wool in England. 
Saxony Point Fine lace similar to the 

old Brussels. 

Say, Saye An all-worsted, four-harness 
serge of black color, made in Eng- 
land since the middle ages until the 
19th century; it was used for lin- 
ings and shirts by certain religious 
orders and for aprons by the Quak- 
ers. It was usually made of Hol- 
land, English or Spanish wool. 
Say Cast Coarse wool taken from the 

tail part of the fleece. 
Sayette^-General name in France for 
various twilled or plain woven goods 
mixed with little silk. Used for lin- 
ing and furniture cover. 
Sayette Yarn Slack twist wool yarn, 
made of pure Holland wool (the best 
grade), or mixed with other wools. 
Used for fine dress goods, knit goods, 
etc. 

Sayetterie French term denoting wool- 
ens containing some silk yarn. 
Schappe See shappe. 

Schiffli Embroidery 'Shuttle embroidery, 
the machine being run by a motor in- 
stead of by hand. The movement of 
the carriages is caused by motor pow- 
er and the pantograph is operated by 
hand. The cross stitches are visible on 
both sides of the goods and the work 
shows the bobbin threads on the back 
of the embroidery. 

Schreinering Finishing process for mer- 
cerized cottons, consisting of pass- 
ing the cloth between two weighted 
rollers, one being smooth, while the 
other has very fine, closely engraved 
lines. It produces a high gloss. 
Scinde The poorest variety of East In- 
dian raw cottons, having a short, 
fairly clean and very strong staple 
of dull white color. 



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Scotch Cambric Fine otton dress goods 
finished with size but not lustred. 

Scotch Carpets Pile carpets, similar to 
the Kidderminster, with design on 
both sides but in different colors. 

Scotch Checks White muslin with plaid 
checks in colored cord. Used for 
dresses, etc. 

Scotch Fingering Soft twist woolen yarn 
for knitting. 

Scotch Finish Heavy woolens, finished 
with a losely shorn nap. 

Scotch Gingham Trade name for the 
finest grades of ginghams. 

Scotch Plaid Coarse, very durable twill- 
ed woolen fabric, made of native wool 
in 'Scotland in various tartan pat- 
terns. 

Scotch Rug A rag rug, made with a 
coarse two-ply cotton warp and long 
and narrow strips of wool rags. 

Scotch Tweed Originally an all-wool 
tweed (see), spun and woven in 
Scotland. 

Scots Soft English dress goods made of 
hard twist worsted yarn in serge 
weave. 

Scott A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: Wide red field, split in the 
center by a narrow green stripe with 
a fine black line near each edge of 
the green; green stripe (measuring 
half the width of the distance be- 
tween the edge of red field and the 
nearest black line) ; group (as wide as 
green stripe), composed of three red 
and two green stripes, the latter be- 
ing wider and split in the center by 
a fine white line; green stripe, as 
above. 

Scour 1, process of cleaning the wool of 
all grease and other impurities; 2, 
washing- the cloth to remove oil 
soap, etc. 

Scoured Wool Is absolutely clean from 
any foreign matter. 

Scrim Loosely woven light weight open- 
face cotton cloth made of two-ply 
yarn, usually in colored stripe or 
plaid patterns in gauze weave. Used 
for curtains, drapery, etc. 

Scroop The rustling sound peculiar to 
the silk when rubbed between the 
fingers. It is produced by treating 
the degummed silk in an acid or lime 
bath; it is imparted to mercerized 
hosiery by using various organic 
acids with a soap bath. 

Scutching Tow Is the by-product of the 
scutching of flax straw, often being 
rescutched; it is classified in Ire- 
land as coarse, fine and rescutched; 
used for ropes. 

Sea Island 'See cotton. 

Sea Silk Term applied to the strong lus- 
trous fibres yielded by certain algae. 

Sea Weed Fibres yielded by species of 
algae; used for cordage, fishing lanes 
etc. 



Seal Plush Silk plush cloaking imitating 
real sealskin, the dyeing material is 
tipped on the ends of the pile, which 
has to be straight and slanting in only 
one direction. 

Sealette Name in England for plush 
woven in imitation of seal. 

Sealskin Plush made with tussah silk 
pile, the cheaper grades also of cow 
hair; dyed in the piece in black to 
imitate real s. ; used for coats. 

Seaming The operation by which parts 
of the knitted goods are joined to- 
gether. 

Seaming Lace Old term for lace used 
as entredeux (see). 

Seamless Hose Made on the circular 
knitting machine without any seam 
and in one width throughout the 
whole piece. It is shaped on drying 
boards. 

Seating 'English hair cloth in satin 
weave for furniture seats; little in 
use. 

Sebastopol Fine twilled woolen dress 
goods with very fine, different colored 
narrow runs visible only when the 
fabric is draped. 

Seconds 1, best merino clothing wool 
from the edge of the throat and 
breast; 2, coarse wool taken from 
the skirt of the merino fleece; 3, fab- 
rics with a flaw. 

Second Combing Wool taken from the 
back, across the loins to the neck 
of the fleece. 

Sedjadeh Turkish name for medium 
sized Oriental carpets. 

Seed Cotton Picked bolls, fibres and 
seeds not yet separated. 

Seeded Small dots strewn over the face 

of the fabric; same as powdering. 
Seedy 'Wool, containing seed. 

Seerhand Variety of soft cotton dress 
muslins in India, 

Seerhandconat Various East Indian cot- 
ton muslins. 

Seersucker A lightweight wash fabric 
made of silk or cotton in plain weave 
showing crinkled warp stripes. This 
effect is produced by dressing that 
part of the warp very slack. Origin- 
ally an imported fabric from India. 
Used for dresses, office coats, etc. 

Seersucker Gingham -Cotton gingham 
made with colored or crinkled stripes. 

Segovie Very fine French serge, made 
of Spanish wool with a nap on the 
face. 

Segovienne English cloth of fine Span- 
ish wool. 

Seizain Obsolete, very wide, fulled 
French woolen dress goods of med- 
ium grade, having 1,<600 warp ends. 

Self -Figured or Striped In solid colored 
fabrics, patterns formed by a weave 
different from the ground. 



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Selvage, Selvedge The edge of woven 
fabrics, consisting either of one or 
more stronger cords or a narrow 
border, usually of a different weave 
from the body, serves to strengthen 
the fabric and to prevent warp 
threads from fraying. The selvage 
is called fast when it is enclosed by 
all or part of the picks and not fast 
when the filling threads are cut off 
at the edge of the fabrics after every 
pick; the selvage of such fabrics, 
usually split goods, consists either of 
leno or in the cheapest grades the 
fabric is simply sized along the 
edges to prevent fraying. Also called 
list. 

Selvagee In nautics a skein of rope with 
another rope wound around it; used 
for hoisting. 

Selvyt An unfinished velvet, made of 
harsh cotton, used for polishing cloth. 

Semal Cotton Silky fibre yielded by the 
Indian bombax malabaricum. It is 
straight and flattened and used for 
stuffing. 

Seme French for powderings or small 
patterns over the ground of the cloth, 
lace, etc. 

Semienyoung 'Black colored Chinese vel- 
vet with cotton filling. 

Sempiterne English all-wool serge, no- 
ted for its durability. 

Sengfangtchen Chinese silk taffeta, white 
or ecru, with a 'finish; about 20 inches 
wide. The texture is very 'fine and 
regular. Used for drapery, paint- 
ing, etc. 

Senna Knot One of the two kinds of 
knots found in hand-made Oriental 
pile carpets. A complete loop Is 
formed by the yarn, thus having a 
pile extending from every space be- 
tween the warp threads, thus mak- 
ing more knots and a denser and 
evener pile than the Ghiordes knot. 

Senna Rugs 'Very fine Persian rugs made 
in small sizes, usually with cotton 
web and very close and short 
wool pile tied in Senna knots. The 
design consists usually of small pat- 
terns covering the entire field or of 
a lozenge center medallion. White, 
red and blue are used the oftenest. 
Very fine khilims (see) are also made 
in the same design and coloring. 

Sennit 1, braid containing odd number 
of strands; also straw braid for hats; 
2, in nautics, a braid formed by plait- 
ing strands of ropes together. 

Sequin Lace Crochet lace made of col- 
ored yarn and colored braid for the 
design. 

Seragunge Grade of Indian jute, pro- 
duced in the Patna and Mymensingh 
districts. 

Serapes Colored woolen blankets in 
Mexico. 

Seraphin (or Serafin) English woolen 
printed with flowers on white 
ground; obsolete. 



Serapi Rugs Large, nearly square Per- 
sian rugs of cotton web and short, 
close pile tied in Ghiordes knot. The 
design consists usually of a cream 
center medallion, floral patterns and 
inscriptions. 

Serbattes Fine East Indian muslin with 
gold selvage. 

Serge 1, a large variety of soft and 
somewhat loose woolen, worsted and 
silk fabric with a clear finish woven 
in a 2 and 2, even-sided twill, pro- 
ducing a flat, diagonal rib effect. It 
was made since the 12th century. 
The best grades, made of worsted 
warp and woolen filling or all-wors- 
ted are used for suits, dresses and 
coats. Silk serge is used for women's 
dresses and coats in the heavier 
grades while the lighter weights are 
for lining and umbrella cover; 2, a 
grade of shoddy, obtained from serge 
cloth, braids, etc.; 3, name for the two- 
and-two twill. 

Serge d'Aumale 1, XVIII century French 
serge, the warp made of slack twist 
woolen yarn and the filling of harder 
twisted single wool yarn; 2, narrow 
and light French serge, used for lin- 
ing. 

Serge de Berry In the 19th century a 
worsted in England, similar to last- 
ing but heavier and woven with seven 
harnesses. 

Serge de Blicourt 18th century French 
wool serge made of slack twist warp 
and harder twisted single filling. 

Serge de Boys 17th century English 
worsted. 

Serge Cloth English woolen serge of 
smooth face and napped back. 

Serge DenimAn 18th century pure wors- 
ted fabric in England. Believed to 
be same as serge de Nismes. 

Serge de Rome Piece dyed mostly black 
fine French serge, made of two-ply 
warp and very slack twist filling with 
'8-ends and four picks in a repeat. 
Made with or without double face. 
Also made of eilk. 

Sergette^l, light and narrow French 
serge of white or gray color made 
20 or 24 inches wide; obsolete; 2, 
narrow French droguet, made in 
pieces 24 inches wide and about 46 
yards long; obsolete. 

Serioin The natural gummy substance on 
the silk fiber, removed by boiling off. 

Serpentine TwillA twill weave made in 
wavy ridges. 

Serpilliere The coarsest grade of un- 
bleached, loosely woven French can- 
vas, made of hemp tow; used for bag- 
ging. 

Sertao Good grade, long etaple inland 
raw cotton from Peruambuco, Brazil. 

Set The number of threads found in the 
fabric within an inch width. In Brad- 
ford the number showing how often 
a beer (40 threads) is found within a 
width of 36 inches. 



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Set Checks Large checks of the same 
colors are set at certain distance, 
forming the characteristic feature of 
the fabric, witht other colors between. 

Setangula Variety of Egyptian raw cot- 
ton. 

Sevllla Variety of raw cotton from Spain. 

Sewing CottonHard spun cotton thread, 
consisting of three or six strands. In 
the Paisley system of numbering sew- 
ing cotton, the single card is twice 
as fine as its number in a six-cord 
thread, while in a three-cord thread 
the number indicates the size of the 
single strand. 

Sewing Silk illade of from three to 24 
reeled cocoon filaments, twisted to- 
gether slack in groups of left hand 
twist and twisted in the reverse di- 
rection under tension. 

Seydavi >Raw silk from the Levant. 

Seyong Blue or black Chinese velvet. 

Shaatnez In the Bible fabric made of 
wool and linen. 

Shabnam 'Indian name of a plain, next 
to the finest grade of Dacca mus- 
lin. 

Shacapa Strong leaf fiber yielded by a 
palm in Peru; used for ropes. 

Shade Cloth 'Plain woven cotton cloth 
of various widths and qualities, 
usually in white or green, sized and 
given a smooth, glossy finish; used 
for shades and blinds. 

Shaded Twills Twill weaves made in di- 
agonals with increasing or decreasing 
floats. They are called single or double 
shaded, according to the diagonals be- 
ing shaded in one or two directions 

Shadow Check Patterns produced on va- 
rious, always solid colore dgoods bj 
using right hand twist and left hand 
twist yarns both for the warp and 
the filling; stripe patterns are pro- 
duced by using these two yarns only 
in the warp or in the filling. 

Shadow Lace Very light machine-made 
laces, having a mesh ground and 
shadow like patterns in closer mesh. 

Shadow Silk Same as Changeable (see). 

Shafty Long, strong and densely grown 
wool. 

Shag 1, originally a stout, hairy cloth 
made of coarse wool in the Orkney 
Islands; 2, coarse, long nap on some 
of the woolen coatings. 

Shagreen 'Strong cotton fabric, heavily 
sized and finished to resemble leath- 
er; used for bookbinding. 

Shagrine Obsolete lining silk. 

Shairl Fine fabric made of the hair of 
the cashmere goat. 

Shaker Flannel 'Soft, well napped white 
flannel, woolen with cotton warp and 
woolen filling; used for underwear. 

Shalloon il, an 18th century all-worsted 
fabric in England and France, made 
with single warp and twilled; 2, in 
the 19th century a worsted in Eng- 
land, twilled on both sides, woven with 
single warp and weft in four-leaf 
twill; used for women's dresses. 



Shalloon Twill An even sided, four-har- 
ness twill weave, each thread passing 
alternately over and under two 
threads. 

Sham Plush Made by raising a long nap 
from a twilled fabric, to imitate pile, 
or by using chenille filling. 

Shamrock Lawn Lightweight union fab- 
ric composed of cotton and linen. 

Shanghai Dresses Plain or moire fabrics 
made in England, in the 19th cen- 
tury, of silk warp and ramie filling; 
exported to China. 

Shanking Very coarse and short merino 
clothing wool taken from the legs. 

Shantung A soft but heavy silk, woven 
of pongee silk of natural color. 

Snap-faced In England cotton back vel- 
vet made of waste silk. 

Shappe 'Spun silk in Europe, which is 
partly degummed by fermentation. 

Sharak 'Arabic term for gray, bleached 
or dyed doriahs (see) used for outer 
garments by the natives in Egypt; 
originally it was made on hand looms. 

Sharbati East Indian name for a very 
fine grade of plain Dacca muslin (see). 

Shark Skin A glossy waterproof cloth, 
used for raincoats. 

Shash 1, in the Bible means cotton; 2, 
a fine cotton muslin in Arabia; 3, 
native East African name for a very 
thin, bleached cotton muslin. 

Shaub Indian close woven fabric made 
of mixture of cotton and silk. 

Shawl Originated in Cashmere, where it 
was made of pashmina. Some of the 
best grades are still being made in 
India on hand looms, the patterns are 
being embroidered into the ground. 
The best French shawls and the Pais- 
ley shawls, made in imitation of these 
Oriental fabrics, are woven on power 
looms but the pattern is only on one 
side of the shawl. Other shawls are 
crocheted or knitted by hand or by 
the machine. 

Shawl Wool Trade name for a very fine 
wool, yielded by the goats in Thibet; 
used for shawls; also called pash- 
mina. 

Shayak Felted woolen fabric of coarse 
make; used in Turkey. 

Shearling Short pulled wool (see), ob- 
tained a few months after shearing. 

Sheborga Jamdani The finest grade of 
the Jamdani (see), having simple dots 
for patterns. 

Sheer Thin, fine fabrics. 

Sheeting 1, plain woven, light cotton 
fabric, made with single yarns in the 
gray or bleached, but never colored, 
usually yard wide; 2, name for the 
two-and-two twill. 

Shemakinski The coarsest grade of Sou- 
mak rugs. 

Shepherd Checks Woolen or worsted 
dress goods or suiting, having black 
or other dark colored solid checks 
over a light foundation. The checks 
are formed by evenly spaced warp 
and weft stripes of equal width. 



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Shepherd's Plaid Twilled woolen fabric, 
made with black and white checks, 
formed by long and cross bars in 
black over white ground. 

Sherborne Lace English blonde and 
black blonde bobbin lace; now obso- 
lete. 

Shersh Turkish name for cotton tanjibs 
(see) ; used for headdress by the na- 
tives. 

Shesh In the Bible denotes fine linen 
fabric. 

Shetland Coarse and heavy woolen over- 
coating with a very long, shaggy nap. 

Shetland Lace Bobbin lace made of black 
or white Shetland wool yarn. 

Shetland Point Needle-point lace made 
of Shetland wool in Italy. 

Shetland Shawl 'Fine knitted or crocheted 
light shawl made of Shetland wool. 

Shetland Veils or FallsShawls, loosely 
knitted of wool, often containing cam- 
el, goat or alpaca hair, and made 
with scalloped edge. 

Shetland Wool 1, very fine and lustrous 
wool, yielded by the Shetland sheep. 
The real Sh. wool is an undergrowth, 
found under the longer hairy wool 
and is not shorn but roo'd (or 
pulled by hand) in the spring. It 
comes in white, gray or brown, and 
is one of the costliest wools known. 
The wool is scoured and spun by 
hand, then treated with the fumes of 
sulphur and made up into hosiery, 
underwear, crochet work and very 
fine shawls; 2, English two-strand 
fine knitting yarn. 

Shibori 'Rich, colored Japanese silk with 
elaborate patterns; used for uphol- 
stery. 

Shichitoi Japanese mat rush o* rougher 
quality. 

Shine Early Commercial variety of early 
maturing upland cotton, having a 
short staple; the yield is about 34 
per cent. 

Shiraz (Persian, all-wool rugs made in all 
sizes. The medium long pile is tied 
in Ghiordes knot. The end selvage is 
often checked. The design consists 
of palm patterns, stripes with blue 
and red as prominent colors. Also 
called Mecca ruge. 

Shirey Yarn 'Flax yarn with a flaw 
caused by improper setting of the 
reach. 

Shirred Fabrics Fabrics having rubber 
threads interwoven, as suspender 
webbings, etc. 

Shirting A great variety of white, print- 
ed or colored woven cotton, linen or 
silk fabrics; used for shirts. 

Shirvan Rugs 'All-wool rugs made in 
Caucasia. The warp and weft being 
of white, gray or dyed wool; the 
loose pile is tied in Ghiordes knot. 
The patterns are geometrical in blue, 
White, yellow and red colors. The 
ends are finished in long, knotted 
fringe. 

Shiti iNative East African name for cali- 
coes with small flowers; used for 
dresses. 



Shives All vegetable matter, except 
burrs, found entangled in the wool. 

Shoddy 1, wool obtained from unfelted 
cloth rags and knit goods by tearing 
them apart; often contains other fi- 
bers besides wool; 2, short silk fibers 
recovered from goods; usually con- 
tains other fibers. 

Shoe Cloth Very strong and durable 
worsted, woven with corkscrew weave, 
weighing between 12 and 18 oz. per 
yard. The warp ends vary from 80 
to 150 per inch with picks ranging 
from 80 to 140 to an inch. The warp 
is usually double thread and the fill- 
ing single worsted, sometimes also 
cotton. The cloth is usually made 
as single fabric; used for shoetops. 

Shogged Stitch In knit fabrics; used to 
form the edges of the garments. 

Shooda Commercial name for a light- 
weight twilled woolen dress fabric. 

Shoot Another name for weft. 

Shop Romal East Indian cotton hand- 
kerchief, woven in various colors. 

Shorts 1, name for short-wool; 2, silk 
noil. 

Shot 1, Name in England for pick (see) ; 
2, another name for changeable or 
mottled effect. 

Shotte Butadar Fine East Indian mus- 
lin with a sold selvage. 

Shower Proofing 'Any process making 
the cloth water proof. 

Shrinkage 1, the loss of weight of raw 
fibers in the cleaning process, as for 
instance wool from the sheep's back 
in scouring; 2, the contraction of 
width and length of the woven cloth, 
suffered in the finishing process. In 
neither instance is there any standard 
and the same materials might shrink 
differently under similar conditions. 

Shropshire^A breed of sheep in England 
and Australia yielding a long, fine, 
strong and lustrous wool. 

Shroud Laid A rope having a core and 
four strands twisted around it. 

Shroud Rope In nautics a finer quality 
of rope, composed of three plies; used 
for standing rigging. 

Shuka Native name in East Africa for 
half bleached cotton fabrics, imported 
from India; used for loin cloths. 

Shulah Gray wool from Shetland Isles. 
S hurled Hogget 'First fleece from a 

sheep, after it has been shorn as 

lamb. 

Shusu Japanese silk satin. 
Shute 'Similar to tram. 
Siamese Cotton Grown in the Antilles 

and India, has a white, short staple. 

Siamoise 1, stout French coutil (see), 
made with linen warp and cotton or 
silk filling, in stripe or check pat- 
terns; used for drapery, lining, etc.; 
2, originally a very rich, figured silk 
and cotton satin; obsolete; 3, mousse- 
line made of silk and cotton; 4, rnada 
also in all-cotton, characterized that 
warp and filling are always of con- 
trasting colors. 



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Siara Variety of raw cotton from South 

America. 
Siauni Term for Spanish stripes and 

cassimeres in China. 

Sibirienne Plain woven or twilled, thick 
woolen fabric with a long nap, fin- 
ished with a high gloss. 

Sibucara Silky seed hair, grown on a 
species of the Bombax tree in Ven- 
ezuela; used for stuffing. 

Sicilian A lustrous, lightweight fabric, 
made of fine, hard spun cotton warp 
and mohair filling of lower count 
in plain weave. 

Sicilienne Originally from Sicily; it la 
a plain woven silk fabric with heavy 
weft ribs; now made with silk warp 
and a heavier cotton or wool filling 
in plain weave, forming cross ribs, 
similar to poplin. 

Sida 'White, strong and lustrous bast fi- 
ber, yielded by the sida plants in In- 
dia, South America and Australia; 
used for cordage. 

Sidebands (Fabrics in America, usually 
printed with a band effect near to 
one of the selvages. They are used 
for trimming purposes. 

Sidshillat East Indian linen printed with 
small figures. 

Siena Point See darned lace. 

Sieuhwakin Chinese shawls made of em- 
broidered white crepe. 

Sifori A Medieval silk fabric of unknown 
structure. 

Siglaton 'Rich silk dress goods of the 
Middle Ages, originated from the Ori- 
ent. 

Sign Cloth 'Heavily starched, coarse 
bleached cotton muslin; used for 
signs. 

Silence Cloth Heavy and thick bleached 
and napped cotton fabric; used under 
the table cloth. 

Silesia Stout twilled cotton lining, with 
a glossy finish on the face. Dyed In 
the piece in dark colors. 

Silesian Merino The finest wool In the 
world. 

Silesie Obsolete, very durable French 
twilled woolen, made with a different 
colored warp and weft. 

Silhouette French, plain woven cloth of 
cotton warp and a different colored 
linen filling, giving a scintillating ef- 
fect. 

Silk A transparent fiber, composed of 
two filaments (brins) encased in gum 
when in natural state, having an even 
diameter. It is very strong, elastic 
and hygroscopic. It ie the product 
of cocoons made by the silk worm 
which feeds on the leaves of the mul- 
berry tree. The color of the cocoons 
is white or yellow from the gum se- 
creted by the worm. After the gum 
is removed by boiling in soap and 
water the color of the silk will be 
white or pale cream. The wild silk, 
the worm of which feeds on certain 
oak trees in China, India and Japan, 
is ecru colored even after the gum 
has been removed. See Wild Silk. 



The chrysalides are killed by heat 
and certain number of cocoons, de- 
pending upon the count of thread re- 
quired, are placed in a basin of hot 
water, which softens the gum. The 
broken outside fibers are removed and 
after the ends are collected they are 
passed through a guide and wound on 
a reel, a cocoon yielding from 400 
yards to 1,200 yards of silk ftber. The 
gum will hold the different fibers 
together as it cools down and dries. 
This is the raw or refeled silk, its 
size being expressed by the denier, 
233% deniers of this reeled silk mak- 
ing one ounce avoirdupois and the 
number of the deniers comprised in 
a hank or skein (476 meters or 520 
yards) expresses the count of the 
yarn. 

Different from the reeled silk is the 
spun silk, made of pierced cocoons 
and of the waste from the reeled silk. 
The cocoons or the waste are first 
degummed, then opened and combed, 
lapped, put through the drawing and 
the roving frames and then spun into 
singles, then doubled and twisted 
again, gassed and wound on reels or 
spools. In numbering spun silk the 
French system takes as a basis the 
number of 1,000 meters of singles con- 
tained in one kilo (2.2 Ibs.) thus 90 
singles has 90,000 meters in a kilo, 
while number 2-80 has 40,000 kilos. 
The English system of counting spun 
silk is the number of hanks (840 
yards) contained in one pound avoir- 
dupois, thus number 40 would have 
3,600 yards per pound. Before dye- 
ing the silk is degummed by boiling 
in water and soap, then rinsed in cold 
water, after which the silk is often 
weighted with tin salts, iron or other 
foreign matter. Certain yarns are 
dyed in the gum, and others, called 
euples, with only part of the . gum 
removed. 

The lustre of the silk Is Increased 
by diluted acids and surfers when 
treated by diluted alkalies. Silk Is 
rapidly dissolved In zinc chloride, 
nitric acid, hot solution of caustic 
soda, chromic acid solution, etc. It 
has affinity for metallic salts, ' and 
tannic acid, the latter being used In 
"weighting." 'The action of concen- 
trated acids (after brief treatment 
only) produces a crepe effect on silks. 

Official classification of raw silks 
in New York is European: Grand ex- 
tra; extra classical; best classical; 
classical; best No. 1; No. 1; Reallna. 
Japan silks: I Filatures: Double ex- 
tra; extra; Sinshiu extra; best No. 
1 to extra; best No. 1; hard nature 
No. 1; No. 1; No. 1-1%; No. 1%: 
'No. l%-2; No. 2. II Reieels: Extra; 
No. 1; No. 1-1%; No. 1%; No. l%-2; 
No. 2; No. 2-2%; No. 2%; No. S. 
HI Kakeda: Best extra; extra; No. 1; 
No. 2; No. 3. 

The best grade of reeled silk fur- 
nishes the organzine, while tram is 
obtained from inferior silk. 



SIL 



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Silk Camlet Silk cloth of two-colored 
warp, the filling being of a third color. 

Silk Cotton A widely used term, applied 
to the fine and lustrous fibers yielded 
by the seed pods of a great number 
of trees and plants. 

Silk Grassy-General term applied to many 
lustrous fibers of the pineapple or 
other plants, especially the white, 
strong and silky fiber yielded by the 
Furcroea cubensis, in tropical Amer- 
ica. 

Silk Nankeen English nankeen having 
silk satin stripes over a cotton foun- 
dation. 

Silk Wadding Waste silk resulting from 
spinning bourette eilk. 

Silkeen A finely ribbed English cotton 
fabric, printed with colored pattern 
over a colored foundation and highly 
glazed. 

Silkaline A very light, printed, plain 
woven, glossy cotton fabric, made in 
the gray and calendered; used for 
lining, curtains, etc. 

Silkworm Gut Used for fishing lines; the 
silk worms are immersed in strong 
vinegar for a couple of hours and 
then pulled apart, each worm yield- 
ing two thick stringe of great 
strength. 

Silvalin Trade term for a paper yarn 
made in England. 

Silver Cloth French fabric, composed of 
4-5 of wool and one-fifth of asclepias 
cotton. 

Silver Cord English cotton velvet having 
narrow ribs. 

Simal Cotton Medium strong, soft, short 
and silky seed hair of reddish brown 
color, grown on the Simal tree (a 
species of Bombax) in India; used 
for stuffing. 

Simpatico Bleached cotton ehirting of 
medium stiff finish, about 35 inches 
wide. 

Simpson See Dickson. 

Sinamay 'Light, plain woven fabric, made 
by the natives of the Philippines of 
abaca fibers. It usually comes in con- 
trasting colored stripes; used for gar- 
ments by the natives. 

Sinclaii A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: *Green stripe; group (as 
wide as green stripe) composed of a 
black stripe, a fine white line and a 
blue stripe, the latter being wider 
than the black; "red stripe, being 
somewhat wider than all the stripes 
mentioned above; repeat, in reversed 
order, stripes mentioned between two.* 

Sindh Very coarse and inferior knotted 
rugs made in India. 

Sindon Very fine cotton or linen cloth 
in old Babylon; a fine medieval linen 
fabric. 

Singapatti Native East African name for 
fancy colored printed cotton shawls. 

Singeing A finishing process for remov- 
ing loose fibers or nap from the sur- 
face of the cloth, by passing it above 
gas flames or over a hot plate. 



Single Cloth Is woven with one set of 
warp and one set of filling, irrespec- 
tive of the weave. 

Single Cover Trade term for such fab- 
rics figured with extra wefts, which 
have only one figuring pick to each 
ground pick. 

Single Damask 'Both the ground and the 
pattern, or only the ground is woven 
in five-leaf satin. 

Single Plush A plain knitted fabric, made 
with one face yarn and having the 
backing yarn almost entirely on the 
back of the cloth. It is then napped; 
used for underwear. 

Single Poplin A lightweight poplin. 

Single Silk iSilk thread consisting of 
eisht or ten reeled filaments twisted 
together; used for gold tinsel. 

Single Width 'Same as narrow width. 

Single Worsted 'Medieval English wors- 
ted, half yard wide. 

Singles Yarn consisting of only one 
strand; one-ply yarn. 

Singonne Very stout, black, closely wov- 
en fulled and coarse woolen with a 
long nap; it sheds the water and is 
used in various European countries 
for winter clothing by the poorer 
classes. 

Sinna Knot See Senna knot. 

Sipacheutoochwongyong Black, curl pile 
silk velvet in China, made with serge 
foundation; used for hats, etc. 

Siradjganj Same as Deswal. 

Siretz Trade term for Russian uncleaned 
flax. 

Sirkar Mat (Made of Munj (see) in Cal- 
cutta. 

Sirsacca Obsolete French fabric of eatin 
patterns over a gold tissue ground. 

Sisal Very strong, smooth, yellowish leaf 
.fiber yielded by the Agave rigida of 
Central America and the West In- 
dies; used for cordage. 

Sister's Thread Same as nun's thread. 

Sistresay .From East India and Turkey, 
made with two warps, one silk, the 
other cotton, and a spun silk filling 
in damask patterns with colored 
stripes. 

Sittara Unbleached cotton cloth from In- 
dia. 

Six Oaks Commercial variety of medium 
maturing upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 35-40 millimeters; the yield 
is 28-130 per cent. 

Six Quarter Goods Measuring 54 inches 
in width. 

Sixth Combing 'Wool taken from the low- 
er part of the thigh; also called 
breech. 

Size 'Starchy or gummy preparations 
used for giving the yarn or the cloth 
weight, strength or appearance. 

Sizing 'Finishing process; consists of 
treating yarns or fabrics with size 
for strength, weight or appearance. 

Sjadra East Indian coarse, unbleached 
cotton cloth. 



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Sjappolen Fine cotton print from the 
Levant. 

Skein A length of yarn, used as standard 
measure, being 840 yards for cotton 
yarn and 560 for wool. 

Skene A Highland tartan, composed as 
follows: Red stripe, split in the cen- 
ter by a green line; dark blue stripe, 
as wide as the red; red stripe, width 
and split as above; green stripe, as 
wide as one red and the blue stripes 
together; red stripe, width and split 
as above; green stripe, as above. 

Skin Wool Taken from the skins of 
slaughtered sheep, either removed by 
sweating, or by sodium sulphide or 
by lime (slipe wool). 

Skips "Flaw in cloth where a warp thread 
skips over more filing threads than 
intended. 

Skirting 1, in wool sorting the removal 
of the stained parts of the fleece, as 
the legs and the whole edge of the 
fleece; 2, rag sorting term, meaning 
rags of women's dress goods and 
men's coat linings, containing cotton 
and wool. 

Skyteen A cotton shirting made in Eng- 
land with a five shaft, warp faced 
satin weave. It has stripes on a light 
indigo ground. 

Slanetz Trade term for Russian, dew 
rotted flax. 

Slanting Cross Stitch In embroidery a 
variety of cross stitch and but little 
used. The first part is same as the 
cross stitch, the return made like the 
gobelin stitch (see), can be used only 
on fine foundation. 

Sleave Sort of floss silk used in the 17th 
century in England. 

Sleided Silk Obsolete name for eilk 
waste. 

SI ey Name for warp in England. 

Sleyes 17th century English worstod 
fabric. 

Slip Measure for wool, linen and jute 
yarns in England, equal to 1,800 yards. 

SHpe iWool removed from the sk*i of the 
sheep by painting the flesh side with 
lime; used for serges, hosiery, wool- 
ens, blankets, corsets, etc. 

Slipper Carpet 'Warp-pile fabric made 
with colored Jacquard figures, used 
for bags, slippers, etc. 

Slips Trade name for low-grade vel- 
vets. 

Sliver A continuous rope of loose, un- 
twisted cotton or wool fibers, the out- 
put of the card. 

Slop Padding A printing process used on 
chintzes and some calicoes. The fab- 
ric is first printed with resist after 
which the color is applied to the en- 
tire face of the cloth by means of an 
unengraved roller. 

Slough Grass A sedge, growing in Iowa, 
yielding very strong fibres, used for 
twine. 

Slub Flaw in yarns, consisting of thick, 
uneven twisted places; soft lumps on 
the sliver. 



Slub Yarn In England yarn made with 
nubs, often of a different color from 
the yarn. 

Stubbing Doubled and slightly twisted 
sliver. 

Smalkens Obsolete thin silk or linen 
cloths, interwoven with gold or silver 
threads; made in Holland. 

Small Chain The binder warp in certain 
carpets, as Wilton or Brussels. 

Smith Standard Commercial variety of 
medium maturing cotton from Louis- 
iana, same as Ben Smith. 

Smock Linen Stout linen cloth, used for 
coats in England. 

Smooth PeruvianCotton, having soft, 
smooth and pliable staple of fair 
strength; it is white. 

Smyrna Greek cotton, having a medium 
v strong, harsh and fairly clean staple 
of dull white color. 

Smyrna Rugs 1, trade name for Turkish 
rugs made in Asia Minor and mar- 
keted through Smyrna; 2, in America, 
factory-made reversible rugs and car- 
pets, made with chenille filling. 

Snicks 'Flaws in the yarn, consisting of 
very thin places. 

Snowflake In England woolens, having 
white nubs on the face. See also 
bourette. 

Soap Used extensively in scouring, calico 
printing, fulling woolens, dyeing silk 
with black, etc. 

Sochs Raw cotton from the Levant. 

Soda Used in scouring wool and as 
bleaching agent for vegetable fibres; 
used also in weighting silk to fix tin 
salts. 

Sodium Bichromate Used in calico print- 
ing as discharge, as a mordant in wool 
dyeing, as a developer in dyeing and 
printing with aniline black. 

Sodium Bisulphate Used in dyeing wool; 
it increases the affinity of the fibre 
for the dyes. 

Sodium Bisulphite Used for bleaching 
and as reducing agent to remove man- 
ganese peroxide. 

Sodium Chlorate Used in oxidizing ani- 
line black. 

Sodium Ferrocyanide Used in dyeing 
with Prussian blue. 

Sodium Hyposulphite Used to reduce 
the bleaching powder in the fibres, 
also employed as a resist in dyeing 
cotton goods with aniline black and as 
fixing agent of metallic oxides in cali- 
co printing. 

Sodium Nitrite Used in dyeing and 
printing cotton goods with diazo col- 
ors. 

Sodium Peroxide Used for bleaching 
silk. 

Sodium Phosphate Used in weighting 
silk and in dyeing with azo colors and 
Turkey red. 

Sodium Stannate Used in mordanting azo 
dyes. 



SOE 



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Soesjes Light East Indian cotton cloth 
made in colored and white stripes, 
used for head covering. 

Sof 1, a very fine, plain woven fabric, 
made by the natives of Kashmir of 
the finest sort of mohair; obsolete; 2, 
very light, changeable or brocaded fine 
woolen from Asia Minor. 

Sofit Cotton fabric in the West African 
trade, made m imitation of figured 
gauze. 

Soft Finish Fabrics, especially cottons, 
finished with very little or no size. 

Soft Goods In England same as dry 
goods. 

Softs In England same as shoddy. 

Soie French for silk. 

Soie Mi-serree French term for loose 
twist, glossy silk yarn for crochet. 

Soie Mitorse Half twisted silk yarn for 
embroidery. See Mitorse silk. 

Soie Ondee <Silk yarn used for gauze; 
it is made by twisting a fine and 
coarse thread together. 

Soie Ovale French term for silk em- 
broidery yarn. 

Soie Platte 'French floss silk yarn used 
for embroidery, tapestry, etc. 

Soie Vegetale Flax treated to have a 
high, permanent lustre. It bleaches 
and dyes well; used for braids, laces, 
etc. 

Soisette 'Highly finished mercerized cot- 
ton fabric; used for lining, etc. 

Soleil 1, very highly finished all-wool 
fabric, woven with a warp twill in 
broken rib effect; 2, French for high 
lustre effects in textiles; 3, name for 
a warp rib weave. 

Solid Colored 'Fabric dyed in one color. 

Solidonia 'Proprietary name for a fiber 
of gloss and metallic whiteness and 
harsh feel, used for knit goods as 
substitute for silk or wool. It is 
made of a fibrous grass. 

Solisooty East Indian soft cotton mus- 
lin made of slack twist yarn. 

Sologesses 'Fine East Indian muslin. 

Solomon Bar In macrame lace four 
threads braided together flat. 

Somaliland Fiber >Long and flexible le'af 
fiber of the Sanseviera Ehrenbergii 
in Africa. 

Sommiere All-wool, French serge, made 
very soft and napped on one or both 
sides; us^d for lining of winter gar- 
ments. Comes in bleached, ecru or 
dyed in the piece. 

Soots Romal East Indian cotton shawls 
with colored stripes or window plaid. 

Sorcr-ote 'East Indian calico. 

Soria Harsh raw wool from Spain. 

Sorting See woolsorting. 

Sorting Penniston Coarse English wool- 
en, made of shoddy. 

Sosquil Native Mexican name for the 
henequen of Yucatan. 

Soucha Chinese silk crepon with blue 
stripes. 



Soudanin Obsolete, rich gold tissue, im- 
ported from the Orient. 

Soumak Rugs All-wool tapestry ruga 
woven in Transcaucasia. They come 
in all sizes. The design is geometri- 
cal. The hook is often used, the 
stiches being made in the herringbone 
fashion. It is also called Kashmir. 
'Modern S. are made in loose weave 
and with coarse dye. 

Souple Single filament of natural silk 
with the gum only partly boiled out 
(also called Mi-cuit). 

Sourbassis 'White or yellowish Persian 
raw silk of fine quality. 

Soutache 'Narrow rounded braid woven 
in herringbone effect with odd num- 
ber of threads made either plain or 
fancy; used for trimming. 

Southern Hope^Commercial variety of 
late maturing cotton from the South- 
ern belt, the staple measuring 28-32 
millimeters; the yield is 30-32 per 
cent. 

Sozin Cotton bed sheeting, made in In- 
dia. 

Spangle Same as Spyndle (see). 

Spanish Broom Yields fine fiber, used in 
Spain for fine tissues and lace; in 
Italy and France for durable cloth. 

Spanish Cloth Fine woolen fabric, dyed 
black or scarlet; during the 18th 
century in England. 

Spanish Crape An 18th century all-wors- 
ted English fabric. 

Spanish Linen Stout, narrow, plain wov- 
en washable fabric, made of linen 
warf.) and cotton Wiling; used for 
summer clothes. 

Spanish Stitch In embroidery cross 
stitches arranged in a row to form 
a line on the face of the fabric and 
squares on the back. 

Spanish Stripes A lightweight, wide and 
fulled woolen cloth, originally made 
of Spanish wool with striped selvage, 
now made mostly in England. It is 
light, very soft and well finished with 
a light nap. 

Sparagon Inferior English woolen suit- 
ing; obsolete. 

Speckle Uneven dyeing in yarns or 
cloths. 

Speculation Plain woven fabric of cot- 
ton or linen yarn and silk filling, fin- 
ished with moire effect; obsolete. 

Spider Leno 'See net leno. 

Spider Weave Name for weaves produc- 
ing a net-like effect on the face of 
the cloth by floating and deflecting 
either the warp or the weft threads. 

Spider Web Very fine and silky variety 
of cotton from (Mississippi; see Cob- 
web. 

Spider Wheel 'See Catherine wheel. 

Spidernet Obsolete, plain knitted fabric, 
made of white cotton yarn. 

Spine In hand-made laces points dec- 
orating the cordonnet (see). 

Spinning The process of forming a yarn 
of cotton, wool, flax, etc., fibers, by 
drawing and twisting. 



SPI 



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Spiral Yarn Contains a soft spun yarn 
twisted in a corkscrew fashion around 
a different colored single or two-ply, 
hard spun core. 

Spliced Reinforced parts of hosiery 
where the wear is the greatest. 

Split 1, narrow fabrics, like ribbons, lin- 
ings, etc., woven in double width with 
center selvages formed by crossing 
one thread over several warp threads 
in leno weave. The fabric is cut in 
the middle between the center sel- 
vages and the latter sometimes is re- 
inforced with size; 2, cheap, plain 
woven, narrow cotton goods, woven 
as above. 

Split Foot^Colored hosiery made with a 
white sole. 

Split Stitch A flat chain stitch used in 
old church embroidery. 

Sponge 1, name for a crepe weave (see) 
made with equal number of warp 
and weft floats; 2, a honeycomb 
weave, made with small diamonds on 
a satin ground, resulting in very 
small cells. 

Sponge Cloth 1, coarse fabric, made of 
cotton waste and used for cleaning 
machinery; 2, fine dress fabric of cot- 
ton, wool or silk, made of nub yarn 

in twill weave. 

Spool Cotton 'Sewing cotton thread, 
wound on a spool, made of three 
strands, each being a double strand. 

Spots English cotton goods woven with 
dots on a great variety of founda- 
tions. 

Spotting In England same as crabbing. 

Sprig 'Patterns of flowers and leaves 
in hand -made laces, made separately 
and appliqued on a net ground. 

Sprouting Defect in Brussels and tapes- 
try rugs and carpets, consisting of 
some of the loops protruding above 
the surface. 

Spun Glass Glass thread of great fine- 
ness, dyed in various colors, braided 
and made into neckwear, as in Venice. 

Spun Silk Yarn made of pierced cocoons, 
winder's waste or frisons. The fibers 
are degummed by boiling in soapsuds 
or chemicals, or by maceration or de- 
cay. The fibers are put through the 
combing, drawing, roving and spin- 
ning processes. 

Spyndle Count for dry-spun flax yarn 
and jute yarn, consisting of 48 cuts 
(or leas) of 300 yards each, which 
make up a spyndle of 14,400 yards, 
the weight in pounds of a spyndle 
being the count of the yarn. 

Srinagar Knotted rugs made in Kash- 
mir, India, of very fine wool. 

Stained Cloth (Antiquated term for dra- 
pery painted with figures, to imitate 
tapestry. 

Stamatte All-wool, colored cloth, made 
in Holland, usually dyed in the yarn; 
obsolete. 

Stamel Coarse, stout English worsted of 
the 16th century, often dyed red for 
petticoats; obsolete. 



Stamen The name for warp in ancient 
Rome. 

Stamen Forte 'Medieval French worsted 
fabric. 

Stamin An obsolete linsey woolsey. 

Stammett 16th century, very fine English 
worsted, name as Tammies. See 
Stamel. 

Stamped Velvet Velvet having patterns 
stamped into the pile with heated en- 
graved rollers. 

Stamyn .Stout and durable English wors- 
ted; obsolete. 

Stannic Chloride Used extensively in 
weighting silk, also in mordanting cot- 
ton and in dyeing wool with alizarine. 

Stannous Chloride Used as a mordant in 
silk dyeing; as a discharging chemical 
in calico printing; in dyeing wool with 
cochineal. 

Stanium Fine, stout woolen of the Mid- 
dle Ages. 

Staple 1, trade term for the cotton or 
wool fiber; 2, trade term for a va- 
riety of fabrics, like serge or satin, 
which are being made and sold year 
after year, as contrasted with novel- 
ties; 3, a tuft of wool clinging to- 
gether. 

Star Stitch Similar to double stitch 
(see). 

Starch Used extensively in .printing and 
finishing cotton goods. 

Starching Finishing process, consists of 
treating the fabric (usually cotton) 
with solution of starch for appear- 
ance, strength or weight. 

Statute Galloons^Narrow cotton or silk 
braids, used in England for binding 
flannel underwear. 

Stauracin Byzantine silk fabric figured 
with small crosses. 

Stay Striped tape used by tailors in Eng- 
land to bind edges. 

Stay Binding Tape to lace women's cor- 
sets. 

Steam Filature See filature. 

Steam Styles 'Methods of textile print- 
ing, in which the colors are set with 
steam after printing. 

Steinkirke Cotton handkerchiefs, for- 
merly made in India. 

Stella Shawl French shawl made with 
four brocaded borders sewed to the 
body, having warp fringes at both 
ends, two adjacent borders having the 
pattern on the face and the two 
others on the back; obsolete. 

Stem Stitch In embroidery stitches 
placed next to each other to imitate 
the twiet of a rope. 

Stenter Fine book muslin in England. 

Stephanie Lace Modern handmade lace 
in imitation of the Point Venise. 



STE 



148 



STU 



Stewart Various Highland tartans, com- 
posed as follows: 

Royal Stewart: Wide red stripe; 
light blue stripe, almost one-eighth 
of the red; black stripe, wider than 
pale blue; group of yellow, black, 
white and black lines; green stripe, 
about one-quarter of wide red stripe*; 
red stripe, twice as wide as the green, 
split by one fine white line (in the 
center) and two, somewhat heavier 
black lines, the three lines spaced 
evenly; repeat, in reversed order 
groups mentioned between the two*. 
Old Stewart: Dark brown stripe, 
edged by red lines and split by a finer 
red line; dark green stripe, twice as 
wide as the former, divided into three 
even parts by two dark blue stripes, 
each edged by black lines; dark brown 
stripe, as above; dark blue stripe, 
split by two groups of narrow stripes, 
each group consisting of three black 
and two green lines. 

Dress Tartan: White field, half the 
width of the entire colored group; 
narrow light blue stripe; wider black 
stripe; group of fine lines in yellow, 
black, white and black; dark green 
stripe, wider than the black*; red 
stripe (as wide as all the above men- 
tioned colored stripes, except the blue) 
divided into four even parts by one 
very fine white line and two heavier 
black lines; repeat, in reversed order, 
all stripes mentioned between two *. 
Prince Charles Edward: Red stripe; 
*group (as wide as the red stripe) 
composed of dark blue stripe, a wider 
black, fine yellow line, narrow black, 
white and black stripes; green stripe, 
half the width of the red*; red stripe 
(as wide as the first one) split by a 
fine white line and two narrow black 
stripes; repeat, in reversed order, 
groups mentioned between two *. 

Hunting: Dark green stripe, split 
by a narrow red stripe; black stripe, 
as wide as the green, split in the cen- 
ter and near the edges by narrow 
green stripes; green stripe, as the 
first one, split in the center by a nar- 
row yellow stripe; black stripe, about 
one- fifth of the green; dark blue 
stripe, as wide as the green, split in 
the center by a narrow green stripe 
and near each edge by a pair of 
fine black lines. 

Stiffening Cloth Horsehair underlining. 

Stirling Serge 'Fine worsted Scotch serge 
of the 17th century. 

Stitchel <Hair-like wool with little ser- 
rations on the surface. 

Stock Dyeing The process of dyeing fi- 
bers in raw state (in the grain) be- 
fore being spun. 

Stockinet 1, a heavily napped knitted 
fabric, cut and sewed up into un- 
derwear; 2, seamless, tubular cotton 
fabric, made on knitting machines. 

Stone Cotton Trade name for Brazilian 
cotton. 

Stoppa Trade term in Italy for scutch- 
ing tow of the Italian hemp; used for 
ropes. 

Stores Lace curtains for store windows. 

Storax A Medieval silk fabric. 



Storm Serge In the United States a very 
light serge weighing about 7 ounces, 
made of single warp and filling; used 
for women's coats. 

Stout A property of certain fabrics, being 
the combination of close weave and 
weight. 

Stoving The process of bleaching raw 
wool or fabrics with sulphur fumes. 

Stradella A French woolen damask 
shawl. 

Stragulatae 'Medieval silks with stripe 
pattern. 

Straights, Straits 1, English kersey un- 
der Henry VIII; 2, narrow and me- 
dium quality woolens in medieval 
England. 

Straiken A linen fabric made in Scotland. 

Stramenta Linen sheeting in ancient 
Rome. 

Strand The immediate composite part of 
rope, thread and ply yarn. 

Strand Ground In hand-made laces ir- 
regular brides connecting the sprigs. 

Stranfa 'Fiber obtained from straw; used 
in Germany as substitute for jute. 

Strappatura Trade term for plucking 
waste of the Italian hemp, graded as 
<S E, S P S and S T. 

Strasse Sort of floret silk obtained by 
converting duppions into waste. 

Strazza Waste of silk in Italy. 

Streak Stitch The open veins of leaves 
in hand-made laces. 

Streaks Flaw in solid colored, yarn dyed 
goods, consisting of shaded streaks, 
caused by imperfect dyeing. 

Strepsikeros Wool Long and coarse wool 
from Crete. 

Stricot Obsolete French fabric, made 
with heavy ply warp of wool and cot- 
ton and fine, single worsted yarn for 
filling. It is fulled in the finish. 

String 1, two or three-ply coarse thread 
of hemp or flax of various thickness 
and fineness; 2, a unit of ten feet, ac- 
cording to which woolen warps are 
calculated in Yorkshire, England. 

Stringy 1, thin, delicate stapled wool; 2, 
a flaw in the wool, consisting in slight 
matting, caused by imperfect scour- 
ing; 3, defective raw cotton, the fibers 
forming strings, caused through the 
ginning of too wet cotton. 

Stripe Braid Has stripes, often of differ- 
ent colors or materials interlaced with 
each other. 

StrippingRemoval of coloring matter by 
means of bleaching. 

Strussa Waste silk, obtained from 
double cocoons (duppions). 

Stuffs A large number of standard dress 
goods and linings made in Bradford, 
England, usually plain woven and 
made with cotton warp and mohair, 
alpaca or lustre wool filling. 

Stuffing 1, a slack twisted yarn which 
is in quilted fabrics (pique, mar- 
seilles, etc.), producing the embossed 
patterns; 2, same as after treating. 



STU 



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SWA 



Stumba Combing silk obtained from the 
waste of shappe silk; it is quite coaree 
and is used for filling yarn, coarse 
knitted fabrics, etc. 

Stymboline Felt made of woolen and 
linen yarn in France. 

Subahia Xative East African name for 
cotton fabrics woven with dark blue, 
brown and yellow checks and a wide 
border of silk and gold threads. 

Subsericae Medieval fabrics made partly 
of silk. 

Substitute A cheaper or inferior fiber 
which takes the place of a more ex- 
pensive one, as for instance cotton 
used instead of wool or silk. 

Succatoons Dyed cotton goods in the 
African markets. 

Suedoise French serge, made with 8 har- 
nesses and 4 picks in a repeat. 

Suffed-simul Silky, yellowish, seed hair 
of the Bombax tree in India. 

Suffolk Lace English bobbin lace of plain 
patterns, the design usually outlined 
with a thick thread. 

Sugar Loaf A now obsolete commercial 
variety of upland cotton. 

Sukkerdon East Indian muslin. 

Sulphate of Alum Used extensively as 
mordanting agent and to render fab- 
rics waterproof. 

Sulphur Colors Direct, fast artificial dyes 
producing mostly darker shades. They 
are used on vegetable fibers and are 
applied in an alkaline bath. They 
all contain sulphur. 

Sulphuric Acid Used in mordanting and 
carbonizing and dyeing (with acid 
dyes) wool, in calico printing, in dis- 
charging indigo, etc. 

Sulphuring 'See Stoving. 

Sultanabad 'Medium and large size Per- 
sian rugs made with thick pile. The 
design consists of floral patterns in 
brilliant blue, red and green colors. 

Summer Silk Same as Louisine (see). 

Suningchow Soft silk serge in solid col- 
ors, made in China; is about 32 inches 
wide. 

Sunn Hemp Strong, durable and light 
colored bast fiber yielded by the cro- 
talaria juncea of Southern Asia; used 
for cordage, bags, etc. 

Supei 1, merino clothing wool, taken 
from the back, across the loins to neck 
of a fleece; 2, standard grade of the 
ingrain carpet, having 960 warp ends 
in a yard and 12 pairs of fillings in an 
inch. 

Super-combing Long wool taken from the 
finest part of the fleece the shoul- 
ders. 

Suples Silk yarn dyed with only part of 
the gum removed. 

Supukwenkin Silk fabric similar to lust- 
ring; made in China; used for scarfs. 

Surah Very soft and flexible twilled silk 
dress goods without any dressing; 
mostly in white or very light colors. 
There is also an East Indian taffeta 
printed in Europe. 



Surah de Laine Fine, twilled, soft dress 
goods, made of silk and wool. 

Surat East Indian cotton, often with a 
stained but strong staple of dull white 
color; contains much leaf. 

Surepach East Indian cotton muslin. 

Surette Very coarse and open French jute 
bagging, two warps and two wefts 
crossing at the same time. 

Surinam Variety of raw cotton from 
Guyana; the flber is white or yellow- 
ish, lustrous and strong. 

Susces 'East Indian lightweight all silk 
taffeta. 

Susetchen Chinese ecru foulard, made 
of wild silk. It is about 20 inches 
wide. 

Susha Plain woven ecru silk fabric made 
in China. About 21 inches wide. 

Susi 'Cotton fabrics made in India with 
colored stripes or checks on gray 
ground. 

Susienchow 'Solid colored silk gros de 
Naples with wavy ribs, made In 
China; is about 24 inches wide. The 
warp is of organzine and the filling 
of spiral yarn. 

Sussex Lawn English dress goods of light 
weight, unbleached linen. 

Sutherland A Highland tartan, com- 
posed as follows: dark green stripe, 
split in the center by a very narrow 
black stripe; black stripe, half as 
wide as the green; dark blue stripe, 
as wide as the green, split by a pair 
of very narrow black stripes, placed 
near the edges and spaced from each 
other and from the edge their own 
width; green stripe, width and split 
as above; dark blue stripe, as wide 
as above, split in the center by a sin- 
gle pair of very narrow, black stripes, 
spaced their own width. 

Suti Twisted cotton rope in India; used 
with tents. 

Sutton Early maturing commercial va- 
riety of upland cotton, same as Peer- 
less. 

Suttringee East Indian thick and stiff 
cotton rug. 

Sutwan Various Chinese piece dyed silk 
satins. 

Suzeni Embroidery Persian needlework, 
consisting of couched silk or gold 
threads. 

Swansdown 1, an uneven sided, four har- 
ness twill weave, the filling threads 
passing over three warps and pass- 
ing under one; 2, a stout, weft faced 
cotton fabric woven in the swans- 
down twill with a soft spun filling, 
the weave containing about twice as 
many picks than ends. In the finishing 
a nap is raised in the face; used for 
underwear and workmen's clothes in 
England. 

Swanskin 1, thick, closely woven, Eng- 
lish woolen cloth similar to flannel; 
used for laborers' suits; 2, an 18th 
century fabric in England made of 
worsted warp and woolen filling. 



SWE 



150 



TAF 



Sweating The process of removing wool 
from the skin, by exposing the skins, 
which are first soaked in water, to 
high temperature. 

Swiss Applique A very light, sheer cot- 
ton fabric, having small, separate (not 
continuous) patterns printed in only 
one color. These patterns are raised 
and consist of finely ground cotton 
fibers which are stuck to the cloth 
with glue. 

Swiss Brussels Curtains with patterns 
outlined in chainstitch by the tam- 
bour machine. 

Swiss Cambric A white cotton lawn. 

Swiss Embroidery Washable machine and 
hand embroidery made, mostly white 
over white, in Switzerland. 

Swiss Mull Very thin, bleached and 
dressed cotton dress goods. 

Swiss Muslin Fine, thin cotton muslin, 
made in Switzerland; it is plain or 
dotted. 

Swissing Process of calendering bleached 
muslins between hot rollers. 

Swivel Fabrics Trade term for a varie- 
ty of silk or cotton fabrics, having 
relatively heavy Jacquard figures or 
spots on a very light ground. They 
are used for dresses, waists, over- 
dreslses, etc. The dots or figures 
are either woven into the cloth with 
an extra filling, floating on the back 
of the cloth between the different 
patterns, and shorn away in the fin- 
ishing process, or made as lappet work 
the extra thread forming a trailing 
design. 

Swivel Weaving Consists of introducing 
a number of small shuttles besides 
the fly shuttle, which produce small 
designs on the foundation. There is 
one shuttle for each figure, and they 
do not leave long floats. The result is 
similar to embroidery. 

Sword Sedge Strong leaf and stem fiber 
yielded by the Lepidosperma gladiata 
in Australia; used for lines and bas- 
kets by the natives. 

Syddo A fairly stiff but flexible woolen; 
used for coat fronts in lieu of hair- 
cloth. 

Syndonus A better sort of cendal (see). 



T Cloth In Latin-America and the Far 
East a coarse, plain woven, gray cot- 
ton shirting with colored head ends; 
made in England always 28-32 inches 
wide and 24 yards long, and heavily 
sized. 

Taag Same as Sunn Hemp (see). 

Tabaret Stout, fine silk drapery fabric 
with alternate stripes of satin and 
moire in different colors. 



Tabbinet 1, fine drapery poplin of silk 
warp and wool filling with moire fin- 
ish; 2, also a thin moire taffeta lin- 
ing. 

Tabby 1, British equivalent of moire; 2, 
a thick and coarse taffeta or worsted 
fabric with moire finish; 3, cotton 
velvet, made with weft pile and plain 
ground. 

Tabis Heavy, all-silk taffeta made with 
organzine warp. 

Tabis de Verone Italian all-silk taffeta 
moire; obsolete. 

Taborett 18th century woolen fabric in 
England, made plain or brocaded. 

Taborine A 19th century English wors- 
ted, being a lower grade of moreen 
(see). 

Tabouret A highly finished French wool- 
en used for furniture upholstery; ob- 
solete. 

Tabriz Rugs Usually large size Persian 
rugs with cotton warp; the short and 
very close wool pile is tied in Ghiordes 
knot. The favorite design consists of 
a large center medallion with curved 
outlines and fine floral and animal 
patterns. Often several small medal- 
lions are used with inscriptions. 

Tadpole Eponge Made of several plain 
ends alternating with one loop yarn 
and of plain filling, the knots being 
scattered irregularly over the sur- 
face. 

Taffechela English cotton fabric of fine 
texture, made with blue warp and 
white filling in plain weave; obso- 
lete. 

Taffeta 1, a less costly silk fabric than 
cendal, used for lining in the Middle 
Ages in England; 2, formerly trade 
name in England for all-wool shirt- 
ings, with fancy warp stripes; 3, a 
plain and closely woven, very smooth 
silk fabric, the warp and weft being 
of the same or nearly the same count; 
used for dress goods and lining. Form- 
erly it was a very rich, stout and 
somewhat stiff fabric; at the present 
it is made very pliable (called chiffon 
taffeta). It comes usually as a sin- 
gle fabric, solid colored or changeable; 
if double-faced two sets of filling of 
different colors are used. Taffeta is 
often used as foundation for velvet or 
gold brocades, for the reverse side of 
satin ribbons and in other combina- 
tions. 

Taffetas d'Angleterre Very stout and 
highly glazed French all-silk taffeta: 
used for scarfs, dresses, curtains, etc.; 
obsolete. 

Taffetas Armoisin Trade term for the 
lowest grades of French taffetas; ob- 
solete. 

Taffetas d'Avignon A very low grade of 
taffetas, made in France, in all colors, 
and used for lining, curtains, etc.; ob- 
solete. 

Taffetas Chagrin Taffeta dotted in many 
colors, used for drapery and lining; 
now obsolete. 



TAP 



151 



TAP 



Taffetas d'Espagne French all silk taf- 
feta of various qualities, mostly in 
lightweight. Some grades were given 
a finish; obsolete. 

Taffeta Flannel A lightweight, unshrink- 
able wool fabric, made in plain weave 
with colored stripes and checks; used 
for sporting shirts. 

Taffetas Fleuret Silk taffeta made of 
hard twist waste silk; obsolete. 

Taffetas de Florence Very light and in- 
ferior French silk taffeta lining; ob- 
solete. 

Taffetas Prismatique Lustrous, French 
all-silk taffeta. The warp is colored in 
the various shades of the rainbow. 
The filling- is white. 

Taffetas de Tours French, silk taffeta lin- 
ing of dull finish; obsolete. 

Taffeta Weave See Plain Weave. 

Taffetine Plain woven, lightweight lin- 
ing, made with closely placed organ- 
zine warp and coarser cotton, linen 
or silk filling. It is slightly stiffened. 

Taffy Obsolete moire taffeta. 

Tafta Persian plain woven, rich silk fab- 
ric, made of hard spun, ply yarn. 

Tagal Braid made of Manila hemp and 
used for women's hat shapes. 

Tahiti Cotton of the Sea Island type, 
the staple is good, silky, but irregular 
in length; contains a large percentage 
of unripe fiber. 

Tahuari Native Peruvian name for a 
thin, fibrous bast of the Couratari 
tree; used for clothing, blankets, etc. 

Tailed Cotton See Stringy 3. 

Tailor's Twist Coarse, strong silk ply 
thread; used by tailors. 

Tajong A woolen fabric in the Chinese 
trade. 

Take A row of pile tufts in hand-made 
rugs. 

Take-up The shortening of the warp 
thread after the weaving, due to the 
curves formed in the interlacing with 
the filling. 

Tal Xative Indian name for the harsh, 
wiry leaf fiber, yielded by the Palmyra 
palm; used for brushes. 

Talanche^Plain or striped coarse cloth 
of flax and wool in France; used for 
garments by the poorer classes. 

Talbot Variety of raw cotton from Mis- 
sissippi; identical with Allen (see). 

Talitan Chinese cotton rugs with over- 
cast edges; used as bed covers. 

Tamaito Japanese term for a grade of 
silk waste obtained from the dup- 
pions. 

Tambour 1, the narrowest size of passing 
(see) embroidery thread; 2, embroid- 
ery, having- the design executed in 
in chain stitch on a machine made 
net ground, with the help of a hook. 

Tambour Lace Made in England and Ire- 
land by embroidering black or white 
net in chainstitch stretched in a tam- 
bour (embroidery) loo;j. 



Tambour Muslin An open and clear 
muslin; used for embroideries, cur- 
tains, etc. 

Tambour Work Is of Eastern origin, con- 
sisting of embroidery in chain and 
other stitches over a sheer material 
stretched in a frame. 

Tamet Woven Term in England, denot- 
ing fabrics woven both sides alike and 
without a wale. 

Tamettas Cotton handkerchiefs from 
East India. 

Taminy In England a lightweight wool- 
en fabric, finished with a gloss; ob- 
solete. 

Tamis Plain and open woven and very 
smoothly -finished worsted; used for 
sieves. 

Tamise 1, originally an English, all-wool 
or silk mixed open face, light fabric. 2, 
French silk dress fabric, made with 
satin stripes on a sheer, plain woven 
ground; 3, lightweight, thin, plain 
woven woolen dress goods with a 
corded face. 

Tammies Twilled, highly finished fabrics 
of worsted and cotton; used for dra- 
pery, etc. 

Tammy In the 18th and 19th centuries a 
fine, all-worsted dress fabric in Eng- 
land, made with single warp and 
twilled, and highly finished. 

Tampico Hemp A harsh, stiff leaf fiber 
yielded by a variety of the agave in 
Mexico. Also called ixtle; used for 
ropes, etc. 

Tanag A Philippine coarse leaf fiber; 
used for cordage. 

Tandem Medium grade, bleached linen 
from Silesia; obsolete. 

Tang An East Indian cotton muslin. 

Tani or Tanny 1, see Aggonedbunder; 2, 
a broadcloth in China. 

Tanjib 'East Indian muslin of various 
grades of fineness; is often embroid- 
ered and has gold selvage or gold 
stripes at the ends. It is usually dyed 
or printed, and worn as head cover 
in India, Syria and Arabia; is about 
27 or 30 inches wide. 

Tanners' Wool Is removed from the skin 
of slaughtered sheep through lime. 

Tapa A very fine, fibrous sheet, obtained 
through pounding from the bast of 
the paper mulberry tree on the Fiji 
Islands; used for clothing by the na- 
tives. 

Tapalos Fancy colored Mexican shawls. 

Tape Very narrow cotton or linen fabric, 
woven in broken twill and dye in the 
piece; used for binding by dressmak- 
ers. The grade is based on the num- 
ber of threads supposed to be in the 
width. 

Tape Check Yard-wide English cotton 

fabric of light construction. 
Tape Lace Consists of designs made of 

tape and connected with brides or 

laid upon a net ground. 
Taped Two or more separate warp ends 

run through one heald and woven as 

one. 



TAP 



152 



TAS 



Tapestry This fabric is of Oriental ori- 
gin and was made either by embroid- 
ering a ground fabric with colored 
worsted or gold and silver thread, or 
by stretching the warp and working 
the pattern with colored threads, each 
color of a weft extending only the 
width of the pattern. 

At the present tapestry is made 
either on high (vertically stretched) 
or low (horizontal) warp, the prin- 
ciple being the same in both cases. 
The stout warp is stretched, from 8 
to 22, within an inch space, and the 
patterns worked from the wrong side 
by means of small shuttles. In the 
design only the filling is visible. Each 
weft extends continuously only the 
width of that particular colored field, 
the edges of these different colored 
fields being properly interlaced with 
each other to form a continuous fab- 
ric. When in use the tapestry is hung 
with the filling running vertically. 

Tapestries are ornamental textiles, 
used mostly for covering walls, cur- 
tains and also for upholstery. They 
are distinguished by the style as ver- 
dures, gothic renaissance, etc., and 
by the origin. Since the 12th cen- 
tury Arras, in France, also Brussels 
and Lille, were the most famous places 
for tapestries, succeeded by the Gobe- 
lin, Savonnerie, Beauvais and Aubus- 
son tapestries since the 17th century. 

Tapestry Back A single shed back, giv- 
f.n to carpets in order in increase 
their wearing quality. 

Tapestry Carpet Is made with three sets 
of warps, one forming the loop pile, 
and only one frame. The pile warp 
is printed before weaving with the 
desired pattern in any number of 
colors, this being the difference be- 
tween the tapestry carpet and Brus- 
sels carpet, although the two are 
similar in appearance. 

Tapestry Stitch Similar to gobelin stitch. 

Tapeta Carpets and rugs of ancient 
Egypt, mentioned by Homer; some 
made with linen warp and woolen 
weft. 

Tapis French for 1, carpet; 2, several 
fancy Oriental fabrics. 

Tapissendis East Indian calico, printed 
on both sides, used as drapery, shawl, 
etc. 

Tapisserie French for tapestry. 

Tapisserie d'Auxerre Consists of net em- 
broidered with soft wool yarn in 
satin stitches, forming geometrical 
designs. 

Tapizadoe 18th century woolen fabric in 
England. 

Tapsel 'Calico in various African mar- 
kets, striped in blue and other colors. 

Taquis ' Plain weave cotton cloth from 

Aleppo, Syria. 
Tarandan Cotton muslin from India. 

Tarare 1, French, pure or cotton mixed 
linen of good quality, used for cur- 
tains; 2, French hemp canvas, un- 
bleached; made about 27 inches 
wide and used for furniture covering-. 



Tare Bagging and ties of the cotton and 
wool bales, varying from less than 
two to over five per cent of the total 
weight. 

Tarlatan Very sheer, light cotton fabric 
made in plain weave, dyed or printed 
and stiffened with size; used for 
gowns, dresses and trimmings. 

Tarlton Plain woven, very open and 
light cotton fabric, dyed in the piece. 
Used for dresses, etc. See tarlatan. 

Tarmate Waste silk, obtained from 
stained or imperfect cocoons. 

Tarnatan Very thin East Indian cotton 
muslin. 

Tarpaulin A plain woven jute or hemp 
fabric made with taped warp, and 
single filling. The standard width is 
45 inches. It is waterproofed with 
boiling tar. 

Tartaine Medieval English worsted, made 
red or striped. 

Tartan 1, originally Scotch twilled wool- 
en or worsted plaids with distinctive 
designs and colors for each Highland 
clan; many of the clans have more 
than one tartan, as for instance the 
chief tartan, dress tartan, clan tartan, 
hunting tartan and mourning tartan, 
each worn at a special occasion. 
These tartans appeared in the plaid 
or shawl worn over the shoulders and 
also in the kilt; 2, woolen or worsted 
dress goods woven in twill or basket 
weave in plain patterns, usually in 
blue, green, red and yellow colors; 
3, in Argentine, Uruguay and Para- 
guay flannelettes, woven with plaid 
patterns and napped on both sides. 
Some of the better grades arealso 
made of wool. 

Tartanella Tartan plaids made of wool 
mixed with cotton or linen. 

Tartai Used in mordanting wool. 

Tartar Emetic Used in mordanting cot- 
ton and to fix basic dyes. 

Tartarine Medieval rich silk brocade of 
Asiatic origin. 

Tartary Cloth A medieval fabric; see 
Cloth of Tars. 

Tartaryn 15th century English worsted 
fabric of green color. 

Tarver Early maturing commercial va- 
riety of cotton from Alabama, now 
obsolete. 

Tasai Original name for tussah or tus- 
sor. 

Tash Indian fabric made of vari-colored 
silk warp, with small designs formed 
by gold or silver threads in the filling. 

Tashiari Strong stem fibre of the Deb- 
regeasia hypoleuca in India; used for 
cordage by the natives. 

Tassel Tufts of cotton, wool, silk, metal 
or chenille yarn, with a more or less 
ornamental head and a long, open or 
looped end. The finer qualities are 
used for dress and coat trimmings, 
while the heavy grades are used on 
curtains and upholstered furniture. 



TAS 



153 



TER 



Tassel Stitch In Berlin wool work for 
making fringes and is a variety of 
the plush stitch (see); it is worked 
with a mesh and the wool doubled. 

Tat Coarse, East Indian linen. 

Tat Chotee Native Indian name for jute 
cloth. 

Tataja Light, flexible, cloth-like bast of 
the Couratari tree, used for women's 
garments in Colombia. 

Tattersall Thick woolen cloth, made 
with large and conspicuous designs; 
used for vests. 

Tatting Process of making lace by hand 
with a shuttle by making various 
loops, forming delicate patterns. Used 
for collars, trimmings, for dresses, 
doilies, insertions. Hard twist thread 
is necessary to show the small picots. 

Tau Native Samoan name for the 
Hibiscus plant, used for fine mats. 

Taunton A medium and coarse grade of 
English broadcloth, weighing 11 oz. 
per yard; was made since the 16th 
century. 

Taunton Serge 18th century worsted 
serge in England; worn by women. 

Taurino Coarse, stout cloth made of cow 
hair and wool. Used for rugs, coats, 
etc. 

Tavestook A 16th century broadcloth in 
England. 

Taxili 'Sort of raw cotton from Mace- 
donia. 

Taylor 1, commercial variety of upland 
cotton from South Carolina, the large 
bolls yielding about 3? per o"nt of 
long staple; 2, commercial variety of 
upland cotton from Alabama, yield- 
ing short staple. 

Tcharhad 'Little square hand knotted 
rugs in Persia. 

Tchechen Rugs See Chichi rugs. 

Tchembert White or fancy cotton muslin 
in Turkey. 

Tcherkess Rugs See Circassian rugs. 

Tchesma Sort of coarse raw cotton from 
Macedonia. 

Tcheutche Closely woven, very soft Chi- 
nese washable taffeta. It does not 
crease and is used for garments. 

Tchillia Silk yarn made in Central Asia 
used for warp. 

Tchusan Chinese fancy colored fabric of 
worsted and cotton. 

Tearing Goods English cotton and linen 
fabrics for the African trade. 

Teasel Process to raise the nap, especial- 
ly of woolens, by scratching the cloth. 

Teasel Cloth Another name for nap faced 
fabrics. 

Tecun Very strong leaf fibers, yielded 
by a palm in Brazil and Peru; used 
for fishing nets and lines. 

Teddy Bear Cloth Fleecy coating made 
of wool and mohair, the long nap is 
raised after the weaving. 

Teg The first fleece from yearling sheep 
that was not shorn as lamb. 



Tekke Turkoman Medium size, all-wool, 
fringed rugs, made in Turkestan. The 
very short and close pile is tied in 
Senna knot. The rugs are nearly 
square. The design always consists 
of square and octagonal shapes in 
crimson, madder, old rose and other 
reds as chief colors, beside a little 
cream, black, blue and green. These 
rugs are called "Bokhara" in the 
United States. 

Tekkc Oilcloth floor cover in Germany, 
having a cotton web. The face is 
given damask effect by pressing. 

Tela General name for textile fabrics in 
ancient Rome. 

Tela del Sui Bleached cotton cloth in 
Mexico. 

Telas Para Zarasas Print cloths in Co- 
lombia. 

Tellapatti Variety of raw cotton from 
South India. The staple is coarse. 

Telon Coarse, stout droguet, made in 
France with linen or hemp warp and 
woolen filling; obsolete. 

Tendel A variety of biaz (see), dyed blue 
with indigo; made in Central Asia. 

Tender Any fabric or yarn which has 
been made weak during some of the 
spinning or weaving operations. 

Tender Fleeces A sort of wool separated 
in wool sorting from others; they have 
a weak place in the fiber. 

Teneriffe Lace Made in the Canary Is- 
lands. The patterns consist of wheels. 

Teneriffe Work Consists of making 
laces similar to the filet with star- 
like patterns. 

Tennessee Gold Dust Commercial variety 
of early maturing, very prolific up- 
land cotton, same as King. 

Tennessee Silk Commercial variety of 
upland cotton, identical with Ozler. 

Tennis Flannel Same as outing flannel. 

Tennis Shirting Soft, twilled, cotton or 
woolen shirting, made in fancy 
stripes, often napped on the back. 

Tennis Stripes Light, twilled woolen 
dress goods with narrow, colored 
stripes. 

Tent Cloth Stout waterproof cotton 
duck or canvas, used for tents and 
awnings. 

Tent Stitch or Petit Point In embroid- 
ery only half of the cross stitch, re- 
peated. 

Tentering One of the finishing processes 
during which the cloth is stretched 
to a required width and dried. 

Tepis Coarse East Indian fabrics made 
of cotton and silk waste with colored 
stripes. 

Terindans An East Indian fine cotton 

muslin. 
Terlice Fine drill made in France with 

colored stripes. 
Ternaux French shawls made in the 19th 

century of cashmere wool. 
Terra Nova Sort of raw cotton from 

Sicily. 



TER 



154 



THR 



Territory Name applied in the U. S. A. 
to wool raised west of the Mississippi. 

Terry Cloth Is woven with two sets of 
warp and one filling, one warp form- 
ing rows of loops on the face or back 
or on both sides, which are not cut. 
It comes bleached, dyed, in colored 
patterns or printed. The loop piles 
can cover the entire cloth or form 
patterns. It is made of cotton, linens, 
wool or silk and used for a great 
variety of purpose. When made of 
cotton or linen it is also called Turk- 
ish toweling. The warp which forms 
the loops is dressed on a separate 
warp beam and is kept very slack. In 
weaving, a number of .picks are let in, 
quite far apart from each other, be- 
fore beaten up hence terry is desig- 
nated as 3, 4, 5 or 6 pick, according 
to the number of picks put in in one 
row of loops. When the picks are 
beaten up they will slide over the 
stoutly stretched ground warp but 
the friction is sufficient to pull the 
pile warp with it, the section of that 
warp between each pick, originally 
far apart, forming a loop on any or 
both sides when beaten up. It comes 
in stripes, checks, plaids or broca'led 
effects in various colors. Used for 
towels, bathrobes, etc. 

A modern dress goods called eponse 
is made of cotton, wool or silk with 
loops only on one side. 

Terry Pile Loop or uncut pile formed by 
a separate set of warp. 

Terry Poplin 'Heavy corded silk and wool 
poplin, alike on both sides. 

Terry Velvet 1, uncut velvet; 2, finely 
ribbed all silk cloth used as trimming 
in England; obsolete. 

Teshike -Lightweight Japanese silk cloth, 
treated against perspiration. 

Tests A large variety of methods for de- 
tecting the presence of certain fibres 
by burning, chemical reaction, micro- 
scopic investigation, etc. Some of tho 
important tests for each fibre will be 
found listed under the name of the 
fibre. 

Tete de Boeuf An embroidery stitch, 
named after a fancied resemblance to 
the head of a steer. 

Tete de Negre 1, French name for a dark 
brown color; 2, French woolen fab- 
ric with a knotted face, similar to 
petersham. 

Tewly or Tuly Silk thread of the 16th 
century, believed to have been red. 

Texas General trade name of cotton 
grown in Texas and Oklahoma, the 
staple measuring from seven-eighths 
to one inch in length and varying in 
quality according to the season. 

Texas Storm Proof Commercial variety 
of late maturing upland cotton, the 
staple measuring 23-26 millimeters; 
the yield is 33-35 per cent. 

Texas Wood Commercial variety of med- 
ium maturing upland cotton, the 
staple measuring 22-25 millimeters; 
the yield is 34-36 per cent; also called 
Peterkin. 



Textiles 1, all spinnable fibres and their 
wastes; 2, all laces, embroideries, rugs 
and woven, felted, knitted and cro- 
cheted fabrics. 

Textilose A jute yarn substitute but 
cleaner and as durable as jute; it is 
made of twisted paper strips with 
various short fibre waste imbedded. 

Texture The appearance, number and 
character of a textile fabric. 

Thardwetch Persian silk brocade with 
hunting scenes as patterns. 

Thebois An East Indian calico. 

Thermaline A secret English process of 
dyeing union lustre wool fabrics in 
solid colors. 

Thibet An all-wool stout dress goods or 
coating, well felted and given a 
smooth and soft face, showing an in- 
distinct twill. Often made with a 
cotton warp. It comes usually in 
solid piece dye or in mixtures. 

Thibet Shawl Made in France of wool 
and waste silk with various colored 
patterns woven into. 

Thickset Obsolete name for cotton velvet 
made with weft pile; used for work- 
men's clothes in England. 

Thistle Used for raising the nap on the 
cloth. 

Third Combing Wool taken from the 
lower part of back of the fleece. 

Thlinket Blanket Made by the Alaska 
Indians of the hair of the white 
mountain goat; the warp containing 
wool and fibres from the cedar tree 
bark twisted together. 

Thorn Same as Spine (see). 

Thread 1, is made of cotton, silk or 
linen and contains three or more 
hard spun strands or reeled cocoon 
filaments. It is given either a soft 
or a glazed finish and is used for 
basting and sewing. See sewing cot- 
ton and sewing silk; 2, unit of the 
jute and linen yarn measure, equal to 
2V4 yards. 

Thread Fabric Plain woven, very strong, 
heavy cotton fabrics, made with ply 
warp and single filling, the latter 
placed very far apart from each other. 
The fabric is used for foundation for 
tires. 

Threadbare A fabric which lost all its 
nap and the foundation threads are 

visible. 

Thready Fabric finished to show every 
thread on the face. 

Three-Quarter Goods Measuring 27 
inches in width. 

Through and Through Wool fabrics, the 
face and back of which are made 
alike. 

Thrown Silk Same as reeled silk, and is 
made into organzine or tram. 

Thrown Singles A single Bilk filament 
"thrown" with about 15 turns to the 
inch. 

Throwing The process of twisting in 
making organzine and tram. 



THR 



155 



TOI 



Thrum 1, the end of the warp which is 

not woven but is cut away as waste; 

2, to thrum, obsolete, .means to knot, 

to weave, to knit; 3, obsolete for 

coarse yarn. 
Thunder and Lightning Same as Oxford 

gray. 
Tiaoyong Warp printed Chinese silk 

plush. 
Tibisiri Strong leaf fiber, yielded by the 

Ita palm in British Guiana; used for 

hammocks, cordage, etc. 

Ticking >A heavy, stout, stiff, all-cotton 
fabric, woven with a heavier warp 
than lilling in a warp face twill. It 
is almost always woven with blue, 
brown or other yarn dyed wanp 
stripes; used for mattresses and pil- 
low cases. 

Tie See Bar. 

Tiffany 1, very thin, semi- transparent 
French silk fabric, used for veils in 
the 17th century in France and Eng- 
land; very thin, plain woven linen 
fabric, sized in the finish; .'!, plain 
woven, very thin cotton fabric, six.ccl 
and dyed, used for making artificial 
flowers. 

Tiflis Khilim portieres made in the 
Caucasus. 

Tiftik Trade term in Syria for mohair. 
Tigrine Twilled and striped French 

dress goods made of silk and worsted; 

obsolete. 

Tihore Native name for a species of the 

New Zealand flax (see), yielding the 

strongest fi'bre for ropes. 
Tikug Native Philippine name for a 

sedge grass, used for mats. 
Tillet A highly starched linen fabric, 

used formerly as stay for collars, 

etc. 

Tinampipi A light and sheer fabric, 
made of hemp fibres in plain weave 
by the natives of the Philippines. 

Tinnevelly East Indian cotton, having a 
soft, elastic, moderately clean and 
fairly strong staple of a lustrous 
white color. 

Tinnevelly Mat Very fine, bleached grass 
mats made in India. 

Tinged Cotton Defective cotton having 
upots or stains from coloring mat- 
ter. 

Tinsel Very narrow, flat strips of gold, 
silver or other metal, used as cover 
for core yarn or used directly for 
embroidery and brocades. 

Tinsuti Cotton cloth made in India of 
three-ply warp and filling. 

Tipiti Elastic, pleated fabric, woven of 
various bast fibers in Brazil; used 
for sieves. 

Tippy Certain wools, like some of the 
merinos, with a top heavy fiber. 

Tiraz Very rich Arabian silk fabric with 
names of Sultans and other promi- 
nent people interwoven; used as ma- 
terial to write on in medieval Eu- 
rope, when it was solid colored. 



Tire Fabric Very strong and usually 
heavy, plain woven cotton fabric, 
made with single or ply warp and 
a usually single filing, this placed 
very far apart from each other. The 
beet grade of cotton often Sea Island 
is woven into tire fabrics, which are 
used for pneumatic tires. 

Tire Duck See automobile tire cloth. 

Tiretaine Serge usually made with linen 
or hemp warp and inferior woolen 
'filling, occasionally also of all wool. 
It is a strong, stout fabric, finished 
either pressed or with the nap raised; 
used for working dresses in France. 

Tissu Plume An obsolete 'French cloak- 
ing, having goose or swansdown in- 
terwoven (without any twist) with 
the tilling, into a plain woven cloth. 

Tissue 1, name for cloths of gold, said 
to have originated in the 15th cen- 
tury; 2, medieval silk damask with 
gold and silver threads interwoven; 
3, a very thin transparent silk veil- 
ing of organzine; 4, muslin or gauze 
fabrics, woven with an extra and 
much heavier and soft spun filling 
which forme Jacquard designs or only 
spots. Between the interlacing with 
the filling this extra weft is floating 
and is subsequently cut away; used 
for window curtains. 

Tissute iFrench serge, having eight ends 
and four picks in a repeat. 

Tissuti See Amamee. 

Titan Braid 'A coarse, flat military braid 
made of coarse long wool. Called 
aleo Hercules braid. 

Titre 'French term for the size of the 
silk thread. It is expressed in deniers 
in Europe. The international denier 
being the weight of 10,000 meters of 
silk yarn. The titre in England and 
in the United States is expressed in 
the weight of 1,000 yards in drams. 

Tobacco Cloth Very light and open cot- 
ton fabric, made of short staple in 
usually plain weave. It is used for 
wrapping tobacco, antiseptic gauze, 
printed draipery, flags, etc. 

Tobine 'Striped wool fabric, made in Nor- 
wich, England, in the 17th century. 

Tobines 'Stout, strong, twilled silk drees 
goods in France. 

Tochirimen A cotton crepe made in Ja- 
pan. 

Tocouy Linen fabric in Argentine. 

Tocuyos^Gray cottoii sheetings, shirt- 
ings, etc., in South America. 

Tocuyos Asargados Twilled gray cotton 
goods in Chile. 

Tod Equal to 28 pounds; used for meas- 
uring wool and top in England. 

Toile 1, French term for linen and cloth; 
2, in hand made laces the body of the 
pattern. 

Toile d'Alsace 'Fine thin French linen 
dress goods, made white or printed. 

Toile d'Araigner Open work French 
woolen dress goods. 

Toile Bleue Fine linen dyed light blue. 

Toile a Bluteau Sort of bolting cloth 
in France. 



TOI 



Toile a Chapeau In France highly glazed, 
and stiffened linen or cotton fabric; 
used for hat shapes. 

Toile de Chnsse Damask table linen in 
France. 

Toile Ciree^F'ine 'French oilcloth. 

Toile de Coffre 'French household linen 
of good grade. 

Toile Colbert Loosely woven cotton or 
woolen canvas; used for embroidery. 

Toile De Coton Light dress goods of 
mixed cotton and linen with woven 
stripes and printed patterns. 

Toile Ecru Unbleached linen. 

Toile d'Emballage Packing cloth. 

Toile d'Embourrure Linen cloth used as 
lining. 

Toile de Frise A very fine Holland linen. 

Toile de Halles Stout, unbleached linen. 

Toile de Laine Very soft, light weight, 
French dress goods, made of merino 
wool, usually all black, in plain weave. 

Toile de Lille 'Fine French table linen, 
often made with colored stripes. 

Toile de Mulquinerie In France name for 
the finest lawns, cambrics, linen ba- 
tiste, etc. 

Toile du Nord 'French gingham, made in 
checks with a smooth finish. 

Toile d'Orange -Fine stout calico made in 
(France. 

Toile d'Ortie Sort of French batiste made 
of nettle fiber. 

Toile d'Ourville Unbleached French can- 
vas. 

Toile de Paris Obsolete fine, light French 
cotton dress fabric. 

Toile de Religieuse French for nun's 
cloth. 

Toile Satinee Very soft and thin 'French 
cotton gloth, in plain color or .printed. 

Toile de Saxe Plain woven French dress 
goods, made with cotton warp and 
worsted filling. 

Toile de Sion Medieval printed linen. 

Toile de Sole Very light, plain woven 
silk fabric; used for scarfs. 

Toile a Tamis Blue buckram, with prom- 
inent stripes. 

Toile a Veste A striped or checked, or 
solid colored, plain woven cotton or 
linen fabric, used for lining in France. 

Toile de Vichy Light French linen dress 
goods in pink and white or blue and 
white stripes. 

Toile Victoria .All-worsted, light French 
fabric of plain weave in the 19th 
century. 

Toile a Voile-^Sail cloth. 

Toile de Vosges Coarse, stout, plain wov- 
en cotton fabric, made in France for 
the African markets. 

Toilet Cloth Another name for quilte. 

Toilet Quilt Lightweight, bleached Mar- 
seilles quilts (see). 

Toilettes French term for unbleached 
lawns and batiste. 

Toilinet or Toilinette Waistcoat! ng made 
of silk and cotton warp and woolen 
filling, made plain or figured. 



156 



TOR 



Toison Lybienne A heavy shrinking wool 
from the Lybian desert. 

Toja Same as Bun ochra. 

Tokhfil Two-ply silk thread, rereeled 

from spools by the natives in Central 

Asia; used for filling. 

Tokmak Rugs All-wool, very durable 
rugs made in Asia Minor, the pile is 
tied in Ghiordes knot. 

Tol A fine and narrow strip of cloth often 
woven with complicated patterns. 
Made by the natives of the Caroline 
Islands and used as girdle, apron, 
etc. 

Tolotzin White bast fiber, yielded by the 
(Heliocarpus tree in Mexico. 

Tonder Lace 1, Danish bobbin lace origi- 
nated in the middle of the 17th cen- 
tury. Early specimens show Flanders 
influence with trolly (see) latter speci- 
mens have fine Malines foundation 
with various running designs; 2, 
drawn work made of fine cambric. 

Tonga Salempore A loosely woven, net- 
like cotton fabric of plain blue color, 
made with wide white headings and a 
stiff finish; used for garments by the 
natives in South Africa. 

Tonje Manga Good quality raw cotton 
grown in the Shire Valley, South East 
Africa, and used by the natives. Men- 
tioned by Livingstone. 

Tonquin White silk dress goods, orig- 
inally from Southern China. 

Top The longer wool fibers which are 
separated from the noil by combing 
and are used for worsted goods; 16 
pounds of sorted wool will yield 
from 9 to 12 pounds of top, 
which is manufactured into yarns 
according to the French draw- 
ing (see) or the English drawing 
(see) systems. The numbers for tops 
do not always indicate the count of 
the yarn they can be spun into. The 
numbers of Bradford tops and the 
average yarns they will spin are: 28e 
top spin 16s yarn, 32s spin 24e, 36s 
spin 28s, 40s carded spin 32s, 40s pre- 
pared spin 36s, 46s s<j>in 40s, 50 spin 
44-4*8, 56s spin 48, 58s spin 50s, 60s 
warp quality spun 4-8-SOs, 64s spin 
56s, 70s spin 80s, 80s spin 100s, 90s 
spin 150s. 

Toppings Dags (see) and tar brands, cut 
off with shears by the wool sorter; 
used as clothing wool. 

Toque An East Indian cotton muslin. 

Toquilla The veins of the tender leaves 
of the Carludovica and other palms, 
which grow in South America. The 
fibrous veins are boiled in water, 
bleached in the sun and with lime 
juice and are split into the required 
width for the making of genuine Pan- 
ama hats. 

Torada Indian cotton muslin. 

Torchon Simple and cheap bobbin lace 
of loose, thick threads in coarse re- 
seau ground in plain patterns, made 
in the 17th century; also called beg- 
gar's lace. 



TOR 



157 



TRO 



Tortin Low grade French wool carpets. 

Tortola Variety of raw cotton from the 
West Indies. 

To't Term denoting that the velveteen 
was cut slightly to the left and not 
in the middle of the floats. 

Totora 'Strong leaf fiber, yielded by the 
cat-tail flag in Peru. 

Tou iA tine woolen fabric from Thibet. 

Toucha The best grade of Georgian 
wool, has a strong, elastic, white 
staple. 

Tourangette Lightweight, slightly fulled, 
coarse French serge, made white or 
gray; obsolete. 

Tourist Coating Heavy woolen tweed 
overcoating; used for outing coats. 

Tow The coarse, entangled and shorter 
flax fiber, separated from the linen in 
the hackle; used for tow yarn, up- 
holstering, binder twine, lining refrig- 
erator cars, etc. 

Tow Cloth Heavy and coarse linen fab- 
rics, made on hand looms; obsolete. 

Toweling Loosely woven, twilled narrow 
cotton or linen fabric 1 , woven of slack 
twist yarn in long strips or in sep- 
arate pieces (connected sometimes by 
the warp) ; used for towels. 

Town Made Trade term for knit goods 
made by cutting out the different 
parts and sewing them 'together. Is 
of British origin. 

Toy 1, English woolen dress goods with 
'blue and black checks; 2, an 18th 
century fabric worn by women in 
England made of all worsted or mixed 
with silk. 

Tracery 'Name for the raised work in 
Honiton bobbin lace. 

Tracing Braid Narrow military soutache. 

Tracing Cloth Fine, plain woven cotton 
or linen cloth finished with heavy 
dressing, but transparent; used by 
artists and architects for drawing 
or tracing. 

Tram Loosely twisted siilk yarn con- 
taining any number of filaments, 
twisted two and a half times per inch 
to the right, the filaments not being 
subject to any self-twist; used for 
filling. It is softer and weaker than 
orgaiizine and is reeled of the lower 
grades of silk. 

Trama Name for weft in old Rome. 

Trame 'French for tram and for filling 

in general. 
Tramped Dornoch Scotch linen cloth. 

Traveller's Grass In New South Wales, 
yielding a very strong fiber; used for 
ropes. 

Travers French term for various weft 
striped fabrics. 

Traverse Warp Fabric See Milanese. 

Trawl Twine Is composed of three 
strands of white Manila hemp, about 
100 yards in a pound. 

Treble Leviathan Stitch In embroidery 
a large, diagonal cross with upright 
cross stitches in the center and be- 
tween the arms of the cross. 



Treillis 1, French term for the net 
ground as distinct from the pattern 
in hand made laces; 2, coarse, stout 
French canvas, made of unbleached 
hemp; used for bags, trousers for 
farmers, etc. 

Trellis Work Embroidery made with 
colored materials, the background be- 
ing cut away; the pattern is usually 
a climbing vine. 

Trentaine French dress goods made of 
natural wool, having 3,000 warp ends. 

Tresquille Sort of greasy wool in the 
Marseilles market. 

Tresse French for fancy braid. 

Triblatti Medieval, two colored, rich silk 
coating. 

Tricala Sort of raw cotton in Macedo- 
nia. 

Tricot 1, French for knitted fabric; 2, 
all-wool, twilled fabric, made with 
woolen warp and single filling, warp 
faced, having fine lines running warp- 
wiee. Also made with cotton warp 
and woolen filling, weft face, the fine 
lines running weftwise. Both are 
dyed in the piece; 3, an obsolete, fine 
French serge lining, made 20 inches 
wide. 

Tricot de Berlin Plain, knitted fabric of 
white cotton yarn; obsolete. 

Tricot Ecossais Variety of crochet 
work, made with stitches taking in 
five loops at a time. 

Tricot Flannel A heavy and thick flan- 
nel, which is quite elastic. 

Tricot de Laine Woolen suiting used for 
sailors, etc., in France. 

Tricotine Silk fabric made with black 
filling and small patterns. 

Trina First name used in Italy for laces. 

Trinidad Variety of raw cotton from 
the West Indies. 

Trinkhalls East Indian silk fabrics em- 
broidered or brocaded with metal 
threads. 

Triomphante 'French silk dress goods 
having brocaded patterns over a rib- 
bed ground; obsolete. 

Tripes Hie fabric in France originally 
from Flanders, made with a wool pile 
and hemp warp and filling. It came 
in solid colors in stripes or was fin- 
ished with stamped (gouffre) effect; 
obsolete. 

Tripes de Alfombra A woolen rug in 
Mexico. 

Triple Cloth .Made with three sets of 
warps and three sets of fillings, 
forming three different layers of 
cloth, tacked together during the 
course of weaving. 

Tritinum -Medieval silk fabric, made with 
three-ply warp. 

Trois-quarts-fournis A French dowlas. 

Trolly Lace 'Term for bobbin laces hav- 
ing the patterns outlined with a 
heavy cord. 

Tronadora Durable bast fiber, yielded by 
a species of abutMon plant in Mex- 
ico; used for ropes, nets, etc., by the 
Indians. 



TRO 



158 



TUR 



Tropical Cloth Very light men's wear 
fa'bric, used for summer clothes, made 
usually with cotton warp and mohair 
filling, showing various colors and 
designs. 

Tropical Weight Suitings weighing from 
9 to 11 oz. per yard. 

Trousering A large variety of woolen 
and worsted fabrics, also cotton 
worsteds, used for trousers. 

y rue Fibers are called true which have 
a uniform diameter. 

Truffette Fine, narow, bleached French 
linen; used for handkerchiefs, shirts, 
etc. 

Truitt Late maturing commercial varie- 
ty of American cotton, the staple 
measuring 22-25 millimeters, forming 
large bolls; the yield is 30-32 per 
cent. 

Trunk Length Medium long women's 
hosiery, reaching above the knee's, 
but shorter than opera hose. 

Truxillo Inferior Spanish wool. 

Tsatlee 'Raw silk reeled in northern 
China, according to the primitive, na- 
tive methods, producing uneven and 
irregular yarn. 

Tsin-Tseon A Chinese foulard. 

Tsudzure-no-nishiki Japanese brocade 
made of strong silk warp and twisted 
gold paper filling, made like gobelins. 

Tsumugi (A narrow and very expensive 
Japanese silk fabric made as follows: 
the silk is spun into a heavy yarn and 
woven into a coarse cloth with cotton 
warp. This cloth is run several times 
through the vat and then buried in 
the ground. After the cotton warp 
had rotted, the silk is rewoven into a 
fabric, the spots which were left un- 
affected in the dye, forming a mottled 
design; used for kimonos. 

Tsuni In Chinese markets a very heavily 
napped wool flannel. 

Tuanse A Chinese satin. 

Tuareg Wool rugs made in Morocco. 

Tub In connection with the name of a 
fabric (tub silk), means washable. 

Tubular Fabrics knitted or woven, made 
In the form of seamless tubes, as in 
hose, knitted neckwear, pillow cases, 
etc. 

Tuck Lightweight cotton or silk fabric, 
made with pleats running from selvage 
to selvage and formed with a separata 
warp and a filling usually heavier than 
that used for the ground weave; used 
for shirts, waists, etc. 

Tuck Knitting Framework knitting, in 
which a number of loops are accumu- 
lated on a needle, thus forming the 
design. 

Tuckeries East Indian cotton fabric. 

Tucum Fine and very strong flber yield- 
ed by the leaves of the Astrocaryum 
tucuma, a palm in Brazil; used for 
ropes, baskets, hats, hammocks, etc. 

Tuf^Coarse, French carpet, made of 
strong hemp tow warp and cow hair 
'filling. 



Tufftaffeta Very heavy and stout taffeta, 
with velvet dots or figures; obsolete. 

Tufts Figured and printed English cotton 
velvets; obsolete. 

Tukes 16th century English woolen fab- 
ric, similar to buckram. 

Tulle Machine made net of silk or cot- 
ton; used either as it is for millinery 
or dress trimming or further embroid- 
ered, forming lace. The meshes are 
small and either round or with regular 
or irregular sides and corners. 

Tulle Crinoline 'Same as pleated tulle, 
made with gradually increasing mesh- 
es, which force the tulle into pleats. 

Tulle Grec 'French tulle made with mesh- 
es larger than in ordinary tulle. 

Tuly See Tewly. 

Tungchow A better grade of Chinese raw 
cotton. 

Tunis Crochet A very easily executed 
crochet, made only in straight work 
with single ribs. 

Tup Yorkshire name for male sheep. 

Turbehlik Turkish name for Oriental 
rugs, intended to be hung over graves; 
the designs are always tree and flow- 
er patterns. 

Turfani Very line wool from Thibet; used 
for rugs, etc. 

Turk Satin See Satin Turc. 

Turka 'Brown or white colored soft fiber 
yielded by the bark of the apocyum 
venetum, grown in Asia and southern 
Europe; used for twine, baggings, etc. 

Turkey Red 1, a fast and bright scarlet 
dye, yielded by the madder and form- 
erly extensively used on wool and cot- 
ton preceded by various elaborate 
processes of mordanting. The modern 
Turkey red, a fast and brilliant scar- 
let, is a synthetic dye; 2. plain woven 
or twilled cotton fabric of various 
grade, dyed with Turkey red; used for 
dresses, trimmings, etc. 

Turkey Red Bleach A bleaching process 
to which cotton fabrics to be dyed 
with Turkey red are subject. The 
goods are singed, shorn, washed, 
treated with acids and washed, re- 
sulting in a pale cream color. 

Turkins A 16th century woolen fabric in 
England. 

Turkish Knot Used in russ; it is formed 
by the yarn being twisted about the 
warp threads, two ends of the pile 
alternating with every two threads 
of the warp. See Ghiordes knot. 

Turkish Toweling Cotton or linen fab- 
ric having loop piles formed by a sep- 
arate set of warps. Is bleached. Used 
for towels, bath robes, etc. See un- 
der terry cloth. 

Turkish Yarn Another name for mohair 
yarn. 

Turkman Rugs See Genghis rugs. 

TurkomanMade with silk or cotton warp 
and thick chenille filling; used for 
drapery. 

Turmeric A fugitive direct yellow dye 
yielded by the roots of the curcuma 
tinctoria in India and China. 



TUR 



159 



UMR 



Turquoise 1, worsted serge dress fabric, 
made in colored checks; 2, French 
satin made with silk stripes on cot- 
ton ground; obsolete; 3, lightweight 
French wool dress goods of great va- 
riety, made with fine, two-ply warp 
and single, slack twist filling; 4, small 
warp ribbed silk lining. 

Turui Tough bast fibre, obtained from 
the Paullinia grandiflora in Peru; 
used for ropes and cords. 

Tuskin A woolen fabric made in Eng- 
land under Edward VI, believed to 
have been of blue or gray color. 

Tussah Silks 1, general term for wild 
silks of India and China. They are 
usually gray or brownish, stronger 
and coarser than mulberry silk and 
have an uneven diameter. The co- 
coons are often torn up for waste 
silk which is used for pile fabric and 
pongee; 2, East Indian plain woven 
silk dross goods, made of brownish 
colored wild silk. 

Tussar, Tussoi iSee Tussah. 

Tussores (Narrow, line cotton dress goods 
made usually of mercerized cotton, 
with filling cords. The number of 
warp ends is twice as much as that 
of the filling, the latter being the 
coarser; used for dresses in the 
Philippines. 

Twanse Stout Chinese silk satin, fin- 
ished with little gloss. Comes in solid 
colors or patterns. 

Tweed Originally an all-wool, homespun 
and slightly felted heavy Scotch wool- 
en or worsted in blue, black, gray and 
other solid colors, also in checks made 
of Scotch cheviot wools. Later 
Baxony wool was also used. The wool 
is dyed before spinning. The patterns 
of the tweed are mostly checks, twills 
and herringbone. The warp is 
usually two-ply and the filling single, 
lighter than the warp. 

Tweel Same as Twill. 

Twill 1, one of the principal weaves, 
with a large number of derivations 
and combinations, in which the inter- 
section of the threads forms lines 
running to the right or the left, diag- 
onally across the fabric, the degree of 
the twill lines depending on the twill 
itself, on the relative size of the warp 
and weft and on the number of 
threads of each set of yarns within 
a given space. Besides these addi- 
tional effects are obtained in the pat- 
tern by introducing various twists 
and sizes in yarns. 

Instead of passing over and under 
each other alternately, as in the plain 
weave (see), in the twill the threads 
are raised over or depressed under more 
than one thread. For this purpose at 
least three threads are needed, form- 
ing the three-harness or prunella 
twill. Other twills, with four har- 
nesses, are called the swansdown, 
shalloon and crow (see). Often two 
or more varieties of twills are being 
combined for fancy effects. Besides 
ornamentation *will weaves are used 



to impart bulk or strength to the fab- 
ric; 2, in Germany and Austria a 
closely woven, twilled (2-1) cotton 
fabric, made of fine yarn; used for 
underwear. 

Twill Shawl Thin, white, diagonal cotton 
cloth, occasionally with black and 
white or red and white borders; used 
as head covering in Asia Minor. 

Twine Made of cotton or hemp; often 
glazed; the yarns are doubled first 
then spun together with a twist oppo- 
site the first one. 

Twine Cloth English cotton shirting fin- 
ished to imitate linen. 

Twist 1, same as warp; 2, English term 
for cotton yarn (mule twist). 

Twist Fabric A plain knitted fabric, each 
loop being twisted as it is formed. 

Twist Stitch Same as cord stitch. 

Twist on Twist^English mill parlance for 
yarns with especially elastic proper- 
ties, the twist of the two-fold being 
the same as the twist of the single 
yarn. 

Twit Imperfection in rovings, consisting 
of thin places, causing uneven yarn. 

Twitched Yarn Fancy yarns made with 
colored nubs or flocks; name obsolete. 

Twitty Unevenly spun yarn. 

Two Faced See Double Faced. 

Twofold In England name for two-ply 
yarns. 

Tyrian Purple Red dyestuff, yielded by 
several species of the murex, a snail in 
the Mediterranean; used extensively 
and highly prized by the ancient peo- 

iple. 

Tyrlind Striped French dress goods, made 
with silk warp and heavy schappe fill- 
ing, forming cross ribs. 

Tyrol ienne Fine French dress goods made 
with fine silk warp and worsted fill- 
ing, forming pronounced cords; obso- 
lete. 



u 



Uki Strong, fibrous grass in Hawaii; 
used for cords. 

Ulang In the Chines markets stout 
strong worsted satins. 

UlsterLoosely woven woolen overcoat- 
ing, made of right hand twist warp 
and left twist filling, usually of low 
grade wool, mixed with shoddy. It 
comes in piece dyes or in mixtures. 
It is finished with a long nap which 
is pressed down. 

Umbrella Gingham Plain or twilled 
colon fabric in black oir other solid 
colors, used for cheap umbrellas. 

Umritzur An Indian cashmere with a 
zi'g-zag chevron pattern, very soft and 
warm. 



UNB 



160 



VAN 



Unbleached Cotton and linen fabrics, left 
in the natural "gray" state. 

Uncut Velvet Left with the uncut loop- 
pile. 

Underwriter's Bale See Bessonette. 

Undyed Yarns and fabrics left in their 
natural color, without any addition 
of artificial dyeing. 

Unfinished Woolens which are not fulled 
and sheared but have a nap; worsteds 
which have been pressed or shorn 
a little, but otherwise are left in the 
condition as when taken from the 
loom. 

Ungummed Silk -Which has the natural 
gum removed by boiling in solution 
of soap. 

Uni 'French for single colored or plain 
effect. 

Uni Colored Fabric died in one color. 

Uniform Cloths Woolen and worsted 
fabrics intended for uniforms. 

Unions 1, 'Fabrics having the warp and 
"weft of different fibers; 2, plain woven 
or twilled fabric made with cotton 
warp and linen filling, bleached. 
Used for outing dresses, drapery, 
lining, etc.; 3, in Yorkshire a dress 
face fabric, made with cotton warp 
and woolen filling. 

Union Braid 'Worsted or mohair braid, 
made of more than two cords. 

Union Carpets In England double car- 
pets with pile on both sides; held to- 
gether by a binder filling. 

Union Cassimere 'Soft, fulled fabric, 
made with cotton warp and woolen 
filling; has checks or stripes; used 
for men's cheap clothing. 

Union Cloth A napped shoddy fabric, 
made with cotton warp in England. 

Union Cord Stout, round cord made of 
cotton and linen; used for lacing. 

Union Damask Made with cotton or lin- 
en warp and worsted filling, woven 
with satin 'figures over satin ground; 
used for hangings, etc. 

Union Dyes A number of colors which 
have affinity both for vegetable and 
animal fibres and can be used as di- 
rect dyes on union fabrics. 

Union LinenMade with cotton warp and 
linen filling. 

Union Silk A fabric made usually with 
cotton warp and silk filling; used as 
umbrella cloth. 

Union Yarn 'Made of a mixture of cotton 
and wool. 

Unwashed 'Wool in the grease. 
Upena Native Hawaiian name for bird 
and fish nets. 

Upland Raw cotton, constituting the 
bulk of the American crop; it grows 
In the inland cotton States, the liber 
averaging from % to an inch in 
length and has a bright creamy color. 

Uppain Variety of raw cotton from 
Southern India. The staple is good 
and long. 

Urdiga.^Fine, short staple, silky wool of 
Morocco. 



Urmak Stout and coarse East Indian 
fabric, made of camel hair. 

Urquhart A Highland tartan, composed 
as follows: Dark green stripe, split 
in the center by a very narrow black 
stripe; black stripe, less than one 
third of the green; dark blue stripe, 
wider than the green, split by a red 
stripe in the center (one-sixth the 
width of the blue) and by a pair 
of very fine black lines near each 
edge. 

Uruca Strong bast fibre obtained from 
the Arnatto tree in Brazil; used for 
cordage. 

Ushui Variety of raw cotton from Mace- 
donia. 

Uso-Sabugia Variety of raw cotton from 
Anatolia. 

Utariya (Northern variety of the Indian 
jutes; it is t'he best commercial va- 
riety, being long, strong and of a 
light color but somewhat harsh. 

Utrecht Velvet Mohair plush with warp 
pile, used for upholstery, having pat- 
terns produced by the inclination of 
the pile at different angles, which is 
produced by pressing. 

Uzel Good grade of French linen. 



Vacona 'Tough leaf fibre, yielded by the 

ipamdanus utilis in Mauritius; used 

for bags. 
Valance^Damask fabric for upholstery, 

made of silk, often mixed with wool; 

obsolete. 

Valencia or Valentia 1, variety of raw 
cotton from Colombia; 2, Strong, 
stout, warp striped fabric, made with 
cotton warp and worsted filling; used 
for livery; 3, light-weight twilled Eng- 
lish dress goods and suiting, made of 
woolen yarns, also mixed with silk; a 
heavy English and French waistcoat- 
ing made of cotton thread warp and 
woolen and silk filling. 

Valenciennes 'Bobbin lace made entire- 
ly flat with natural or conventional- 
ized flowers or trailing patterns over 
a very fine mesh ground often com- 
posed of little circles. The so-called 
"vraie Valenciennes" was made in 
the town of Valence while the "fausse 
Valenciennes" elsewhere. 

Vanduara Silk Very lustrous artificial 
tlibre made of gelatin; see Artificial 
Silk. 

Vandyke A pointed scallop in laces and 
embroideries. 

Vandyke Stitch In embroidery a raised 
couching in Vandyke points. 

Vanes Stuffed quilts made in France of 
pique or calico. 



VAP 



161 



VEL 



Vapeur A very fine and loosely woven 
French cotton muslin. 

Varinas Variety of raw cotton from 
Colombia, white or yellowish, strong 
fiber, not very glossy. 

Vasquine Thick, spongy falbric, made of 
Che fibers extracted from the pine 
needles. 

Vegetable Down See Bomibax cotton. 

Vegetable Flannel A coarse, hygienic 
cloth, made from the fibers of the 
pine needles. 

Vegetable Horsehair Fibers obtained 
from various palm leaves; used as 
substitute for horsehair. 

Vegetable Silk 1, trade term for artifi- 
cial silk; 2, fibers of various plants, 
having a silky gloss, but usually not 
the required strength; used as silk 
si bstitute or for stuffing. 

Vegetable Wool Fiber obtained from the 
piae cones; when mixed with wool 
it is used for underwear. 

Veiled Wool Has the fibers of the vari- 
ous staples stuck to each other. 

Veiling Great variety of cotton or silk 
nets; used for veils. 

Vein The open place in a cloth, caused 
by a broken warp. 

Vel line "French woolen winter coating; 
has a curl pile surface. 

Velour 1, name for flannelette in Rou- 
imania; 2, large variety of soft, stout 
woolen with raised and shorn nap; 
used for coats, suits and dresses. 

Velours French for velvet. 

Velours Albigeois Dress fabric having 
narrow velvet stripes. 

Velours d'Angleterre Silk weft pile 
velvet. 

Velours Biseautes Velvet galloon with 
higher pile on one edge than on the 
other. 

Velours Bombes French silk velvet, con- 
sisting of alternate stripes of cult 
and uncut velvet 

Velours Broche 'Brocaded velvet. 
Velours Cameleon Changeable velvet, 

made with two sets of pile warps, 

each of a different color. 
Velours Chine Silk velvet, the pile -warp 

of wh.ch is printed with pictures, etc., 

before weaving. 

Velours Cisele French for velvet upon 
velvet; originally -made with two dif- 
ferent rods, now the uniform deep 
pile velvet is subjected to heavy 
pressure, laying down the pile in cer- 
tain parts of the fabric. The stand- 
ing pile is shorn short and the 
pressed-down pile is steamed and 
brushed up. 

Velours Couche A velvet woven with a 
straight silk pile, which in the finish- 
ing process is crushed or laid down; 
used for coats, trimmings and drapery. 



Velours a Deux Polls French term for 
velvet with a pile made of two-ply 
yarn. 

Velours Ecrase Silk velvet having highly 
finished, crushed pile, lying in different 
directions. 

Velours Epingle 'Lightweight, solid col- 
ored French silk velvet. 

Velours Figure Figured velvet. 

Velours Francais Obsolete French velvet, 
made with two sets of silk warp of dif- 
ferent colors, one being single yarn 
and the other three-ply yarn. There 
are also two sets of different colored 
boiled off silk filling. 

Velours Frappe Velvet having raised pat- 
terns produced by pressing the pile 
with heated cylinders. 

Velours Frise Uni Lightweight French 
silk velvet with single, double or triple 
pile; used for dresses, millinery, etc. 
comes in solid colors. 

Velours Gandin Silk velvet over satin 
foundation; used for drapery, etc. 

Velours de Genes Usually all-silk velvet, 
the warp, filling and pile made of or- 
ganzine. 

Velours Glace A velvet having the pile 
slighthly dressed -with size and pressed 
down in different directions, produc- 
ing a frosted effect. 

Velours Gourgouron^Rich silk vesting, 
having silk pile stripes alternating 
with a rep foundation; obsolete. 

Velours Gregoire French velvet of the 
first part of the 19th century, showing 
pictures woven in pile. 

Velours de Gueux Velvet made of a sin- 
gle set of linen or heavy cotton warp 
and fine cotton fllling, forming the 
pile. 

Velours de Hollande Cut velvet originally 
made of all silk, with good organzine 
warp and filling. 

Velours d'ltalie CrossriWbed fabric made 
of silk and cotton, the rilbs afternating 
with two fine fillings. 

Velours Miroii Glossy silk velvet with a 
crushed 'pile. 

Velours du Nord Silk velvet having a 
longer pile than velvet but shorter 
than plush. 

Velours OmbreWarp pile velvets, usually 
ribbons, made in ombrs effects. 

Velours d'Oran A warp pile French vel- 
vet, both sets of warp containing ends 
ranging from single yarns to five-ply 
yarns, arranged in natural and re- 
versed order several time the entire 
width of the fabric. The two sets of 
warps are placed in such a manner 
that the five-ply yarn in one set cor- 
responds to the single yarn in the 
other, and vice versa. 

Velours Ottoman 'French silk falbris made 
with two sets of warp, one forming the 
foundation in plain weave, the other 
forming floats, half of the warp float- 
ing on the face, the other half on the 
back. 



VEL 



162 



VEN 



Velours Ras French for uncut velvet. 

Velours Rayes Striped velvet. 

Velours a la Reine Crossribbed silk 
fabric, made with one set of wrap 
and two sets of fillings, the ribs al- 
ternating with two picks of the liner 
filling. 

Velours Russe Velvet dress fabric made 
-with varicolored diagonal cords. 

Velours Sculpte Velvet having patterns 
formed with the pile shorn different 
lengths; see velours cisele. 

Velours Simule Obsolete term for a 
plain woven fabric made with silk 
warp and cotton filling. Both the 
warp and the weft contain threads of 
various thickness. 

Velours Travers Half wool dress goods 
velvet with weft stripes. 

Velours Turc French silk velvet with 

curled pile, similar to the cachemire; 

obsolete. 
Veloute French for napped effect in 

woolen and other fabrics. 
Veloutine French dress fabric, made 

with thick woolen warp, forming 

cords and soft merino filling; finished 

with a nap. 

Velure Same as velours (see). 
Velutine A short pile velveteen, the back 

sized in the finished. 

Velutum Medieval Latin name for vel- 
vets. 

Velveret Usually wide cotton velvets 
made to imitate silk, often having 
ribs or finished with printed designs. 
The filling usually crosses two warps 
at once. Made in England, United 
States, etc. 

Velvet A cut pile fabric, the pile of 
which originally was made of silk, 
now also of wool or mohair. The pile 
is shorter than that of the plush 
(see) and can be formed by an extra 
warp or the filling (for description 
see pile fabrics). 

Plain velvet has a pile of even 
depth covering the entire ground. 
The pile on pile, or double pile, has 
the ground covered with a short pile 
while the patterns are formed of a 
longer pile. This velvet is either 
made (if it is a warp pile fabric), by 
using rods of various thickness, thus 
producing the difference in the depth 
of the pile in the process of weaving. 
Or again the velvet is woven plain 
with the deep pile all over. In the 
finishing process the patterns are 
pressed in under great pressure, flat- 
tening out part of the pile. The re- 
mainder of the pile, which stands 
erect, is shorn shorter, whereupon 
the pressed down pile is brushed up 
again, and as it is now longer than 
the shorn pile, it forms the pattern 
standing out from the ground pile. 

Brocaded velvet has velvet pattern 
on a satin, lame or other foundation 
or vice versa. In the costliest pieces 
it is made on the Jacquard loom. A 
much cheaper process of the later 
years calls for a velvet with silk pile 
on cotton ground or vice versa. The 



pattern is engraved on a copper roller 
and is printed with a chemical which 
will destroy the pile only but not the 
ground weave on the back of the 
fabric. The velvet is next brushed, 
which process will remove that part 
of the pile which was touched and 
partly destroyed by the chemicals, 
leaving a very sharply defined pat- 
term formed by the pile. 

The mirror velvet has the pile 
pressed down in one direction, re- 
sulting in a very high gloss. 

Velvet pictures, invented by Greg- 
oire, in Lyons, are colored picturss 
formed by the pile of the velvet. It 
is made as follows: Before weav- 
ing the pile warp is printed with the 
picture with due consideration of the 
very large take-up. The velvet is then 
woven in the plain warp pile velvet 
principle, cut, brushed and shorn. 

Velvet is usually woven in the gray 
and dyed or printed according to the 
requirements of the current fashion. 
In the dyeing fancy effects are ob- 
tained by employing cross or resist 
dyeing or by dyeing the velvet plain 
and destroying part of the color on 
the pile by some chemical. Velvet is 
printed either on the pile or on the 
reverse side, the latter employed on 
chiffon velvets. 

The cheaper grades of velvets are 
woven in two or three widths and 
split afterwards, or face to face, the 
yarn forming the pile traveling from 
one fabric to the other and is cut be- 
tween the two fabrics. 

Velvet Cloth Embroidery fabric, made 
plain, and given a smooth glossy sur- 
face in the finish. , 

Velvet Cords 'See hollow cut. 

Velvet Finish Consists in heavily nap- 
ping woolen fabrics; the nap is shorn 
or left as it is. 

Velvet Rug^Carpets and rugs woven on 
the same principle as warp pile vel- 
vets. 

Velvet Satin A silk fabric made with 
patterns in pile over a satin founda- 
tion. 

Velvet Stitch See raised stitch. 

Velveteen lAll-cotton pile fabric woven 
with very short pile; the cheapest 
grades are made with one warp and 
one filling with a weft pile. It is 
either dyed in the piece, printed or 
woven in colors and patterns. Used 
for dresses, trousers, upholstery, etc. 
It is of English origin, originally be- 
ing a twilled cotton with raised pile. 

Venetian 1, medium or light weight 
soft and fulled, warp face fine wool- 
en fabric, made of single warp and 
filling in fine diagonal or warp satin 
weave. Used for dresses, skirts. 
overcoats. It comes In piece dyes 
or mixture effects. Used for coats, 
suits, dresses, linings, etc.; 2, a black 
linen fabric, made in satin weave, 
used for lining; 3, in England a wide 
heavy tape used for binding uphol- 
stery and for Venetian blinds; 4, ob- 
solete fabric made with cotton warp 
and worsted filling face, used for lin- 
ings. 



VEN 



163 



VOI 



Venetian Carpet Originally made with 
various colored worsted warp and 
some cheap filling which was hidden, 
the pattern being on both sides in 
warp stripes; of English origin. 

Venetian Cloth Same as Italian cloth. 

Venetian Crepe Is made with raw silk 
warp and very coarse tilling, two 
right hand twist and two left hand 
twist alternately; used for mourn- 
ing. 

Venetian Embroidery On batiste foun- 
dation, the patterns are outlined with 
'buttonhole stitches, the ground is cut 
away and the parts connected with 
bars. 

Venetienne 1, French dress goods made 
of flne Italian (yellow) silk with 
ribbed weave like gros de Tours, and 
printed or left in one color; 2, 
French woolen dress goods, finished 
with slight fulling. 

Venise Very fine damask table linen 
made in Holland and France; the 
pattern consists of large flowers. 

Venise Gold Medieval thread made with 
a flat gold strip wound around a linen 
core. 

Venitien Xarrow French runners, made 
in stripes; obsolete. 

Verandol In Cuba a pure linen or cotton 
mixed cloth, white or beige. The 
white is used as dress goods, the beige 
as bed cover. 

Verdours A medieval fabric in England, 
u.st-d for tapestry and thought to be 
of green color. 

Vermont 'Australian term for wool 
yielded in Australia by sheep which 
descended from the merinos origin- 
ally imported into the United States. 

Verona Serge 'Lightweight serge, made 
of mohair and cotton or worsted and 
cotton in mixture effect. 

Vervise A woolen fabric, made in Eng- 
land under Edward VI, believed to 
have been of blue or gray color. 

Vesset A kind of worsted fabric, used 
in medieval England. 

Vicanere 'Coarse wool from East India. 

Vichy 1, ginghams in Chile, Bolivia and 
Spain, often in large checks and 
plaids, and stiffly -finished; 2, fine 
ginghams in Servia; 3, general term 
in Turkey for cheap ginghams and 
yarn dyed cotton plaids, usually 
having a stiff, starchy finish. 

Vick A now obsolete commercial variety 
of upland cotton, originated from 
Mexican seed. 

Victoria 1, a French silk dress goods with 
a high finish, made with ply warp 
and with 8 ends and 8 fillings in a 
repeat; 2, twilled printed English 
cotton fabric; 3, a ribbed English 
silk dress fabric. 

Victoria Crepe English, all-cotton crepe 
of lustrous finish. 

Victoria Lawn Plain and very closely 
woven heavy English lawn, about 38 
inches wide, having as high as 100 
by 175 ends in a square inch. Comes 
white or printed. Used for dresses, 
the lighter weights for underwear. 



Victoria Shawl French shawl, made on 
the Jacquard loom with four em- 
broidered borders and warp fringes 
at both ends; obsolete. 

Vicuna 1, very long, soft brownish hair 
yielded by the South American vicuna 
goat; 2, trade name for yarn com- 
posed of coarse wool and cotton or 
all-cotton finished in imitation of 
woolen yarn; 3, a very fine, twilled 
dress fabric, finished with a soft nap, 
originally made of genuine vicuna 
wool; 4, imitation of the above, made 
of soft wool, often mixed with cot- 
ton, slightly fulled and napped; used 
for men's suits and overcoats. See 
also vigogne yarn. 

Vienna Cross Same as Persian cross 
stitch. 

Vigans 'Coarse French woolen. 
Vigogne French for Vicuna. 

Vigogne Yarn 1, originally made of a 
mixture of cotton and wool, of vary- 
ing proportions (in Europe 20 per 
cent cotton, 80 per cent wool), used 
for cheap hosiery, etc.; 2, in Germany, 
Russia and Italy yarn made of all 
cotton and cotton waste, finished to 
look like wool. 

Vigognia 'Fine English knitting yarn 
made of wool mixed with various veg- 
etable fibers. 

Vigoureux 1, worsted yarn, which was 
printed in the sliver by a fluted roll, 
usually only in one color; 2, French 
twilled diress goods made of v. yarn. 

Vimoutiers 'Coarse and loosely woven 
French unbleached linen, sometimes 
dyed yellow. 

Virgin Wool Any wool which was not 
previously manufactured into fabric. 

Virginie 1, French silk fabric, made In 
an eight-leaf twill weave; 2, six or 
eight-leaf figured serge made with 
single or ply warp. 

Viscelline Trade name for a horsehair 
substitute, made by running a cotton 
yarn through a bath of cellulose and 
then dyeing it. 

Viscose See artificial silk. 

Vitrees Several grades of bleached 
French household linen and hemp 
sail cloths. 

Vitry Light French unbleached linen. 

Viyella Lightweight, twilled fabric in 
England, made of mixture of cot- 
ton and wool, used for underclothing. 

Vladimir English cassimere, made of fine 
wool and 'finished with a nap. 

Voile A plain woven, light, sheer and 
clear fabric, made of silk, wool or 
cotton, the last two being hard spun 
and usually two-ply; cotton yarn is 
often gassed. The construction ia 
very low. Used for dresses. 

Voile Marquisette A very sheer silk fab- 
ric, woven in leno weave of fine 
thread. 



VOI 



164 



WAT 



Voilette French machine-made lace, hav- 
ing a very fine mesh ground. Along 
the edge it is embroidered with light 
flower design while the body is 
trimmed 'with dotted powdering or 
fine trailing lines. 

Voiron Fine French household linen of 
various grades. 

Voivoi A species of the Pandanus in 
Fiji; used by the natives for the finest 
clothing mats. 

Volant 'Lace flouncing. 

Volo Wool >Long and coarse wool, grown 
in Greece, used for worsteds. 

Vourine (Fine grade of Persian silk. 

Vraio Reseau In real laces the net ground 
which was made either by the needle 
or with the bobbins. 

Vyrizuvania An all-white hand embroid- 
ery over linen, made by the peasants 
in Ukraine, Russia. 



w 



Waban 'Netting made of cord or thick 
thread with large mesh; used for in- 
terior drapery. 

Wadding 1, sheet of carded cotton, used 
for quilts, etc.; 2, waste silk, obtained 
from the inner smooth skin of the 
cocoon, left over after the reeling. 

Wadmoll A thick, coarse fulled woolen; 
used for men's cheap suits; absolete. 

Wagria Variety of raw cotton from 
Kathiawar, India. The staple is quite 
coarse. 

Waldemar A good quality of velveteen. 

Wale A diagonal raised line formed by 
a twill weave on the face of the fab- 
ric, usually woolens and worsteds. 

Walking Same as felting. 

Walshe Cottones 16th century English 
flannel made 32 ells long, % yard 
wide, a piece weighing 46 Ibs. 

Warang Bast Strong bast fiber, yielded 
by the Kydia calycina in India; used 
for ropes. 

Warangul Indian knotted rugs; antique 
examples are very fine in weave and 
design. 

Warnerized Medicated stuffs in England, 
making them mildew, water and moth 
proof. 

Warp The set of yarn found in every 
falbric woven on the loom and run- 
ning parallel with the selvage, or 
lengthwise in the fabric, and inter- 
woven with the weft, the two forming 
the various weaves according to the 
methods of intersection. The warp is 
stretched in parallel lines in the loom 
and certain parts of it are alternately 
raised and depressed at every pick, 
allowing the shuttle to pass between 
with the weft. The warp can be of 
the same size as the weft or of higher 



or lower; as a rule, however, it is 
stronger and often it is placed closer 
together than the weft. The standard 
twist for warp is about 4% times the 
square root of the yarn size. Cotton 
warp, as a rule, is twisted to the right, 
and worsted warp yarn to the left. 
Warp is called, also, chain or web. 

Warp Knitting See knitting. 

Warp Pile Fabrics woven in such a 
manner that certain of the warp 
threads form the pile. 

Warp Print Same as chine. 

Warp Ribbed Fabrics having ribs or 
cords running in the direction of the 
warp. 

Warp Stitch In embroidery, a stitch by 
which warp threads are drawn to- 
gether to form a pattern after some 
of the weft threads have been re- 
moved. 

Wash Blonde Light colored or white, fine, 
washable cotton net; used for ruffles 
and other trimmings. 

Wash Goods See washable. 

Wash Whites See Devonshire kersey. 

Washable Faibrics which can be washed 

without affecting the color or finish. 

Washer Obsolete for kersey; coarse Eng- 
lish woolen; see also Devonshire 
kersey. 

Waste Fibers which form the refuse dur- 
ing the various processes of carding, 
spinning, weaving and 'finishing and 
which are being utilized in some in- 
ferior goods. 

Wasty A heavy shrinking wool, owing to 
the large percentage of grease and 
dirt it contains. 

Waterglass Used in weighting silk. 

Waterlaid Rope In nautics a heavy rope 
twisted of three strands, each, having 
three plies; used for hawsers and tow 
lines. 

Watered Same as moire. 

Watermark Spots left on silks and wool- 
ens by drops of water. 

Waterproof A very stout twilled woolen 
fabric, made in England; used for 
raincoats, etc. 

Waterproofing Various processes to ren- 
der textile fabrics impermeable to 
water, although its porousness is often 
preserved. Some of the processes are: 
1, treating the fabric with rubber, 
paraffin, oil. wax, etc.; 2, covering the 
fabric with a copper solution of cellu- 
lose and precipitating part of the cel- 
lulose, this process is only for cotton 
fabrics; 3, treating the falbric with 
some albuminous material and then 
with a metallic salt; 4, treating the 
fabric with soluble metallic salts, 
which are later changed into insolu- 
ble salts. 

Waterproof fabrics are used for 
raincoats, sailors' and fishermen's gar- 
ments, tents, etc. 

Watt Silk Very low grade) irregular 
waste silk. 



WAT 



165 



WHI 



Wattelin In Austria a cotton knitted 
fabric with a loosely spun woolen 
yarn on the face, which is napped and 
felted. It is very soft and spongy; 
used for winter lining. 

Waulking Name for the fulling of home- 
spuns, by walking on them, in Scot- 
land. 

Wax Cloth Cotton or silk made imper- 
meable by paraffin; also an oilcloth; 
used for floor covering in England. 

Weardale Carpet Woolen fabric, used as 
crumb cloth and placed over carpets 
for their protection. 

Weave The effect farmed by the inter- 
section of the warp and weft in the 
plain, twilled and figure, satin, pile, 
fabric. The principal weaves are: 
leno and lappet and swivel (see each). 

Web 1, name for the sliver before it is 
condensed into a rope-like mass of 
fibers; 2, very strong, narrow, woven 
cotton, wool or silk fabric, used for 
belts, suspenders, etc. It is made 
elastic, having rubber thread warps 
or non-elastic. 

Weft Is one of the principal sets of yarn, 
found in every woven fabric. It runs 
crosswise in the falbric, binding the 
warp ends together, the two forming 
the different weaves according to the 
manner of interlacing. While it usual- 
ly reaches from selvage to selvage 
often it extends only a part of this 
distance, like in tapestries, etc., form- 
ing figures. The weft is often of lower 
count and slacker twist than the 
warp; it is also called woof, filling, 
pick and shoot. 

Weft PileFabrics woven in a way that 
certain of the weft yarns form the 
pile. 

Weighting The process of charging silk, 
wool or cotton with various foreign 
matters, to increase the weight and 
the scroop. The strength and durabil- 
ity of the filber is often greatly re- 
duced by it. 

The most customary weighting of 
silk is carried out as follows: After 
the silk is boiled out it is treated in 
a bath of tin dissolved in diluted 
hydrochloric acid. The silk is then 
rinsed and treated in a bath of phos- 
phate of soda, again washed out and 
the tin bath repeated successively. 
This is weighting the silk for deli- 
cate colors although this weighting 
process is the most customary. The 
weighting is sometimes several times 
the weight of the silk itself. Besides 
this the oil used in silk throwing will 
add to the weight of the silk. 

Dyed silk is weighted also in steep- 
ing it in rice water or solution of 
lump sugar. "Silk is weighted for 
color with alumina, antimony, lead, 
glue and sugar and most usually with 
tin; for black with tin, silicia and 
mostly through the iron-gambler 
process. 

Worsteds are weighted either by 
chemicals increasing directly the 
weight of the fabric, as sugar of 
lead, phosphate of tin, tannates of 



iron, silicate of soda, glauber and 
Epsom salts, size, etc., or they are 
treated with highly hygroscopic 
chemicals, as glycerine, chlorides of 
zinc, magnesium, etc., which abstract 
water from the atmosphere and thus 
increase the weight of the fabric. 

Weighted silk 'becomes "rotten" un- 
der the influence of the air and the 
sunlight. As a protection against 
this formaldehyde bisulphite is used 
for treating weighted silk. 

Cotton fabrics are usually weighted 
with the aid of size. 

Welborn Pet Early maturing commer- 
cial variety of upland cotton, the sta- 
ple measuring 22-25 millimeters, 
forming clustered bolls; the yield 
is 31-32 per cent. 

Well Covered Cloth showing a faultless 
face. 

Wellington iStout English army drill; 
obsolete; also a stout English 
waterproofed woolen overcoating. 

Welsh Flannel and English Flannel 
originally made in bluish shade with 
a broad gray selvage with worsted 
warp and woolen filling, loosely wo- 
ven and sligthly fulled. Later made 
of woolen or cotton warp. 

Welt 1, name for pique weaves, produc- 
ing continuous warp or weft ribs 
with narrow dividing runs between; 
2, the reinforced edged on top of hos- 
iery. 

Welting Cord A narrow flat braid with a 
cord forming one edge; used for 
binding the edges of garments. 

Western Dozens-See Tavestock. 

Wether Wool 1, a term in England, 
meaning all fleeces cut from sheep 
after the hogget wool was removed; 
2, in Australia the wool shorn from 
castrated sheep after the hogget 
fleece was removed. 

Whartern Obsolete English measure for 
wool yarn, usually meant six pounds 
of slivers or slubbing. 

Wheatear Stitch An embroidery stitch 
made with chain stitch completed 
with side (branches in imitation of 
wheat. 

Wheel Stitch 'In embroidery a stitch im- 
itating spider-web. 

Whip The extra warp thread which 
forms the figures in lappet weaving. 
It is not interwoven with the fabric 
itself, except at the end of each run. 

Whipcord 1, a strong whipcord, made 
usually of six two-ply, hardened 
strands, measuring from six to ten 
leas each; 2, a usually solid colored 
worsted dress goods with diagonal 
round cords on the face. The ribs 
are sometimes of a different color 
from the foundation and are made 
by a raised twill, formed by floating 
the two-ply warp over several of the 
single fillings. 

Whip Thread The thread which is 
wound around another in the gauza 
weave. 

White Calico Name of bleached cotton 
shirting In South Africa. 



1 



WHI 



166 



WIR 



White Dutch Trade term for flax retted 
mostly in the Scheldt, Holland; has 
pale color. 

White Egyptian Cotton having a good, 
long and fairly strong staple of light 
golden or pearly white color; con- 
tains considerable broken leaf. 

White Goods Bleached cotton and linen 
fabrics. 

White Rope Un tarred cordage used on 
vessels. 

Whiting In England same as bleaching. 

Whitney 1, stout, coarse woolen used for 
men's wear (obsolete); 2, soft wool- 
en overcoating, the long face nap fin- 
ished into rows of tufts. 

Whittle In England a heavy, coarse 
woolen fabric, used for blankets and 
shawls. 

Wick A narrow fabric of very coarse 
soft spun cotton yarn, made either 
flat or tubular, and left unfinished. 
Used in lamps and stoves. 

Wide Wales Twilled wool fabrics, same 
as diagonals. 

Widow's Lawn A thin, fine English mus- 
lin, used for head ornaments. 

Width The distance between the two 
selvages or edges of a fabric. In for- 
mer centuries when the construction 
of many of the fabrics was regulated 
by law, a certain width was pre- 
scribed for every such fabric, at the 
present, however, the greatest va- 
riety exists in this respect. 

The width of ribbons is expressed 
by the number of the line, or ligne 
(see), that of the woolens and wors- 
teds in quarters, one-quarter meas- 
uring nine inches. As a rule, goods 
are called narrow which measure 27 
inches or less, wide which measure 
54 inches. A fabric is of single width 
when it measures a yard, or less, 
of double width from 48 to 60 inches.- 

Wigan, Wiggin A heavily starched, 
open cotton canvas, used for inter- 
lining; usually gray or black. The 
bleached grades are used for shirts. 

Wild Hemp Very white, strong, long, 
ribbon-like fibres yielded by the ses- 
bania macrocarpa in Colorado. 

Wild Silks or Tussah Silks Produced by 
various silk worms or other insects 
which are not artificially cultivated. 
Such silks are often difficult or im- 
possible to reel, are of brownish col- 
or and of uneven diameter and 
stronger than mulberry silk. Most of 
the wild eilk is torn up for waste 
silk and is used for pile fabrics or 
woven into pongee. The most im- 
portant wild silks are produced in 
China, Japan, India and Africa. 

Wildbore An XVIIIth century name for 
a coarse fabric, made of long, coarse 
worsted in England, similar to the 
modern bunting. 

Willesden Canvas^Plain woven cotton 
fabric, rendered waterproof by treat- 
ing it with solution of ammoniacal 
copper oxide and pressing it between 
hot calenders. 



Williams Commercial variety of upland 
cotton, the staple measuring 18-22 
millimeters; the yield is 33-35 per 
cent. 

Williamson Early maturing commercial 
variety of upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 22-25 millimeters; the 
yield is 30-31 per cent. 

Willimantic Commercial variety of late 
maturing upland cotton, yielding a 
long staple. 

Willis Commercial variety of late ma- 
turing upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 33-37 millimeters; the 
yield is below 30 per cent. 

Willow Fibei Obtained from the bast of 
young willow rods by steeping the 
bark in strong lye solution. Used for 
twine and bags in Central Europe. 

Wilton Heavy machine-made carpets 
and rugs, with a cut warp pile. The 
number of colors used in a pattern 
is limited, each color having an ex- 
tra warp. There are three binding 
picks to each row of pile. 

Wiltshire Lace Obsolete English bobbin 
lace, similar to the Devonshire lace 

Wimberly Commercial variety of late 
maturing upland cotton, the long 
staple forming large bolls. 

Wina Thin fibrous bast of a tree in 
British Guiana; used for wrapping 
cordage, etc. 

Wincey A strong fabric made of cotton 
warp and wool filling in plain weave 
or twilled; used in England for winter 
underwear and men's shirts. 

Winder's Waste Silk waste obtained in 
the process of winding the raw silk 
on bobbins. Used for spun silk. 

Window Holland Plain woven cotton or 
linen fabric, given a starch finish 
and used for window shades. 

Window Plaid Square patterns formed 
by stripes running warp and weft- 
wise. 

Windsor Plain woven English fabric, 
made with different colored tufts, 
which are introduced into the fab- 
ric in the loom with the aid of little 
hooked needles. 

Windsor Brilliant A washable English 
cotton dress goods, finished with a 
high lustre. 

Windsor Duck Printed duck, made In 
England for summer dresses. 

Windsor Louisine Pine English washable 
printed cotton dress goods. 

Winsey See wincey. 

Winter Laces Laces of close and firm 
texture, as Alencon, macrame, etc., 
irrespective of make or design. 

Winter Weight Heavy weight fabrics, up 
to 20 oz. in suitings and up to 30 oz. 
in coatings per yard. 

Wire Grass Grows in swamps In th$ 
Northwest, used as filling in mats 
and carpets with cotton warp. 

Wire Ground The separately made 
raised silk net ground in hand-made 
Brussels lace. 



WIR 



167 



WOO 



Wiry Wool with a straight fiDer having 
little elasticity. 

Wise Commercial variety of medium 
maturing upland cotton, identical 
with Peterkin. 

Witch Stitch Same as herringbone stitch. 

Witney Blanket 'English woolen blank- 
ets, made with dense nap. 

Witney Serge English woolen serge, 
napped on both sides. 

Wolsted 'Mentioned in 16th century 
English documents, believed by some 
to have been the original form for 
worsted. 

Wonderful Late maturing commercial 
variety of upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 35-40 millimeters; the 
yield is 28-36 per cent. 

Wood Silk Same as artificial silk. 

Woof See weft. 

Wool The most important animal fiber, 
yielded by the sheep and consisting 
of the medulla (which contains the 
color pigments), the cortical layer 
and the outer layer which under mic- 
roscope appears composed of num- 
erous small scales. The finer the 
wool the larger the number of the 
scales which give the felting prop- 
erty to the wool. Another character- 
istic of the wool is the waviness and 
elasticity of the fiber, both existing 
in a greater degree in fine than in 
coarse wools. The various proper- 
ties of wool (as length, fineness, felt- 
ing, strength, thickness, etc.), are 
subject to the climate and the breed 
of the sheep, which are being classi- 
fied into 32 principal varieties and a 
large number of sub and crossbred 
varieties. On the average about 5,- 
000 wool fibers are found on one 
square inch of the sheep's skin. 

Domestic wools are classed mainly 
as territory wools (from Utah, Mon- 
tana, Idaho, Arizona, and a few other 
Western -States), bright and braid 
wools (or quarter-blood or three- 
eighths blood, from New England, 
Kentucky, Missouri and Indiana, used 
for serges, braid, etc.), and Ohio 
fleeces (from Ohio, Michigan and 
Pennsylvania, the finest American 
staple). 

English wools are calssified as long 
wools (Lincoln, Notts, Leicester, 
Cotswold, Hampton, Romney Marsh, 
Devon, Roscommon, Wensleydale), 
short wools (called Downs, contain- 
ing Exmoors. Shropshire, Suffolk. 
Southdown, Oxford, Dorset, Wiltshire, 
Hampshire), special wools (middle 
length wools, as cheviot, blackfaced, 
Herdwick, Shetland, Welsh). 

Other important wools in the trade 
are: Silesian merino (from Germany, 
yields the finest wool), the Rambouil- 
let wool (France), the donskoi (or 
washed coarse wool from South Rus- 
sia), Awassi, Bussora and Karadi 
(carpet wools from Mesopotamia), 
Bagdad (merino strain from Mesopo- 
tamia), Georgian wools ,for the finest 
carpets), Indian (coarse crossbred 
wools), Persian (white or colored 



carpet wools), Chinese (various car- 
pet wools), Cape (fine, silky, short 
wool from South Africa), River Plate 
(crossbred from Argentine), Monte- 
video (Rambouillet and other merino 
strain from Uruguay), Punta Arenas 
(very spongy wool for knit goods 
from South Argentine), Falkland Is- 
lands (springy cheviot), Australia 
(merinos and crossbreds), New Zea- 
land (crossbreds). 

Irrespective of the breed wool is 
divided into two classes: tops and 
noils (see each), according to the 
length of the fiber. It shows a great 
variety according to the breed, meas- 
uring up to 10 inches or more in 
length, while the weight of a fleece is 
ranging from three pounds (fine Eng- 
lish), to 30 pounds or more (as in 
some South American varieties). For 
the commerce wool is put up in bales, 
the weight of which varies according 
to the countries. 

All kinds and classes of wool of 
commercial importance in Europe and 
mostly in America and Australia have 
sprung from the original Spanish 
merino. The amount of this strain 
is expressed in the United States as: 
full blood, three-quarter blood, three- 
eighths blood, half-blood, one-quar- 
ter blood. 

Wool in the grease, or as it comes 
from the sheep's back, contains from 
20 to 80 per cent animal grease, dirt, 
etc., which is removed by washing 
and scouring before the fiber is spun 
and woven. The largest quota of the 
wool on the market is shorn from 
the live sheep. The skin wools and 
slipes are removed from the skin of 
the dead animal and each such fiber 
has a root. Lamb's wool and hogget 
has one pointed and one cut end while 
wether has two cut ends. See also 
wool classing and wool sorting. 

In its properties wool is highly 
hygroscopic and has a great affinity 
for dyestuffs (except when kempy). 
'When set afire it gives an ammoni- 
acal odor and leaves black crinkled 
ashes behind. Diluted acids have no 
appreciable effect on wool, but alka- 
lies produce remarkable change. Con- 
centrated alkalies produce a high 
lustre, a scroop and increase con- 
siderably its tensile strength. On the 
other hand a 5 per cent solution of 
caustic soda will completely dissolve 
wool in a few minutes at a boiling 
point. Weak solutions of chlorin will 
give the wool a scroop and increase 
its affinity for dyestuffs. but destroys 
its felting property. When treated 
with nitric acid the fiber usually be- 
comes yellow. Concentrated mineral 
acids completely destroy the wool 
fiber while it readily absorbs organic 
acids. 

Wool Backed Fabrics with a silk or 
worsted face and woolen back. 

Wool Classing A process of separating 
the fleeces, as a whole, into several 
classes, each even in quality, regu- 
lar in length and color. 



woo 



168 



YAC 



Wool Dyed Fabrics made of Wool which/. 

has been dyed before spun into yarn. 
Wool Extract Wool recovered from rags, 
waste, etc., containing cotton, 
through, the carbonizing process, 
which destroys the cotton fibres but 
leaves the wool behind. 
Wool Sorting The process of dividing 
the fleece into different qualities or 
counts, according to length, fineness. ' 
soundness and color of the staple. 
According to the breed and variety of 
the wool and the requirements of the 
manufacturer the fleece is divided in- 
to more or less sections, as follows: 
shoulder (yields the longest, finest 
and most even wool), sides (yields 
stronger but very sound wool), the 
sides of the neck (shorter and finer 
wool than on the shoulders, with 
tendency for gray hairs), the back 
of the neck (irregular and faulty 
staple), the loin and back (short and 
weaker staple), the rump and tail 
(long, strong, often very coarse and 
kempy fiber), upper part of back legs 
(long, coarse wool), upper part of 
front legs (short fine, burry wool), 
bellies (short, fine and dirty), breast 
(kempy and short fine wool), shins 
and head (very short, kempy wool). 

These various sorts of wool are 
designated either by the quality num- 
ber, denoting the fineness of the 
yarn they will spin or called by vari- 
ous names (matchings). 

The American terms for the vari- 
ous qualities, with their approximate 
English equivalents are: Fine (equal 
to about 64s to 70s in Bradford), 
half-blood (58s to 60s), three-eighths 
blood (52s to 56s), high quarter-blood 
(50s), low quarter-blood to quarter- 
blood (42s to 46s), coarse, common 
and braid (36s to 40s). 

English matchings in worsteds are: 
fine (from the shoulders, spin about 
44s), blue (from neck, spin 40s), neat 
(from middle of sides and back, spin 
36s), brown (from the haunches, spin 
3>2s), britch (from hind legs, spin 24s), 
cowtail (from the rump and legs, 
spin 18s), down rights (short wools 
from the neck, spin 40s), seconds 
(from the belly, spin 32s), abb (from 
the haunches and less, spin 24s). 

Merino qualities are denoted by the 
number they will spin, with the ad- 
dition of the term "super" (for very 
long), "ordinary" and "weft" or 
"warp," showing the suitability of the 
wool. The Botany grades are: super- 
fine, middling and common. 

The English matchings in woolens 
are called: picklock (shoulders), 
prime (sides), choice (middle of 
(back), super (middle of sides), sec- 
onds (lower part of sides), down- 
rights (neck), abb (nina legs), britch 
(haunches). 

Wool Twine Made of twisted and glue- 
sized paper ribbon. It is used for 
tying wool together and is soluble in 
water. 

Woolens A large variety of fabrics; 
made of carded wool, often mixed 
with cotton. 



Woolen Yarn 'Made of carded, short 

staple wool, the fibers being placed 

in every direction; the diameter of 

the yarn is uneven. 
Woolsey iMade of cotton and wool, used 

for dresses by English country folk. 
Woosie Short Chinese wool with a 

glossy and soft fitoer. 
Worcester^ Woolen fabrics made since 

the 14th century in West England. 
Worsteds 1, a large variety of fabrics 

made of long, combed wool; 2, in 

England name for shoddy, obtained 

from worsteds. 
Worsted Rays Medieval, heavy, striped 

worsted, used for floor covering, etc. 
Worsted Yarn 'Made of long combed 

wool fibers, which lie quite parallel; 

it has an even diameter. 
Wrack Sea grass, used for coarse ropes 

and stuffing. 



X 



X In the United States wool trade de- 
notes a full blood or high grade me- 
rino wool. 

Xerga Spanish term for serge; twilled 
woolen blanket in Spain. 

Xtuc Native Mexican name for a scrong 
lustrous, white leaf fiber, extracted 
from the Yucca plant. 

XX Soft 1, English mill term for very 
soft and yielding folded thread, the 
single yarn containing about twice 
as many twists as the doubled; 2, in 
the United States wool trade denotes 
full blood merino wool. 

XXX In the United States denotes wool 
from a cross between a Saxony and 
common merino. 

Xyllna Name for a bleached cotton fab- 
ric in the Roman Empire. 

Xylodine Name given to a paper yarn 
made by twisting and coating with 
glue and fiber a strip of paper. 

Xylolin 1, plain woven fabric made of 
cotton warp and paper yarn filling. 
Used for cheap working clothes; 2, 
paper yarn made in Germany and 
Austria. Used for carpets and back- 
ings for carpets. 



Yachan Silky seed fiber of the chorisia 

insignis, used for stuffing. 
Yacht Cloth 'Piece dyed, fine flannel, of 

a serge weave with a rough finish; 

used for clothing. 



YAG 



169 



YAR 



Yaguayagua iPibrous bast yielded by a 
species of the Genipa in Peru; used 
for coarse clothing by the natives. 

Yak Lace Coarse English bobbin lace, 
made of yak wool, imitating Maltese 
guipures. 

Yaka Strong bast flber, yielded by the 
yarn bean in the Fiji Islands; used 
for fishing nets. 

Yaktara Thin, plain woven fabric, made 
in Thibet of the hair of the yak. 

Yamamai A species of wild silk yielded 
by the Antheraea in Japan and 
China. 

Yannovich Variety of Egyptian cotton. 

Yard Goods Textile fabrics woven in a 
long piece and retailed by the yard. 

Yarkand Large and heavy rugs made in 
Central Asia with cotton web and 
long, loose, wool pile tied in Senna 
knot. The Chinese influence is very 
marked in the design, consisting of 
dragons, fret pattern, fish, or other 
animals, mostly in bright yellows, 
pinks, reds, blues, greens, etc. 

Yarn A continuous strand of spun fibers, 
used for weaving or knitting. See also 
thread and rope. Besides being spun 
by hand, as it is still done in many 
parts of the world, yarn is manufac- 
tured in a large variety of ways. Cot- 
ton is spun with the ring frame (less 
expensive) or the mule (produces a 
finer twisted and softer yarn than the 
former). Flax, hemp, jute and ramie 
are spun either in dry state (for a 
very strong line or a soft and full 
tow yarn), or in wet state (for much 
finer counts than the former). For 
methods of worsted spinning, made 
of tops, see Bradford system and 
French system; such yarns are spun 
on the rings (for the softer yarns 
from the finest merino wool), on the 
cap (for fine merino and crossbred), 
on the flyer (for low crossbred, lus- 
tre wool and hair ya_rn), and on the 
mule (for very soft and full dress 
goods and knitting yarns of short 
wool). Woolen yarns are spun on 
self-actors, producing a yarn which 
is more fuzzy, roug-h and uneven than 
frame spun. For ailk yarn see organ- 
zine and trame. 

Yarn is made either single (consist- 
ing of one strand twisted in one di- 
rection), or ply or folded (consisting 
of two or more strands, or plies, 
twisted in directions opposite to that 
griven to the composing strands). 
Yarns are made either of one kind 
of fiber only or contain a mixture of 
two or more kinds of fibers, as for 
instance union yarns. As to the ef- 
fect, yarns are classified as plain (sin- 
gle color throughout the entire yarn 
with uniform thickness and twist), 
and fancy. Fancy yarns, which can 
be singles or ply yarns, are produced 
1, with the aid of color effects, like 
the mixtures, containing variously 
dyed fibers, the Vigoureux (see), and 
the double-and-twist; 2, by the aid 
of irregular twist, as for instance, 
solid colored nub and loop yarns; or 



3, by the combination of the two, as 
in the cloud, spiral, colored nub and 
colored loop yarns. 

Yarns are twisted either to the 
right-hand or the l't-hand direction, 
the number of twists per inch express- 
ing the degree of the process. It is cus- 
tomary to twist cotton warp to the 
right hand, while worsted warps and 
single woolen yarns are spun usually 
with a left-hand twist. Ply yarn is 
twisted in opposite direction to the 
twist given to the singles composing 
it. Yarns for warps are usually 
twisted with more turns than yarns 
still fewer twists per inch. Yarns re- 
ceiving more or less twist than cus- 
tomary are called hard spun and soft 
spun. 

While there is no rule strictly ad- 
hered to in the degree of twist Im- 
parted to yarns, certain rules are 
usually observed in figuring the num- 
ber of turns required per inch. For 
linen yarns this is figured by multi- 
plying the square root of the lea of 
the yarn by 1% for weft yarn, by 
1% for light warp, by 2 for full warp 
and by 2% or 2% for thread. Aver- 
age jute yarn of 3 Ib. grist is usually 
given 8 twists for warp and 6 for 
filling; 6 Ib. grist 6.5 twists for warp, 
4.2 twists for weft; 10 Ib. grist 4.87 
twists for warp, 2.89 twists for weft. 

The standard twist for cotton yarns 
is figured by multiplying the square 
root of the number (co_unt), of the 
yarn by 2.5 for hosiery and soft spun 
yarn, by 3.2 for filling, by 4.75 for 
warp and by 5 for extra hard twist 
yarn. 

In woolen and worsted yarns the 
number of twists depends on the 
length of the flber and the various 
requirements as to the smoothness, 
softness, etc., of the cloth. Below 
will be found a number of particu- 
lars often observed in the given 
cases. 

Crossbred singles: 40s warp 9 
twists per Inch, 12s weft 3% turns, 
20s weft, 7% turns. 

English lustre singles: 36s weft 5% 
twists, 40s weft 6 twists. 

Botany singles: 40s warp 10 twists, 
60s warps, 13 twists, 20s weft 6% 
turns, 40s weft, 9 turns, 60s weft, 12 
twists, 80s weft, 13 twists, 90s weft, 
16 twists, 100s deft, 18% twists, 130s 
weft, 20 twists. 

Mohair singles: 40s warp 10% 
twists, 48s warp 12 twists, 32s weft 
8 twists, 40s weft 9% twists. Alpaca 
singles, 30s weft 10 twists, 40s weft 11 
twists. 

Crossbred, doubles: 30s warp 10 
twists, 40s warp, 12 twists, 16s weft 
6% twists. 

English lustre, doubles: 40s warp 
10 twists, 60s warp, 13 twists. 

Botany, doubles: 24s warp 10% 
twists, 36s warp 13 twists, 48s warp 
14 twists, 56s warp 15 twists, 60s 
warp 15% twists, 100s warp 20 twists. 
Moliair, doubles: 40s warp, 11 twists, 
60s warp 15 twists. 



YAR 



170 



YUR 



The unit of measurement for cot- 
ton yarn is the hank of 840 yards 
(in Continental Europe 1,000 metres 
to % kilogramme). 

For linen yarn in England one bun- 
dle is 162-3 hanks, 200 cuts or leas, 
24,000 threads, 60,000 yards; in Scot- 
land one spangle is equal to two 
hasps, four hanks, 24 heers, 48 cuts, 
5,760 threads, 14,400 yards; in Aus- 
tria one schock is equal to 12 bun- 
dles, 60 pieces, 240 hanks, 4,800 cuts, 
288,000 yards; for French shoe 
threads 1,000 metres per kilo is the 
unit. The Dorsel and Somerset sys- 
tem is based on the weight of 21,600 
yards, or a "dozen" of yarn. 

The unit of measurement for jute 
yarn is the same as the Scotch sys- 
tem for linen yarn given above. In 
Holland the count is expressed by 
the weight of 150 metres of yarn in 
hektogrammes (0.22 Ibe.). 

In worsted yarns the number of 
hanks (each of 560 yards) in one 
pound is the count of the yarn, in 
(Continental Europe the number of 
1,000-metre units in a kilogramme. 
In America for woolen yarns the 
unit is the number of 1,600-yard 
hanks contained in a pound ("run" 
system). In the Philadelphia dis- 
trict the cut system is in use, the 
count being the number of 300-yard 
"cuts" in a pound. In England the 
Aberdeen system is: One thread 
(unit) equal to 2% yards; 120 
threads one cut, two cuts one heer, 
three heers one slip, two slips one 
hank, two hanks one hasp, two hasps 
one spyndle or 14,400 yards. In Scot- 
land the Galashiel count is the num- 
ber of 300-yard cuts in 24 ounces. 

The count, or litre, of the silk 
yarns is the number of deniers (5.313 
grammes), a skein of 500 metres will 
weigh, although the Milan Turin and 
the old Lyons systems call for 476- 
metre skeins. 

Folded yarns are numbered simi- 
larly as singles, with the number of 
composing strands also indicated. 

Yarn Dyed Fabrics, the yarn of which 
was dyed before woven. 

Yatahy Fiber yielded by the leaves of 
a palm in Paraguay; used for string, 
etc. 

YawsFlaws in cloth, consisting of thin 
places. 

Yaxci Very soft, flexible and lustrous 
sisal hemp from Yucatan. 

Year Round Cotton Raw cotton former- 
ly grown in the West Indies. 

Yearling 'Wool obtained at the second 
year's shearing. 

Yechigo Chijimi Fine light weight dress 
goods, made of the leaf fibers of the 
banana tree in Japan; used for sum- 
mer dresses. 

Yei Blanket 'Made by the Navajos with 
the figure of yei (god) woven; very 
rare. 

Yellowing The propensity of heavily 
dressed bleached goods to turn yel- 
low as the result of disintegration of 
the bleaching chemicals. 



Yercum Very strong fiber yielded by 
a species of the asclepias in South- 
ern India; used for ropes; same as 
Mundar in North India. 

Yerges Thick, coarse, felted woolen fab- 
ric, used for horse blankets. 

Yerioth In the Bible curtains made of 
linen or goat's hair. 

Yerli Fine staple wool yielded by the 
sheep near Smyrna, called kivirdjik, 
having small horns and a narrow 
tail. Used for carpets, cloth, blank- 
ets, etc. 

Yesteklik Turkish name for small mats, 
having a soft pile and used for pil- 
lows; also called Anatolian mats. 

Yeux de Perdrix Obsolete French dress 
good, made of wool and silk in diaper 
weave. 

Yishbizh Xavajo blanket made with 
diagonal stripes. 

Yistlo^Plain woven Navajo woolen 
blanket. 

Yokohama Crepe Very fine, close woven 
crepe, for coats, etc., not transpar- 
ent. 

Yomud Rugs made of wool and goat 
hair in Turkestan with mediu mlong, 
close pile. The design consists of 
diamonds with angular hooks around 
the edge in the center and trailing, 
angular vine or stripes in the borders. 
The colors are blues, warm reds, 
greens, etc. 

Yorkshire Planned Good quality Eng- 
lish flannel of natural wool. 

Yorkshire Tweed Made of shoddy or 
wool and cotton to resemble tweeds. 

Youghal Lace The best among the Irish 
point lace; see Irish point. 

Ypres 1, fine medieval worsted from 
Flanders; 2, bobbin lace similar to the 
Valenciennes (see), having a square 
mesh ground, the threads being 
twisted four times around each 
other. 

Yucca Fiber Coarse, but very strong 
fiber, used for twine, cordage, etc., 
yielded by the Yucca filamentosa. 

Yuchausa Camlets in the Chinese mar- 
kets. 

Yuenching Chiyong (Black Chinese wool 
plush. 

YuencHing Suchienyong Black Chinese 

velvet. 

Yuenching Wacheinyong Chinese figured 

velvet. 

Yuling 'Lasting (see) in the Chinese 
markets. 

Yuruk 'Rugs Small and very durable 
rugs made by the nomad Yuruks in 
Asia Minor of goat's hair or dark 
wool. The long wool pile is tied in 
Ghiordes knot. The design is com- 
posed of very large but simple geo- 
metrical devices of brilliant colors 
over a dark brown field. They are 
'finished with a selvage all around 
and the ends have a short fringe or 
braid. 



YUT 



171 



ZUL 



Yutun Wool camlet made in China in 
all widths, used by natives for winter 
clothing;. The warp is of silk and 
the filling of wool. 

Yuzen Japanese silk crepe, with printed 
pattern" 



Zacate Mexican name for various spe- 
cies of fibrous grasses, used for mats, 
ropes. 

Zackel 'Coarse, long carpet wool, yielded 
by the Hungarian sheep. 

Zafiri Raw cotton of brown staple, 
grown in Egypt. 

Zambelotto A fabric formerly made of 
mohair in the Levant. 

Zanella Serge, made with cotton warp 
and worsted filling; used for lining, 
and umbrella covers. 

Zanzibar Cloth Gray cotton goods, made 
in India. 

Zappara In Southern Europe the agave 
fiber, used in braids, horse blankets, 
etc. 

Zapupe A white, strong, glossy, soft 
and pliable fiber yielded by a species 
of the agave in Mexico; used for 
ropes and coarse fabrics. 

Zarasas Ordinary cotton prints in Latin- 
American countries. 

Zellner Early maturing commercial var- 
iety of upland cotton, the staple 
measuring 20-25 millimeters; the yield 
is 30-3 per cent. 

Zenana A light matelasse fabric of the 
last century, having stripes of satin 
and gauze. 

Zephyr 1, thin, fine woolen dress goods 
from Belgium; 2, local name in Ja- 
maica and Porto Rico for ginghams; 



3, washable fine lightweight cotton 
fabric, made in plain or twill weave, 
woven in many colored stripes, checks 
and plaids or corded stripes. Used 
for dresses, etc.; 4, a term often used 
to describe fabrics of light texture. 

Zephyr Planned Very soft, fine woolen 
flannel, mixed with silk. 

Zephyr Gingham Fine sofe gingham, fin- 
ished without dressing. 

Zephyr Yarn Soft spun worsted yarn, 
made of soft merino wool with three 
or more strands; used for embroid- 
ery. 

Zerak Dark blue cotton shirting used for 
native dresses in the Sudan. 

Zerbase Persian double faced silk fab- 
ric interwoven with gold or silver 
threads. 

Zibeline 1, a thick, woolen coating with 
a long, straight and glossy nap, laid 
down and entirely covering the 
weave. The yarn is heavy and con- 
tains some mohair. The nap is 
raised after the weave and then 
pressed down; 2, wool yarn with nubs 
of undyed wool of another sort, usu- 
ally mohair. 

Ziz-Zag Twill A twill weave, producing 
a zig-zag effect. 

Zinc Used as a resist in calico printing 
(in a fine dust form), and for 
weighting silk. 

Zinc Chloride Used as prevention of 
mould on textiles; in the manufac- 
ture of lakes, etc. 

Zins General trade term in Russia for 
the best grade of flax, formerly taken 
by the church as tax. 

Zirkas In Germany and Austria a wool- 
en or worsted dress goods, made in 
four-leaf, even-sided twill in vari- 
ous colored patterns. 

Zulu Cloth Twilled and closely woven 
cloth used for embroidery foundation 
in England. 



172 



ADDENDA 



r- 



Aga The inner bark fiber, obtained 

through maceration from a variety of 

the Ficus tree; used by the natives of 

the Philippines for ropes and coarse 

cloths. 

Agpui, or Batia, or Catipu A strong bast 
fiber yielded toy a species of the 
Hibiscus tree in the Philippines; 
used for fabrics, cordage, etc. 

Anilo 'The inner bark fiber of a shrub 
(Grewia columnaris) ; used for twine 
and cordage in the Philippines. 

Anonang A white, lace-like inner bark 
yielded by the Cordia myxa, a tall 
shrub in the Philippines'; used for 
.cordage by the natives. 

Artonas A fiber obtained from the inner 
bark of branches of the Anona re- 
ticulata, a small tree, by the natives 
of the Philippines; used for cordage 
and twine. 

Aramay The bark fibers are used by the 
natives of the Philippines for cord- 
age and twine. 

Arenga -Saccharifera The tough and 
dark leaf fibers of this palm are used 
by the natives of the Philippines for 
cordage. 

Artocarpus Camansi This evergreen 
tree yields a very strong inner bark 
fiber; used for ropes by the natives 
of the Philippines. 

Aya Momen General trade term for 
twilled cotton fabrics in Japan, espe* 
cially drill. 

Babaian The fibrous bark of this tree is 
used for making wearing apparel by 
the natives in the Pampanga prov- 
ince, Philippine Islands. 

Babaquet A strong stem fiber yielded 
by the B., a creeper used for cordage 
by the natives of Abra province, 
Philippine Islands. 

Bago Bast fiber yielded by the Gnetum 
gnemon, a tll shrub in the Philip- 
pines; used for twine and cordage by 
the natives. 

Bagucon Strong fiber yielded by the in- 
ner bast of a creeper in the Philip- 
pines; used for ropes by the natives. 

Balanac Very strong fiber yielded by the 
B. tree in the Philippines; used for 
twine and cordage by the natives. 



Balbas Tough stem fiber yielded by the 
vine of a creeper in the Philippines; 
used for cordage by the natives. 

Baliti 'Plain woven coarse fabric, woven 
by the natives of the Philippines, of 
the bark fibers of the arandong tree. 

Bangar Bast fiber yielded by a species 
of the Sterculia, a large tree in the 
Philippines; used for ropes by the 
natives. 

Baquembaques Bast fiber yielded by a 
species of the Helicteres, a tree in 
Luzon, P. I.; used for cordage by 

the natives. 

Barong Stem fiber of the Eugenia oper- 
eulata, in the Philippines; used for 
twine and cordage by the natives. 

Beimen Japanese trade term for Amer- 
ican raw cotton. 

Binagacay The best variety of the 
Manila hemp. 

Bisaya A variety of the Manila hemp 
in Negros, P. I.; yields a very strong, 
coarse, white fiber. 

Byzantine A clear and light weight 
summer dress faJbrdc, worn during 
the middle of the last century; it was 
made similar to barege. 

Camarines A variety of the Manila 
hemp in Negros, P. I.; yields a tough, 
coarse and glossy white fiber. 

Campapalis A very durable fiber yielded 
by a plant in Pampanga, Philippine 
Islands; used for cordage by the 
natives. 

Castuli Bast fiber yielded by the musk 
mallow in the Philippines; used for 
cordage by the natives of Luzon. 

Colias The net-like inner bark of the 
Gnetum scandens, a tall climber, in 
the Philippines; used for fishing Tiets 
by the natives. 

Colotan Very strong stem fiber yielded 
by a species of the Urena, a peren- 
nial herb; used for ropes. 

Danli Strong bast fiber yielded by the 
Grewia laevigata, a tree in the Phil- 
ippines; used for cordage by the na- 
tives. 

Dao Bast fiber yielded by the Dracon- 
tomelum mangifera, a tree in the 
Philippines; used for cordage by the 

natives. 



173 



Enile Hand knotted wool rug of Asia 
'Minor, made with a thick pile. 

Franneru 'Flannelette in Japan. 

Fukuji A hand woven Japanese cotton 
goods, made both in plain and twill 
weave, usually like a fine duck, ply 
yarns being used; police and school- 
boys' uniforms are made of this ma- 
terial. 

Futahaba Kanakin Gray shirting in 
Japan, made about 30 inches wide; 
used also for printing. 

Futako Trade term in Japan for striped 
cotton fabrics (used mostly for 
kimonos), made with ply warp. 

Guiote Native name for a species of in- 
ferior cotton in the Philippines; 
yields short fibers. 

Gulistan Good quality hand knotted 
wool rugs, made at Oushak, Asia 
Minor. 

Hakamaji A Japanese cotton fabric, 
made on land looms, mostly in plain 
weave. It comes usually in blue and 
white stripes and has cross ribs; 
used for men's skirts. 

Hambabalod Bast fiber yielded by the 

Nauclea obtusa in the Philippines; 

used for cordage. 
Hanadiang Strong bast fiber in the 

Philippines; used for cordage by the 

natives. 
Hanagdong Strong fiber yielded by the 

inner bark of the Callicarpa cana, a 

shrub in the Philippines ; used for 

cordage by the natives. 

Hibiroto Japanese trade term for a spool 
containing about 25 feet of hand spun 
cotton yarn. 

Hijokufu Quilts in Japan. 

Hi Kanakin 'In Japan cotton cambrics, 

dyed Turkey red. 
Indowata Japanese trade term for raw 

cotton imported from India. 

Inillo A species of cotton growing wild 
in Antique, P. I., yields a strong fiber. 

Iro Momen Nankeen, made in Japan, 
and dyed in imitation of the genuine 
article. 

Jabo A very tough bast fiber in the 
Philippines; used for cordage. 

Jingi Trade term in Japan for hand 
ginned cotton rolled into a hollow 
tube. 

Jipguid Bast ifi'ber, yielded by a species 
of the Ichnocarpus, a climber in the 
Philippines; used for fishing nets by 
the natives. 

Kachoji Mosquito netting in Japan. 

Kaisarich Rugs Very bright colored 
hand knotted rugs; the cotton or 
silk pile is tied in Ghiordes knot; 
made in K., in Asia Minor. 



Kama Japanese trade term for the cot- 
ton cop. 

Kanakin Generic trade term in Japan 
for a variety of plain woven cotton 
goods, shirtings and print cloths. 

Kasuri A hand woven cotton fabric in 
Japan, showing irregular white 
checks on a blue ground. It is made 
in plain weave of yarn, which is 
tied up at certain intervals with a 
string before dyeing. These places 
remain intact by the dye and form 
the white spots. It is used mostly 
for clothes for the native school chil- 
dren. 

Kata Aya^-General trade term in Japan 
for twilled cotton shirtings. 

Kazeto Japanese trade term for a spool 
containing about 54 feet of hand spun 
cotton yarn. 

Kiapo A strong vegetable fiber in 
the Philippines; used for cordage and 
coarse cloth by the natives. 

Kinisol A variety of the Manila hemp in 
Negros, P. I., yields a coarse, white 
fiber. 

Kohaba Japanese trade term for narrow 
width in fabrics. 

Kokura A hand woven Japanese cotton 
fabric, made in plain or twill weave 
and comes in five varieties, all hav- 
ing ribbed effect. 

Kokura Hanaoji A hand woven Japa- 
nese cotton fabric made of ply yarn, 
with weft cord effect. In weaving 
three or four warp ends are drawn 
through one heddle. This cloth is cut, 
into strips, rolled and sewn together" 
to form cord for the Japanese clogs. 

Kokura Kabanji A cotton duck made on 
hand looms in Japan, mostly ply yarn 
being used and weft cord effect pro- 
duced; used for trunk covers. 

Kokura Obiji A hand made Japanese 
fabric, made of silk warp and cotton 
filling or of all cotton with weft cords. 
It is usually plain woven and comes 
mostly in dark blue with a single 
plain or ornamented stripes; used for 
sashes by the natives. 

Kona Bukuroji Plain woven cotton faib- 
ric in Japan; used for flour bags. 

Kuriwata Japanese trade name for 
ginned raw cotton. 

Labog A strong and coarse bast fiber, 
yielded by a species of the Malacha 
(wild okra) in the Philippines; it is 
similar to jute and is used for cord- 
age. 

Lapnis Bast fiber, yielded by a species 
of the China grass in the Philippines; 
used for cordage. 

Lingi A fine and silky leaf fiber in the 
Philippines; used for cordage arifl 
cloth by the natives. 

Lit! A strong cloth made of the inner 
fibrous bark of the paper mulberry 
by the natives of Kandavu, Fiji 
Islands. 



174 



Lono A variety of the Manila hemp in 
Negros, P. I.; yields a fine, glossy 
white fiber. 

Malapao Bast fiber of the Dipterocarpus 
vernici'fluus, in the Philippines; used 
for cordage. 

Malasiag Bast fiber, yielded by a species 
of the Ardisia in the Philippines; 
used for ropes. 

Malidlong The lace-like inner bark of 
this tree is placed several layers 
thick and beaten into a solid fabric 
by the Filipinos which is used for 
blankets. 

Malo or Masi 'Native name for the fib- 
rous inner bark of the paper mul- 
berry in Fiji; used for clothing and 
nets by the natives. 

Maretz A light silk crepe dress fabric, 
worn in the middle of the last cen- 
tury. 

Masi See Malo. 

Men Chijimi Cotton crepe in Japan. 

Menhofu Cotton duck in Japan. 

Menneru Trade term in Japan for flan- 
nelette. 

Men Shusu Sateens in Japan. 

Mihaba Kanakin Japanese cotton shirt- 
ing, made about 45 inches wide, to 
imitate certain English fabrics. 

Milassa Hand knotted all-wool rugs of 
Asia Minor; the pile is tied in Ghior- 
des knot. They come either in striped 
design or in prayer rug patterns, 
with old gold as leading color. 

Miwata Japanese trade name for un- 
ginned cotton. 

Moro A variety of the Manila hemp in 
Negros, P. I.; it yields large quantity 
of strong, coarse and glossy white 
fiber. 

Nainsook Local trade term for tanjibs 
in East Africa. 

Namihaba Kanakin In Japan a gray 
cotton shirting, made to imitate the 
English goods brought in formerly. 

Nipis A plain woven fabric made by the 
natives of the Philippines of the leaf 
fibers of the Agave. 

Ozu Aya In the Japanese trade means 
cotton jean. 

Pangihan Bast fiber yielded by a tree in 
Luzon, P. I.; used for cordage by the 
natives. 

Quillo Seed fiber in Antique, P. I.; used 
for coarse fabrics by the natives. 

Rabo de Leon Very strong leaf fiber, 
similar to Manila hemp, yielded by a 
species of the Sanseviera in the Phil- 
ippines; used for cloth by the na- 
tives. 

Repousse Lace The design consists 
mostly of dots, also of flowers and 
leaves which are raised like blisters 
and are pushed in in the back. 



Salaoag A variety of the Manila hemp 
in Negros, P. I.; yields a coarse, 
white fiber. 

Samorong The most valued variety of 
the Manila hemp in Albay, P. I. 

Sarashi Cariko Bleached cotton shirt- 
ing in Japan, made about 36 incnes 
wide. 

Sarashi Kanakin Plain woven bleached 
cotton shirting in Japan. 

Shikifugi Cotton bed sheeting in Japan. 

Shima Momen Striped cotton fabrics in 
Japan. 

Shinawata Japanese trade term for raw 
cotton imported from China; the 
principal qualities are designated by 
the Japanese as: Tungchow (the 
best), Peis'hi, Nansi, Hankowv and 
Tienchin. 

Shiro-momen General trade term in Ja- 
pan for unbleached (similar to nan- 
keen), and bleached plain woven cot- 
ton goods. The harrow, plain woven 
cotton fabrics, made on hand looms 
and half bleached or often dyed blue 
are also called by this name; used 
for socks and clothes for the peo- 
ple. 

Silhigon Bast fiber yielded by several 
species of the Sida, a perennial shru'b 
in the Philippines; used for twine 
and cloths by the natives. 

Sofu -Plain woven unbleached cotton 
sheeting in Japan, made usually 36 
inches wide and 44/44. 

Sultana 'Lightweight, striped dress fab- 
ric, made of mohair; used for sum- 
mer dresses in the 60's of the last 
century. 

Tancao A variety of the Manila hemp in 
Negros, P. I.; yields coarse and glos- 
sy white fibers. 

Tenjiku Japanese trade term for T 
cloth; is usually made 31 inches wide 
and without any colored ends. 

Tenuguiji A soft and plain woven cot- 
ton fabric; used as toweling in Ja- 
pan; it comes in 12 and 15 inch 
widths and often hand printed. It is 
also used for table covers, center- 
pieces and extensively for advertis- 
ing. 

Tugop Bast fiber, yielded by a species of 
the Artocarpus tree in the Philip- 
pines; used for twine and cordage. 

Unsai Trade term in Japan for 2/2 twill, 
heavy cotton fabrics, made in her- 
ring-bone twill effect; the warp is 
ply yarn, two weft threads being shot 
through each shed at every pick; 
used mostly for soles on socks worn 
by the natives. 

Usuji Sofu 'Lightweight and plain wo- 
ven cotton sheeting in Japan. 

Wata Japanese trade term for raw cot- 
ton; also called menkwa. 

Yaka Strong and coarse stem fiber of a 
creeper in Fiji; used for twine and 
fishing nets by the natives. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY